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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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Old 22 Aug 10, 00:43
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It seems that the word of Ulster is the Hispanicized Ulters, name of the northernmost province of Ireland originally formed by the new Anrim counties, Armagh, Cavan, Donegal, Down, Fermanagh, Londonderry, Monaghan and Tyrone.


Given the spiritual ties between effective and Spain and Ireland, it is not surprising that when the Spanish army was organized on a voluntary basis, a good contingent from that country are enlisted under the Spanish flag.

In an ordinance of the year 1707 appears for the first time the name of the Regiment of Ulster. This was the only armed force that was stationed in Athens, in 1808, whose body contained some Irish officers.

The Ulster banding appears in the form provided by the royal ordinances that regulated the formation and use of flags.

It is not for this place to describe the active part taken by the Ulster Regiment in the heroic defense of the Plaza de Gerona and its outer fortifications then existing, from the old Montjuic Castle to the smaller tower, and in the out of the city to guard the entrance of the parallel convoys of food and supplies brought war, but it is good to note, in short, the brilliant performance at all times conducted controls and individuals who formed the body, whose deeds lost two thirds of his men. It had to be redone with people of the country.
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"Ulster Ensign Regiment 1808-1809."
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Old 22 Aug 10, 01:16
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Talking It is hard to get away from those pesky Geese...

The presence of the Wild Geese is noted in certain names from Spanish America. One famous descendant was a Bernardo O'Higgins (remember the cruiser sank by the British off the tip of South America)? Moran might be another old Irish name that is now Hispanic. Another descendant was a general in Austrian service a von Brown. Years later a French general named Mahan was embarrassed in the Franco German War.

In New Orleans they still have the Irish Coast. The character Clete Purcell in James Lee Burke's "Dave Robichaux" series is from there. I get amused where I live trying to figure out if all the O'Quains around here are Irish or French. The name Aucoin is found in Normandy and there were once a lot of Irish Priests in Louisiana keeping the church records. One of my Ball Player's Mother told me she was born a Cradeur but the family was actually Irish, because the church priest was French and could not spell Caruthers...

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Old 24 Aug 10, 04:22
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A bit of history of Dillons Regiment.

In 1688, the Catholic James II was deposed as ruler of England, Scotland, and Ireland, and replaced by his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, Prince of Orange, who thereafter ruled jointly as William III and Mary II. However, James was not prepared to accept the loss of his kingdoms, and sought to regain his throne: this decision marked the beginning of nearly eighty years of Jacobite attempts to put the male Stuart line, represented by James and his heirs, back in power. James’ bid to regain his kingdoms began in Ireland, where much of the largely Catholic population rallied to his cause. But the British Army had gone over to the new regime, and enthusiastic Jacobite volunteers required supplementing by veteran regular troop. In 1690 James accordingly struck a deal with Louis XIV of France: James would send Louis a brigade of Irish troops to join the French army, which was fighting the English, Austrians, and Dutch in Europe, in return for which Louis would – eventually – send French regulars to help James in Ireland. The brigade sent to France was commanded by Viscount Mountcashel, and was organised for the French service into three regiments, whose colonels were Mountcashal himself, the Hon. Daniel O’Brien, and the Hon. Arthur Dillon. Two further regiments sent by James, Butler’s and Feilding’s, were broken up and their men drafted into the other three. In the French manner, these regiments were then known by the names of their successive colonels. However, the title of the third of these never changed, each successive commander over the next century being a member of the house of Dillon.

The first record of the Dillon family in Irish history comes from 1185, when the Chevalier Henri Delion of Aquitaine was granted estates there by King Henry II. The family grew and prospered, and developed a strong military tradition. In 1622, Sir Theobald Dillon was raised to the Irish Peerage as Viscount Dillon of Costello-Gallen, in the County of Mayo, and it was his descendant who commanded the regiment that entered the French service in 1690. The Hon. Arthur Dillon was the second son of the 7th Viscount Dillon, another Theobald, and whilst Arthur went to France his father and his elder brother, the Hon. Henry Dillon, remained in Ireland to support the Jacobite cause. Henry also commanded a regiment, and thus there were at this point two Dillon’s Regiments: Henry’s in the service of King James and Arthur’s, properly the Régiment de Dillon, in that of King Louis.

Despite French support, the Jacobite cause in Ireland ultimately failed. James fled to France after the defeat at the Boyne on July 12th 1690, and the last real hope of a comeback was extinguished after the defeat at Aughrim a year later. Amongst the casualties at Aughrim was Theobald, 7th Viscount Dillon. On October 3rd 1691, the Treaty of Limerick was concluded, by which the French troops in Ireland, and such of the Irish Jacobites as wished to accompany them, were permitted to embark for France. Henry Dillon, who had succeeded his father to become the 8th Viscount, chose to stay in Ireland and was eventually able to overturn the Royal decree that had outlawed his father. This enabled him to retain the family estates, which passed in turn, on Henry’s death in 1713, to his son Richard who became the 9th Viscount.

From those Irish who did go to France, the original Wild Geese, James formed an army-in-exile, largely paid for by the French but retaining at least a nominal independence. Because, to Stuart eyes, this was the real British Army, they were uniformed in red: this would distinguish the Irish regiments in the French service throughout their history, also being adopted by the original three regiments of Mountcashel’s Brigade. Whereas the second wave of Irish fought alongside the French in Flanders, seeing action at Steenkerque and Neerwinden, Mountcashel’s Brigade was sent to the Mediterranean, fighting first in Italy and then in Spain. When the French took Barcelona, in what was to prove one of the last actions of the war, it was the Irish regiments of Dillon and Clancarty that broke into the fortress, receiving the praise of Maréchal Vendôme for their gallantry. When the Treaty of Ryswick ended the War of the League of Augsburg in 1697, one of its stipulations was that James’ troops be disbanded. Only the three original Irish regiments of Mountcashel’s Brigade were exempted, being part of the French Army proper, and thus the Régiment de Dillon survived.

After four years of peace, the European struggle for power broke out into war yet again, with the ageing Louis XIV seeking to place his grandson on the vacant Spanish throne. With much of Europe up in arms against France, Louis needed all the troops he could get, and sought the aid of the Stuart pretender “James III”, thirteen year-old son of the late King James II, to raise more Irish regiments. The result was the creation of five more Irish infantry regiments, for a total of eight, and one regiment of cavalry. In practice, the bulk of these “new” regiments came from the reassembled remnants of the late King’s army-in-exile, but were now an integral part of the French Army. The bulk of the Irish regiments, including the Régiment de Dillon, were initially posted to Italy, as part of Maréchal Villeroi’s army opposing the Austrians under Prince Eugene of Savoy. There they distinguished themselves in a number of actions, most notably the defence of Cremona in 1702.

Other Irish regiments saw action at Blenheim, Oudenarde, and Malplaquet, where they fought with distinction despite the French being defeated on each occasion. Meanwhile, the Régiment de Dillon remained in the southern theatre, whilst its Colonel, the Hon. Arthur Dillon, rose to distinction and served extensively in Germany and Spain. In the latter theatre he was one of the key subordinates of the Maréchal Duc de Berwick, illegitimate son of James II, and played a leading role in the capture of Barcelona. By the end of the War of the Spanish Succession he was a Lieutenant-Général, and widely recognised as a brave and competent commander. In 1711, he was created Comte de Dillon and decorated with the Ordre de Saint-Louis. He was also lucky, never being wounded in all of his forty years of service, from 1690 to 1730. He remained an active Jacobite all his life, and this prevented his further military employment after 1715, when the regency governing France for the young Louis XV sought to reach reconciliation with Britain’s new Hanoverian kings. Formally retiring from the French Army at the age of sixty, Arthur died three years later, in 1733.

Comte Arthur de Dillon’s successor as Colonel of the regiment was his eldest son, the Comte Charles de Dillon, born in 1701. As was typical of the times, the infant Charles was commissioned into his father’s regiment at the tender age of four in order to advance his promotion by seniority, and was accordingly a Captaine by the time he was seventeen. He commanded the regiment during the War of the Polish Succession, during which it served on the Rhine front including the sieges of Kehl and Philippsburg. However, Charles seems to have primarily set his sights on Ireland rather than France as the site of his future career. In 1735, he married his second cousin, Lady Frances Dillon, daughter of the 9th Viscount Dillon, and in September 1736, Europe again being at peace, he went over to Ireland to take possession of family property there, and did not return to France thereafter, although he did not resign his commission and was in fact promoted to the rank of Brigadier in 1740. It seems likely that his marriage was intended to prevent the title passing out of the family in the event that Frances had married elsewhere. In February 1737, the 9th Viscount Dillon died and Charles inherited the title and estates, the heirs of Henry, the 8th Viscount, now being extinct in the male line.

The new Viscount did not long enjoy his new status, dying in London in November 1741. Frances, his wife, had died in January 1739. Charles was succeeded both in the Irish Peerage and as Colonel of the family regiment by Arthur’s second son, the Comte Henri de Dillon, who now became the 11th Viscount. Henri had also entered the regiment at a young age, and had served under his brother’s command in Germany, but, like his brother, he preferred reconciliation with the Anglo-Irish establishment to continued service with France. Whilst Britain and France were at peace, his holding a French commission posed no problems in an age where service with a foreign army was still acceptable, particularly for a Catholic aristocrat unable to serve the British crown. Henri could even square his conscience with fighting at Dettingen against the British under George II in person, as the polite fiction was still at this point being maintained that the British Army was acting as the auxiliary of the Austrians, and that Britain and France were at peace. However, in 1744 Britain entered the War of the Austrian Succession as a full belligerent, presenting Henri with a choice between the two nations. On the advice of Louis XV, he resigned from the French Army and left France for Ireland in order to secure his estates, which would otherwise have been forfeit. Henri’s three remaining brothers all chose to remain in France, where the third brother, the Chevalier Jacques de Dillon, succeeded to the family colonelcy. Henri, now Henry, married Lady Charlotte Lee, daughter of the Earl of Lichfield, and lived until 1787.

The War of the Austrian Succession, which ran from 1740 to 1748, would prove to be the apogee of French military fortunes during the ancien régime, and France’s Irish Regiments would play a leading role in these successes. Due to a shortage of Irish recruits, the number of regiments had been reduced to five of infantry and one of cavalry, but in 1744 a sixth infantry unit, the Régiment de Lally, was created by drawing a cadre from each of the other five. Comte Thomas de Lally, the new regiment’s commander, had previously been Major of the Régiment de Dillon. All regiments began to recruit extensively from British prisoners and deserters, but their officers were drawn exclusively from Irish exiles or their descendents. The six regiments each now had only a single battalion, although some had mustered as many as three back in the 1690s, and all six were brigaded together to form a single command. The norm in the French service was to designate a brigade by the name of its senior regiment, but instead the new formation was titled the Brigade des Irlandois, or Irish Brigade. The only Irish cavalry unit, the Régiment de Fitzjames, was brigaded with units of the French heavy cavalry.

The first battles in the new war did not go well for France. On June 27th 1743, the Pragmatic Army of British, Austrian, and Hanoverian troops under King George II of Britain fought their way out of a potential French trap at Dettingen, defeating the French blocking force under the Duc de Gramont. The Brigade des Irlandois, serving with the main French body under Maréchal Noailles, was not engaged. In 1744, French attention shifted to Flanders, where Louis XV intended to command in person. In deference to the King’s lack of military experience, Comte Maurice de Saxe was appointed as Maréchal and placed in command, under Louis’ direction. Throughout 1744, Saxe fought a campaign of manoeuvre against the Pragmatic Army, now under Field Marshal the Earl of Stair, whilst keeping a strong corps in hand around Dunkirk with a view to a descent on England in support of a Jacobite rising. Saxe got the better of Stair and drove the allies back through the Low Countries, but storms in the Channel prevented the invasion plans being put into practice. For the next year’s campaigning, Saxe therefore concentrated all his troops into his field army, which, accompanied by Louis XV and the Dauphin, was to march into the Austrian Netherlands and force a decisive battle.

To provoke the allies into attacking him, Saxe laid siege to the fortress of Tournai. The Pragmatic Army, now under George II’s second son the Duke of Cumberland, and incorporating a substantial Dutch contingent under the Prince of Waldeck, marched to relieve the fortress. Saxe met them on May 11th 1745 in a prepared position centred on the village of Fontenoy. In the epic and hard-fought battle that ensued, the Brigade des Irlandois, under the command of Viscount Clare, was instrumental in securing the French victory, first helping shore up the French left-centre after the Gardes Francaises broke and ran, and then playing a key role in the counterattack that smashed Cumberland’s massed column of British infantry. The Régiment de Dillon lost five officers and fifty-one men killed in the battle or who died as a result of the wounds they sustained, and nine officers and seventy men wounded: a testimony to the fierce fighting in which it had been involved. Amongst the dead was the regiment’s Colonel, Chevalier Jacques de Dillon, along with Lieutenant-Colonel Mannery and Capitaines Kearney, Manning, and Nihill. Command of the regiment was no awarded, on the field of battle, to Edouard, the fourth son of Comte Arthur de Dillon. Under its new commander, the bulk of the regiment continued to serve in the Low Countries as Saxe captured a succession of enemy fortresses and pushed towards the Netherlands. After the capture of Ghent, where a large magazine established by the British Army had been situated, the captured red cloth was issued to the regiments of the Brigade des Irlandois to make new uniforms, as a reward for their services.

That Saxe was able to make such a devastating inroad into the Austrian Netherlands was due in no small part to the outbreak of the great Jacobite uprising of 1745. After the Jacobite victory at Prestonpans, much of the British Army was withdrawn to put down the rebellion and thus Saxe enjoyed a considerable advantage until the troops began to return in late 1746 after the rebellion had been crushed. After the failure of the invasion plans of 1744, it seems reasonably clear that the French saw Charles Edward Stuart’s venture as a means of distracting the British and diverting troops from the Flanders front, rather than a potential means of invading Britain. Nevertheless, French troops were sent to aid the Jacobites, and the bulk of these were drawn from the Irish and Scottish regiments in the pay of Louis XV. At first, expert officers were sent as advisors, but later plans called for larger numbers of troops from the Brigade des Irlandois to be shipped over. The initial contribution came in the form of a provisional Battalion of Irish Picquets, formed by drawing off four officers and forty-eight men from each of the six regiments. In the event, only the Picquets from Dillon’s, Roth’s and Lally’s made it to Scotland, along with the Régiment Royal Ecossois. Under the command of Brigadier Walter Stapleton, these troops served with distinction at Falkirk on January 17th 1746 and then at Culloden, where they were joined by a fourth picquet from the Régiment de Berwick and a squadron of the Régiment de Fitzjames. After taking heavy losses serving as a rearguard in order to allow the defeated highlanders to escape, the surviving French troops surrendered and were eventually repatriated to France.

Because the bulk of the Brigade des Irlandois was either in Scotland or awaiting shipment there, they spent the campaigning season of 1746 on second line duties and thus missed the second of Saxe’s three great victories, at Rocoux on October 11th. However, some accounts do suggest that elements of the Brigade, including the Régiment de Dillon and the Régiment de Bulkeley, did arrive in time to take part in the fighting. During the winter of 1746-1747, all six regiment were sent to Normandy, where it was feared that the British might mount a coastal raid. This fear proved groundless, and they were back with Saxe’s army in time for the campaign of 1747, which culminated in the Battle of Lauffeld on July 2nd. Here the Brigade des Irlandois again distinguished itself under the command of Lord Dunkeld, being responsible, along with the French troops of the Régiment des Royal Vaisseuax, for the capture of Lauffeld village. Again, casualties in the Régiment de Dillon were heavy: eight officers being returned as dead and five wounded, which would imply, all things being equal, rank and file casualties at least proportionate to those at Fontenoy. Amongst the dead was the Colonel, Edouard de Dillon, who fell into enemy hands already mortally wounded, and died shortly thereafter.

Lauffeld was the last action of the War of the Austrian Succession in which the Brigade des Irlandois participated, peace being concluded the following year. In an attempt to secure a balance of power in Europe, Louis XV gave up much of the territory that Saxe’s exertions had won him, but it was a doomed attempt and Europe would soon be back at war. The eclipse of Jacobitism after the crushing of the Forty-Five also led to a further decrease in the number of Irishmen willing to make a career in a foreign army, leading to a steady dilution of the Irish blood in the rank and file of the regiments of the Brigade des Irlandois. For the Régiment de Dillon, a more serious shortfall existed after Lauffeld in that there were no more scions of the house of Dillon free to assume the colonelcy made vacant by the death of Edouard. The youngest of Comte Arthur de Dillon’s five sons, also named Arthur, still lived, but he had entered the Church, eventually becoming Archbishop of Narbonne, and thus was unable to take over the family regiment. Louis XV was asked to give the command to some other officer of Irish descent, but the King showed a marked gratitude for the services of the Dillon family, and decreed instead that the command be held in trust until a son of the house was of an age where he could take it up. Nominally, the colonelcy reverted to Henry, Viscount Dillon, who continued to take an interest in the regiment that he had once commanded, but the military duties of the post were exercised from 1747 by the Comte de Sheldon as Colonel-Commandant. In 1765, Henry’s second son Comte Arthur de Dillon joined the regiment as a fifteen-year-old cadet, and two years later, on coming of age, he succeeded to the colonelcy. Due to his youth, he did not in practice exercise command of the regiment until 1772.

During Sheldon’s tenure in command, France was engaged in the disastrous Seven Years War, during which she lost Canada and most of her Indian possessions. Although the Comte de Lally took his regiment to India with him, the remainder of the Brigade des Irlandois fought in Europe. Initially they were engaged on coastal defence duties, but with a view to being used in the invasion of Britain planned for 1759. In 1757 the Régiment de Dillon was in garrison at Saint-Valéry-sur-Somme, in Picardy. After the defeat of the French fleet at Quiberon Bay, the invasion plans had to be cancelled, and in 1760 the Brigade des Irlandois was posted to join the French armies in Germany. Here they were distinguished in the defence of Marburg the following year. Thereafter they were encamped at Dunkirk as part of an attempt to threaten an invasion of England: with the French navy in such dire straits, this was never a serious possibility, and they were still there when the war came to an end in 1763. During this time, the Régiment de Lally, which had been taken prisoner in India, was disbanded and those men who returned from captivity were incorporated into the Régiment de Dillon. When the French infantry was numbered during this period, the Régiment de Dillon was ranked as the 94th: these numbers were never used as titles, but were simply intended to clarify the relative seniority of different units.

After the Seven Years War, it proved increasingly difficult to maintain the five remaining Irish regiments at full strength, although some manpower was obtained when the last two Jacobite Scots regiments were disbanded in 1762. Eventually it proved necessary to amalgamate some of the Irish, and in April 1775 the regiments of Dillon and Bulkeley were combined into a single unit. Because the Régiment de Bulkeley was the senior unit, having started life as the original Régiment de Mountcashel in 1690, what officially happened is that the original Régiment de Dillon was absorbed into the Régiment de Bulkeley. However, since the Colonel of the new combined regiment remained Comte Arthur de Dillon it was the name and identity of the Régiment de Dillon that were perpetuated. With fewer regiments in the French army, the Régiment de Dillon was now the 87th Regiment. On March 1st 1780, Comte Arthur de Dillon was promoted to the rank of Brigadier, and although this did not prevent his retaining the titular colonelcy in the way that his grandfather and namesake had done, he elected to resign it in favour of a distant relative, the Chevalier Theobald de Dillon. This Theobald was not, as some accounts imply, Arthur’s younger brother, also of that name, who had in fact died in infancy. Indeed, the new Colonel was actually some five years older than the man he replaced, having been born in Dublin in 1745. He was the son of Thomas Dillon, a distant cousin of the main Dillon line, who had moved his family to France the year after Theobald’s birth. The young man had grown up in Orléans, and had entered the Régiment de Dillon as a cadet towards the close of the Seven Years War, rising through the ranks thereafter.

By this time, the Regiment was again in action, having formed part of the expeditionary force under the Comte d’Estaing sent to aid the rebels in Britain’s North American colonies. This force captured the islands of Grenada, St Eustacia, Tobago, and St. Christopher, as well as in the 1779 operations against Savannah, Georgia. Comte Arthur de Dillon served as Governor of St Christopher, and after the island was returned to Britain as part of the peace settlement he was complemented by the British government for the skill with which he had administered the colony during the French occupation. Arthur’s skill was also recognised by the French court, and he was promoted to Maréchal de Camp and appointed Governor of the island of Tobago. He was still in this post when King Louis XVI summoned the Estates-General in 1789 in a bid to resolve France’s disastrous economy, and was elected as Deputy in order to represent the colonial interests. He was accordingly in Paris when the French Revolution broke out, and when this led to renewed war in Europe he went to the front to serve under Dumouriez in the latter’s campaigns in Champagne, culminating in the recapture of Verdun. Dillon was an advocate of Constitutional Monarchy, and spoke out in favour of its implementation in France. As the Revolution became increasingly extreme in its tone this brought him under suspicion, and in early 1793 he was arrested on the orders of the Committee of Public Safety. With the Great Terror at its height, he stood little chance of escaping death, and was guillotined on April 14th the same year. The story is related, possibly apocryphally, that when the lady due to be guillotined before him expressed fear of her impending death and asked him to go first, he promptly stepped up to the scaffold replying, “Anything to oblige a lady”. He then gave a last shout of “Vive le Roi!”, apparently delivered in his best parade-ground voice, and laid his head down beneath the blade.

By the time that Comte Arthur de Dillon went to the guillotine, the last three regiments of the Brigade des Irlandois had, like the rest of the French Army, been stripped of their names and designated only by their numbers. What was more, all foreign regiments were decreed as of July 21st 1791 to be French, and filled up with recruits irrespective of nationality. Although the 87eme Regiment d’Infanterie continued in existence until 1803, lately as the 87eme Demi-Brigade de Ligne, the reorganisations and amalgamations of the Revolutionary era meant that the character of the Régiment de Dillon soon disappeared. The fate of the last of the Irish in the regiment was varied. Some chose to stay in French service under the Revolution, including the Chevalier Theobald de Dillon, who in 1791 was appointed to the rank of Général de Division. He served in Flanders against the Austrians during the opening campaigns against the Austrians, but on April 29th 1792 he was murdered by his own troops who, in their panic after encountering what they believed to be a large Austrian force, accused him of treachery. Another former officer who chose to remain was Jacques-Etienne-Joseph-Alexandre Macdonald, who would obtain a marshal’s baton under Napoleon. Other officers from the Brigade des Irlandois left France and joined the Royalist émigrés in Germany. There, in 1792, the Comte de Provence, the future King Louis XVIII, formally disbanded the Brigade des Irlandois and presented its last officers with a farewell banner inscribed with the Latin motto Semper et Ubique Fidelis – Always and Everywhere Faithful.
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Old 24 Aug 10, 15:43
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Superb post Elliot!
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Old 26 Aug 10, 05:43
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A bit more on the Regiments of the Brigade des Irlandois

The first three Jacobite Irish regiments taken into French service were those formed from Mountcashel’s Brigade, sent to France in 1690. These regiments, and those raised thereafter for the French service, took the name of their titular Colonel, or Mestre-de-Camp Propriétaire, who effectively “owned” the regiment. This officer might in practice hold a far higher rank and did not necessarily serve with his regiment. If he were not present in person, command would be invested in a Colonel-Commandant. In order of seniority, the regiments of Mountcashel’s Brigade comprised:

Régiment de Mountcashel, taken into French service in 1690 but tracing its ancestry to an Irish regiment embodied by Charles II in 1683 from Irish garrison troops previously stationed in Tangier. Became in 1694 the Régiment de Lee, and in 1734 the Régiment de Bulkeley. Amalgamated with the Régiment de Dillon in 1775.

Régiment O’Brien, taken into French service in 1690 but raised the previous year for James II. Became Régiment de Clare in 1691 upon its Colonel becoming 4th Viscount Clare, and then the Régiment de Lee in 1693 after Clare’s death. Andrew Lee transferring the following year to the former Régiment de Mountcashel, it became the Régiment de Talbot, and on Talbot being disgraced in 1696 and stripped of his commands it passed to the brother of its original Colonel and, he now being 5th Viscount, become again the Régiment de Clare. From 1706 to 1720 again the Régiment O’Brien, the colonelcy passing to a junior branch of the family, until the 6th Viscount Clare came of age and assumed the colonelcy in the latter year. The regiment then continued as the Régiment de Clare, under successive Viscounts, until 1775 when it was amalgamated with the Régiment de Berwick.

Régiment de Dillon, taken into French service in 1690 having recently been raised for James II. Amalgamated with the Régiment de Bulkeley in 1775, the combined unit retaining the title of Régiment de Dillon. The name remained the same throughout its service until abolished by the decree of July 21st 1791, when it became the 87eme Régiment d’Infanterie.

After the Treaty of Limerick, James II organised an army-in-exile largely paid for by France. It fought under French command during the later battles of the War of the League of Augsburg and was disbanded at the close of that conflict under the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick. It comprised:

Irish Horse Guards
The King’s Regiment of Horse
The Queen’s Regiment of Horse
The King’s Royal Irish Regiment of Foot Guards
The Queen’s Regiment of Foot
The Marine Regiment
Regiment of Foot of Limerick
Regiment of Foot of Charlemont
Regiment of Foot of Dublin
Regiment of Foot of Athlone
Regiment of Foot of Clancarty
King’s Regiment of Dismounted Dragoons
Queen’s Regiment of Dismounted Dragoons
Three Independent Companies of Foot

Largely from the remnants of this force, more Irish Regiments were later raised for the French service.

Régiment de Dorrington. Taken into the French service in February 1698, but tracing its ancestry back, through James II’s Royal Irish Regiment of Foot Guards, to the Royal Irish Regiment formed by Charles II in 1662. From 1718 Régiment de Roth, from 1766 Régiment de Rosscommon, and then from 1770 Régiment de Walsh-Serrant until regimental titles abolished by the decree of July 21st 1791 when it became the 92eme Régiment d’Infanterie. The 9th Earl of Rosscommon, Colonel from 1766 to 1770, was born Robert Dillon, and was a distant relation of the colonels of the Régiment de Dillon.

Régiment de Berwick. Raised 1698 for the French service out of the Regiment of Foot of Athlone, King’s Regiment of Dismounted Dragoons, and Independent Companies of Foot. Its first Colonel was James Fitzjames, Duke of Berwick, illegitimate son of James II by Arabella Churchill (and therefore nephew of the 1st Duke of Marlborough). Amalgamated with the Régiment de Clare in 1775, the combined unit retaining the title of Régiment de Berwick. The Colonelcy remained with house of Berwick throughout the unit’s existence, until the abolition of regimental titles by the decree of July 21st 1791 when it became the 88eme Régiment d’Infanterie.

Régiment de Galmoy. Raised 1698 for the French service out of the Regiment of Foot of Charlemont and Queen’s Regiment of Dismounted Dragoons. Dissolved January 30th 1715 and the remaining troops incorporated into the Régiment de Dillon.

Régiment de Bourke. Raised 1699 for the French service. Became Régiment de Wauchop in 1715, and passed the same year into the Spanish service, having served for most of its existence in that country. Became Regimento Connacia (ie Connaught) but in 1733 transferred to the service of Naples. Eventually incorporated in the Foreign Brigade in Neapolitan service, losing its Irish character.

Régiment de Lally. Raised 1744 out of surplus manpower left over from the reduction of the established strength of the five Irish infantry regiments then in existence. Disbanded 1762 after being taken prisoner in India, and the survivors incorporated into the Régiment de Dillon.

There was also a single regiment of Irish cavalry:

Régiment de Sheldon. Raised 1698 for the French service out of the cavalry of James II’s army-in-exile. From 1706 Régiment de Nugent, and from 1733 Régiment de Fitzjames. Disbanded 1762 after being near annihilated in the fighting at Graebenstein on June 24th of that year.

Source: The Irish Monthly Vol 59, published by the Irish Jesuit Province
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1740-1745.






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The uniform of a Scottish regiment of the Ancien Regime:

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Lovely pics Highwayman. Where did you get them from?
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Old 31 Aug 10, 10:47
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From this great site:

http://digitalgallery.nypl.org/nypld...itle_id=269277
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I forgot this one:

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Quote:
Originally Posted by The Highwayman View Post
What an excellent site! Thanks for that.
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Old 06 Sep 10, 07:12
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You are most welcome, I think you will enjoy that fine site.
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