In World War 2 Hand To Hand Combat was frequent in close quarters. Different militaries throughout the war had hand to hand combat training in World War 2.
United States Army and Marine Corp
In the United States Army and the USMC, hand to hand combat training was routine for infantry divisions. The primary hand to hand combat style taught in the USMC and American army at the time was basically boxing, wrestling, and bayonet training.
However among the American special forces such as the Rangers and other espionage units such as saboteurs and spies, extra training was given. Special forces and spies and saboteurs were taught basic Savate techniques by French instructors and were also taught lethal instant kill techniques such as the palm fist.
No formal hand to hand combat training
Russian Sambo at least the basic form of it was widely taught in infantry training for Soviet soldiers. For highly elite units such as the Spetsnaz and elite paratroopers, Special forces Sambo(much deadlier version of Sambo) and Systema was taught.
The French Army trained frequently in Boxe Francaise AKA Savate prior to the war. World War 2 was notorious along with World War 1 for wiping out much of the masters of Savate and Savate would almost be lost until Roger Lafond began working to preserve the art.
The regular British infantry were only taught basic boxing and wrestling along with some bayonet techniques like their American counterparts.
However the SAS and other British Special Forces were taught Defendu, a martial art created by a British soldier who traveled in Asia that blended deadly techniques from the oriental such as a spear thrust to the neck.
The German army didn't have formal hand to hand combat training as the German high command believed that hand to hand combat was antiquated. As a result German soldiers were almos always easily slaughtered when they fought their British,Russian, and American counterparts in hand to hand combat.
However the exception to this rule was the Waffen SS and other German special forces.
The Waffen SS taught all recruits how to box and emphasized the importance of always making the first strike. They also taught their recruits wrestling and Judo techniques. Additionally Waffen SS troops were trained in the basics of using a bayonet and rifles in melee combat and were also taught how to use knives and how to use their surroundings to their advantage to win in hand to hand engagements(though properly trained Russian Soldiers were known to kill Waffen SS in unarmed combat).
Often individual Filipino rebels were taught the fundamentals of Eskrima and Arnis. Some of them became so proficient that just using a mere stick they could engage Japanese soldiers hand to hand effectively. There was even a story of how a Japanese officer charged at a rebel with his Katana and got hit by the rebel with a stick and died from concussions!
Imperial Japanese Army(and Navy)
Ah my personal favorite in the war in regards to hand to hand combat.
Both the Imperial Japanese Army and Navy trained their troops to know basic karate and Judo techniques.
However among the Imperial Japanese Army, the infantry division practiced a lethal martial art called Jukendo
was the Japanese art of using bayonets in combat. The Imperial Japanese Army emphasized the importance of bayonet combat and trained their troops so hard that often they were training at a inhuman and unhuman manner. The Imperial Japanese Army felt that if troops knew how to fight in melee properly, they could hold off against impossible odds.
consisted off being able to thrust at incredibly fast paces and at being able to charge at your enemy before they realized you were around and could fire at you. Jukendo
was so effectively deadly that many American soldiers and marines well equipped with rifles would die before even realizing that Japanese soldiers were secretly sneaking up on them and going to thrust or stab at them.
For officers of the Imperial Japanese Army, they were given Katanas and taught how to wield them in combat.
Japanese soldiers training in Jukendo.
An article of Jukendo: