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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #766  
Old 11 Feb 06, 10:46
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Sorry I'm late, everybody! Had personal situation...

February 11
Born...
1732
George Washington, General of the Armies of the United States (7 stars)/1st President/Father of his nation
1812 Benjamin Franklin Sands, Commander, Union Navy, d. 1883
1829 William Anderson Pile, Brig General, U.S., d. 1889
1840 Sanuel Dana Greene, Lt Commander, Union Navy, d. 1884
1898 Leo Szilard, Hungary, physicist/A-bomb worker/peace activist. Instrumental in the Manhattan Project. He started it in the US when he convinced Enrico Fermi to test his theoretical idea. Then realizing a few years later that the resultant weapon would not be used against Germany, he tried to stop it.
1906 Denis Barnett, British chief Air Marshal
1920 Farouk I, last King of Egypt (1936-52)
1925 Peter Berger, Britain, Vice Admiral
1938 Manuel Antonio Noriega, Panamanian General/Dictator
1941 Jeremy Mackenzie, General
1943 Iain Cameron, British Brigadier General
1953 Stephen D Thorne, Lt Commander USN/Astronaut

Died...
641
Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantium (610-641), at about 65
867 Theodora, Courtesan and Empress of Byzantium (610-641)
1543 Ahmed, Gran Sultan of Adal, KIA.
1554 Lady Jane Grey, Queen of England, deposed after nine days, beheaded
1901 Milan I, King of Serbia, at 56
1961 Patrice Lumumba, first premier Congo, murdered

Events...
660
-BC- Ascension of Emperor Jimmu Tenno. Considered the traditional/mythical date of the founding of Japan by its first Emperor.
1531 English Church gets a leader. Henry VIII recognized as supreme head of Church in England. Nominaly the result of Henrys disdain for Pontifical admonishment regarding his various marital problems.
1543 Karel/Henry VIII sign anti-French covenant.
1543 Battle at Wayna Daga: Ethiopian/Portugese troops defeat the Muslim army.
1573 Francis Drake - 1st known European - sights the Pacific from a treetop in Panama.
1720 2nd Treaty of Stockholm: Sweden and Prussia sign treaty of peace.
1747 A French militia force of 300 men launch a surprise attack against the English garrison at Grand Pré.
1793 Prussian troops occupy Venlo Netherlands.
1805 Sacajawea (16) gives birth. The Shoshoni guide for Lewis & Clark, gave birth to a son at Fort Mandan ND, with Meriwether Lewis serving as midwife. Of immensly significant aid to the the Lewis and Clark Expedition, Sacagawea was of the Lemhi Shoshones, who made their home in what is now southeastern Idaho and southwestern Montana.
1809 Robert Fulton patents steamboat. The impact upon naval thought begins to take a massive turn in regard.
1810 Napoleon marries Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria.
1814 Norway's independence proclaimed.
1815 1st news of the Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, finally reaches the US.
1854 Commodore Matthew Perry pulls into Edo Bay, Japan, with 9 warships to begin talks for a treaty.
1862 US SecNav directs formation of organization to evaluate new inventions and technical development which eventually led to National Academy of Science.
1873 Spanish Cortes fires King Amadeo I, & declares a republic.
1900 Canadian troops in South Africa are moved to the front for the first time. They march through the dusty veldt in temperatures over 40 degrees Celcius. When the men complete the first stage of their march, at a watering hole called Ramdam, their thirst is unbearable - and not aided by the commisariat's ration of salt pork and dry biscuits.
1904 President Theodore Roosevelt proclaimed strict neutrality for the US in the Russo-Japanese War.
1922 US Army leaves Honduras.
1929 The Lateran Treaty signed: Italy recognized the independence and sovereignty of Vatican City. The Italian government paid the Vatican $91.7 million for the papal lands it seized in 1870.
1936 Pumping begins to build Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay.
1940 U.S. Antarctic Service West Base main building is completed sufficiently to permit occupation. Over the next two months, the base - three buildings connected to an elaborate system of tunnels and caches - is finished by the time the sun sets for the winter on 21 April.
1941 Lt-General Erwin Rommel arrives in Tripoli.
1942 Burma: Japanese overrun elments of Indian 46th Bde, on the Salween River.
1942 Pacific:
*Submarine USS Shark is sunk by Japanese destroyer IJN Yamakaze about 120 miles east of Menado, Celebes, 01°45'N, 127°15'E. There are no survivors fromUSS Shark's 58-man crew.
*Japanese demand surrender of Singapore.
1942 U.S. Army troops arrive at Curacao and Aruba, N.W.I., to assume occupation duty with the cooperation of the British and Dutch governments at this naval operating base whose primary mission will be port security, convoy routing, and protection of tankers transporting oil to U.S. ports.
1942 Atlantic:
*PBM (VP 74) rescues nine survivors adrift in a lifeboat from British tanker San Arcadio, sunk by German submarine U-107 on 31 January.
1942 Admiral William D. Leahy, USN (Retired), Ambassador to France, receives instructions from President Roosevelt that the U.S. government has learned that French ships are to be used to transport war materiel between France and Tunisia, and that unless the French government gives assurances that no military aid would go forward to any Axis power, and that French ships would not be used in the furtherance of Axis acts of aggression in any theater of war, the ambassador would be recalled to the United States "for consultation in a determination of American future policy with regard to the government of Vichy"
1942 German Channel Dash: Battleships DKM Gneisenau, DKM Scharnhorst and DKM Prinz Eugen began their famed channel dash from the French port of Brest back to Germany. Their journey would take them through the English Channel, then nominaly under British Navy surface control.
1943 General Eisenhower selected for command of the allied armies in Europe.
1943 Pacific:
*Destroyer USS Fletcher and SON (VCS 9) from light cruiser USS Helena sink Japanese submarine I-18 in Coral Sea, 14°15'S, 161°53'E.
*Submarine USS Grayling damages Japanese army cargo ship Hoeizan Maru off Corregidor, 14°16'N, 120°28'E.
1944 German troops reconquer Aprilia Italy.
1944 U-424 sunk off Ireland.
1944 Pacific:
*Motor torpedo boat PT-279 is sunk in collision with PT-282, Solomons, 05°30'S, 154°15'E.
*Submarine USS Gudgeon sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Satsuma Maru (previously damaged by Chinese B-25s off Wenchow, China, at 28°01'N, 121°30'E), 27°38'N, 121°15'E.
*U.S. aircraft damage Japanese guardboat Miyo Maru off Leyte, P.I.
*Japan stops using Truk as a major naval base.
*Japanese continue heavy attacks in the Arakan.
1945 ARGONAUT: Yalta Conference attended by President Franklin Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Russian Premier Joseph Stalin ends with the signing of the Yalta Agreement & then was adjourned. The shape & form of much of the post war world, in addition to finishing the war was the heart of the conference.
1945 Pacific:
*Heavy fighting continues on Luzon.
*TF 92, comprising three light cruisers and seven destroyers, arrives off Matsuwa Island Kurils, to conduct bombardment, but encounters heavy weather that would make high-speed retirement impossible; the operation is accordingly cancelled and the ships return to Attu on 14 February.
*Marianas-based USAAF B-29s carry out extended search missions to look for Japanese guardboats in the path of TF 58 as it steams toward Japan, augmented by Tinian- based PB4Ys and planes from the carriers. These searches will be repeated on 12 and 14 February.
*Tank landing ship LST-577, torpedoed by Japanese submarine RO 50 while in a reinforcement convoy proceeding from Hollandia to Leyte, 08°05'N, 126°17'E, is scuttled by destroyer USS Isherwood. RO 50 is damaged by gunfire in the encounter with U.S. ships.
*Fleet tug Takelma is damaged by collision east of Leyte, P.I., 10°50'N, 125°25'E.
*Submarine USS Batfish sinks Japanese submarine RO 112 off Camiguin, P.I., 18°53'N, 121°50'E.
*Submarine USS Burrfish is damaged by depth charges and aerial bombs off Bonins, 27°51'N, 141°55'N, but remains on patrol.
*Japanese escort destroyer IJN Miyake is damaged by aircraft, 19°08'N, 108°15'E.
*Japanese fast transport T.13 is damaged by aircraft, Bonins.
*USAAF aircraft sink Japanese cargo vessel Shoto Maru, Saigon, French Indochina.
1945 Action in the Mediterranean: USS McLanahan, while withdrawing from bombardment mission off Italian Riviera, is damaged by near-misses from German shore battery at San Remo, Gulf of Genoa.
1951 Offensive action in Korea: U.N. forces pushed north across the 38th parallel once again. Forty-five years after shipping out to fight in Korea, Col. Harry Summers, Jr., got new insight into what the war had been all about.
1953 Russia breaks diplomatic relations with Israel.
1953 President Eisenhower refuses clemency appeal for Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
1955 Nationalist Chinese completed the evacuation of the Tachen Islands.
1958 Marshal Chen Yi succeeds Chu En-lai as Min of Foreign affairs.
1959 Iran makes a choice when it turned down Soviet aid in favor of a U.S. proposal for aid.
1961 Trial of Adolf Eichmann begins in Jerusalem.
1964 Taiwan drops diplomatic relations with France.
1964 Greeks & Turks begin fighting in Limassol, Cyprus.
1964 Prince Sihanouk blames the U.S. for a South Vietnamese air raid on a village in his country, Cambodia.
1965 President Lyndon Johnson orders new air strikes against targets in North Vietnam, in retaliation for guerrilla attacks on the American military in South Vietnam. The American "Rolling Thunder" bombing campaign intensified.
1968 Clashes occur on the Israeli-Jordanian border.
1970 Japan becomes 4th nation to put a satellite, Osumi, in orbit.
1971 US, UK, USSR, others sign treaty banning deployment of nuclear weapons on the ocean floor.
1974 Communist-led rebels showered artillery fire into a crowded area of Phnom Penh, killing 139 and injuring 46 others. As the war in Vietnam wound down with the signing of the 1973 Paris Peace Accords, the war in neighboring Cambodia was going from bad to worse.
1979 Iran's premier Bakhtiar resigns, Ayatollah Khomeini seizes power following an Islamic revolution.
1981 Polish PM Jozef Pinkowski replaced by General Wojciech Jaruzelski.
1986 Iran begins Fajr-8 offensive against Iraq.
1986 Cold War exchange: Activist Anatoly Scharansky was released by USSR, and left the country after nine years of captivity as part of an East-West prisoner exchange.
1987 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1990 Nelson Mandela released from a South African prison, He had been detained for 27 years as a political prisoner fighting against Apartheid.
1991 Ground war against Iraq delayed. President Bush met with Defense Secretary Dick Cheney and Joint Chiefs Chairman Colin L. Powell, who had just returned from the Gulf region. Afterward, Bush said he would hold off on a ground war against Iraq for the time being, saying allied air strikes had been “very, very effective.”
1995 Discovery/MIR mission ends. The space shuttle Discovery landed at Cape Canaveral, Fla., ending a historic rendezvous mission with Russia's Mir space station.
1999 US conducts air strikes against 7 Iraqi air defense sites after assorted Iraqi targeting & offensive actions have occured. The Iraqi offensive actions were in contravention of the UN cease-fire agreement & resolutions regarding no-fly zones over southern & northern Iraq.
2000 Israeli action in Lebanon: Hezbollah launched another rocket attack that killed an Israeli soldier, Israel responded with warplanes and attacks in southern Lebanon and the eastern Bekaa Valley to which Hezbollah responded with fresh hits. Israel cancelled an urgent -US-led meeting called to diffuse the widening war.
2001 Border fighting: Thailand troops fought a gun battle with some 200 Burmese soldiers who had crossed the border in pursuit of Shan rebels.
2002 Afghanistan opium vendors shut down in Kandahar under US military orders. Even under the new Afghan government it has remained a problem in various areas of the country.
2002 2nd day of air strikes: Israel bombed the Palestinian security headquarters in the Gaza Strip for a 2nd day in response to the use of a Kassam-2 rocket by Hamas.
2003 Addressing a historic rift within NATO, Secretary of State Colin Powell told a US congressional hearing that the future of the military alliance was at risk if it failed to confront the crisis with Iraq.
2003 Israeli troops kill armed Palestinian in Gaza Strip. Israel then imposed a blanket closure on the Palestinian areas during the Muslim Hajj because of warnings of possible attacks.
2004 Suicide attack on Iraqi recruiting station: A suicide bomber detonated a car packed with explosives in a crowd of hundreds of Iraqis waiting outside a Baghdad army recruiting center, killing 47 people.
2005 North Korea demands bilateral talks with the US to defuse the tension created by its announcement that it is a nuclear power.
2005 PA shake up & attempt at control: A day after firing his top security commanders, Palestinian leader Mahmoud Abbas headed to the Gaza Strip to demand that militant leaders stop attacking Israelis, a strong sign of his determination to enforce a fragile truce with Israel. He had little or no success.
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Old 12 Feb 06, 03:33
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1751 - Robert Clive's Anglo-Indian force of 1,700 defeated Rajah Sahib's Franco-Indian forces of 5,000.

1918 - Russia’s General Kaledin commits suicide

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...6&cat=16369391

1962 - Nine U.S. and South Vietnamese crewmen are killed in a SC-47 crash about 70 miles north of Saigon.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...4&day=10272976

1973 - Vietnam War: First release of American prisoners of war from Vietnam takes place.
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  #768  
Old 12 Feb 06, 04:27
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February 12

Born...
1211 Henry VII, German/Holy Roman Emperor (1220-35)
1768 Francis II, last Holy Roman emperor (1792-1806)
1771 Adolf Frederik, King of Sweden (1751-70), dies at 60
1809 Abraham Lincoln, Captain of Volunteers, 1832, 16th US President, 1861-65. He was born in Hardin County (present-day Larue County), Kentucky. Lincoln was President of the United States during one of the most turbulent times in American history. Although roundly criticized during his own time, he is recognized as one of history's greatest figures who preserved the Union during the Civil War and proved that democracy could be a lasting form of government. Lincoln entered national politics as a Whig congressman from Illinois, but he lost his seat after one term due to his unpopular position on the Mexican War and the extension of slavery into the territories. The 1858 Lincoln-Douglas debates for the Senate gave him a national reputation. In 1860, Lincoln became the first President elected from the new Republican Party. Abraham Lincoln was fatally shot by John Wilkes Booth at Ford's Theater in Washington, D.C., on April 14, 1865.
1828 Robert Ransom Jr., Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
1838 Charles Carroll Walcutt, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1898
1893 Omar Bradley, General of the Army, US, "The GI General", He led the largest concentration of
ground troops in Europe during World War II.
1915 Andrew J Goodpaster, US, General/Supreme Commander, NATO-Europe.
1933 Ivan Nikolayevich Anikeyev, Cosmonaut.

Died...
1242 Henry VII, (Hendrik), German/Holy Roman Emperor (1220-35), suicide.
1294 Kublai Khan, Conqueror of Asia, at 80.
1771 Adolf Frederik, King of Sweden (1751-70), at 60

Events...
1111 Henry V of Germany arrives in Rome: He presented himself to Pope Paschal II for coronation along with treaty terms that commanded the clergy to restore fiefs of the crown to Henry. The pope refused to crown and Henry left Rome - taking the pope with him. When Paschal was unable to get help, he confirmed Henry’s right of investiture and crowned him.
1541 Santiago, Chile founded: Spanish conquistador Pedro de Valdivia, a lieutenant of Pizarro, establishes the city.
1683 Turks defeated: A Christian Army, led by Charles, the Duke of Lorraine and King John Sobieski of Poland, routed a huge Ottoman army surrounding Vienna.
1709 Alexander Selkirk rescued: The Scottish seaman, whose adventures inspired the creation of Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe, was taken off Juan Fernandez Island after more than four years of living there alone.
1762 Occupation of Martinique: By an English fleet.
1806 French invest Gaeta: It surprisingly holds out & then later falls July 18.
1818 Chile declares independence: And they gain it from Spanish rule.
1825 Creek Indian treaty signed: Tribal chiefs agree to turn over all their land in Georgia to the US government and migrate west by Sept 1, 1826.
1836 Mexican advance into Texas: General Santa Anna crossed the Rio Grande en route to the Alamo to put down a Texican seperatist revolt.
1839 Aroostook War begins: Maine & New Brunswick boundary dispute ensues.
1861 State troops seize US arsenal: They take possesion of all munitions within, at Napoleon, Arkansas.
1895 Battle of Weihaiwei: The Japanese defeat China .
1900 Winnipeg celebrates volunteers return: Lord Strathcona's Horse, a unit of Canadian volunteers for South Africa, is greeted at Winnipeg by large crowds and a banquet. The soldiers have seen similar scenes all along their route from Calgary, but Winnipeg's reception is the grandest to date. A dinner is held in the local drill hall, accompanied by speeches praising the men for the work they are undertaking for the Empire.
1912 Change of leadership in China: Last Ch'ing (Manchu) Emperor of China, Hsuan T'ung (Henry Pu Yi) abdicates as a republic is established under Sun Yat-sen.
1920 The last German forces withdraw: They left Klaipeda as French and English naval forces arrived.
1921 Winston Churchill appointed: He becomes the British Minister of Colonies.
1921 Soviet expansion: Russian troops invade Georgia. (homeland of future Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin)
1927 British expeditionary army lands in Shanghai, China.
1935 Naval airship crashes: The last US Navy dirigible Macon(ZRS-5), crashed on its 55th flight off the coast of California, killing two people. After takeoff from Point Sur, California, a gust of wind tore off the ship's upper fin, deflating its gas cells and causing the ship to fall into the sea. Two of Macon 's 83 crewmen died in the accident. The U.S. Navy lost the airships Shenandoah in 1925 and Akron in 1933. Some considered airships too dangerous for the program to continue at that point, and work on them in the United States halted temporarily. The German zeppelin Hindenburg crashed and burned in 1936.
1938 Japan defys the US and Britain:It refuses to reveal naval data requested to verify Washington Naval Treaty compliance.
1938 German troops enter Austria: It occurs while Austrian Chancellor Schuschnigg visits Hitler in Berchtesgaden.
1940 USSR signs trade treaty with Germany: Its purpose was to aid against the British blockade.
1940 War again comes to the Americas:
*British heavy cruiser HMS Dorsetshire stops German freighter Wakama 12 miles off Cabo Frio, Brazil; Wakama's crew scuttles her so that their ship will not fall into British hands.
*U.S. Ambassador to Brazil Jefferson Caffery reports to Secretary of State Hull on 20 March 1940 that the Brazilian government's protesting HMS Dorsetshire's stopping Wakama had not pleased the British. The British maintained that they were protecting Brazilian commerce. "Indeed you are not," the Brazilian Minister for Foreign Affairs Oswaldo Aranha retorts, "you are definitely not protecting our commerce by maintaining your warships off our coast. It is apparent to me that your blockade of Germany is plainly ineffective. If it were effective, you could stop the German boats [sic] on the other side before they entered German ports."
1942 Channel Dash continues: German cruisers succeed in their near suicidal trek through the English Channel, enroute from Brest to Germany.
1942 Action in the Pacific:
*US/Phil troops on Bataan mop up isolated Japanese pockets in their rear.
*Destroyer USS Whipple is damaged in collision with Dutch light cruiser De Ruyter, Prigi Bay, Java.
USAAF B-17s bomb Japanese shipping off Surumi, damaging transport Kozui Maru and merchant cargo vessel Kinryu Maru.
*Auxiliary [survey vessel] Sumner completes survey work of Bora Bora, Society Islands and publishes Hydrographic Office Field Char777777t No.1 for those waters.
1942 Action in the Atlantic:
*U.S. freighter Dixie Sword founders and sinks in Nantucket Sound, 41°35'N, 69°59'W.
*British freighter Raby Castle comes across lifeboat from torpedoed U.S. tanker W.L. Steed (sunk by German submarine U-103 on 2 February) and rescues the one survivor she finds; sadly, he will die of exposure on board, 15 February.
1943 Action in the Pacific:
*Submarine USS Grampus sails from Brisbane, Australia, for her sixth war patrol. U.S. forces never hear from her again.
*Oiler Salamonie is damaged in collision with merchant vessel Uruguay, 36°54'N, 49°29'W.
1944 British move in Burma: Their objective is to support the 7th Indian Division.
1944 Action in the Pacific:
*US Marines land on Arno Atoll, beginning a series of "mopping-up" operations in the minor atolls of the Marshalls.
*US Marines occupy Umboi island, west of New Britain.
*Japanese flying boats bomb and destroy supply concentrations on Roi Island, Marshalls; tank landing craft LCT-346 and LCT-347 are damaged.
*Submarine rescue vessel USS Macaw, stranded at entrance to Midway Channel since 16 January, slips off the reef and sinks.
*Submarine USS Tambor sinks Japanese merchant tanker Ronsan Maru in East China Sea about 40 miles southwest of Amami O Shima, 27°45'N, 128°42'E.
*British submarine HMS Stonehenge sinks Japanese netlayer Choko Maru off west coast of Malaya, 05°46'N, 99°52'E.
*USAAF B-25 aircraft attack Japanese fishing boats operating in Tonkin Gulf, sinking No.12 Kainan Maru and damaging No.11 Kainan Maru, 20°44'N, 107°02'E.
1945 Action in the Pacific:
*Submarine USS Hawkbill sinks small Japanese cargo vessel Kisaragi Maru and the two large landing barges she was towing at the time at Lombok Strait.
*Japanese merchant ship Shinko Maru is sunk by aircraft, 26°57'N, 120°25'E.
*Submarine USS Batfish sinks 3rd Japanese sub in 4 days. (I-41, Ro-112, & Ro-113)
1947 First launching of a true guided missile.The Loon was unleashed from the submarine, USS Cusk.
1949 Air strikes on Israel:Unidentified aircraft bomb Jerusalem.
1950 Albert Einstein issues nuclear warning: He was against the hydrogen bomb & desired an end to all efforts in its regard.
1953 The Soviets broke off diplomatic relations with Israel after the bombing of Soviet legation.
1955 US presence in Vietnam evolves: President Dwight Eisenhower sends US advisors to South Vietnam. The future of this endeavor was not bright.
1960 Border skirmish: Chinese army kills 12 Indian soldiers.
1961 U.S.S.R. launches Venera 1 toward Venus.
1965 Nuclear test in the Pacific Ocean. But who?
1973 1st US POWs in North Vietnam released: 116 of 456 flown to Philippines
1976 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1979 Kosmos 1076, The 1st Soviet oceanographic satellite launched.
1981 Administrative change at CIA: Admiral Bobby R. Inman, USN, becomes deputy director.
1982 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1998 In Indonesia Pres. Suharto ordered the military to move against anti-government activists. The previous day police detained some 140 protestors in Jakarta.
1998 In Sudan Lt. Gen’l. Al-Zubeir Mohammad Saleh, the country’s first vice-president, was killed along with 7 others in a plane crash in the southern Sudan. Rebels of the SPLA claimed to have shot the plane down.
2002 In Indonesia Christian and Muslim factions from Maluku agreed to end their 3-year war, ban militias and establish a joint security patrol.
2002 Former Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic went on trial in The Hague, accused of war crimes.

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Old 13 Feb 06, 01:54
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February 13


Born...

1768 Édouard Mortier French General, Duke, PM (1834-35)
1831 John A. Rawlins, Brig General, U.S., d. 1869
1833 William Whedbee Kirkland, Brig General, C.S.A., d. 1915
1887 Alvin York, He captured "the whole damned German Army". He was also crack shot from the back woods, with 25 confirmed kills.
1923 Charles "Chuck" Yeagar, General, fighter/test pilot. He was the first man to break the sound barrier. Some would argue he was the first Astronaut by reaching out & touching the edge of space in the cockpit of a rocket propelled aircraft.
1939 Valery Illych Rozhdestvensky, USSR, Cosmonaut (Soyuz 23)
1942 Donald E Williams, Captain USN/Astronaut (STS 51D, STS 34)

Died...
1237 Jordanus of Saxon 2nd father-general of Dominicans, drowns
1332 Andronicus II Paleologus, Byzantine Emperor (1282-1328) and monk
1660 Charles X Gustaaf, King of Sweden (1654-60), at 37
1818 George Rogers Clark, frontier military leader in Revolutionary War.
1891 David Dixon Porter, Rear Admiral, reformer, participant in alot of significant US history, at 77.
1976 General Murtala Mohammed, head of Nigeria, killed during a coup.

Events...
1349 Jews are expelled from Burgsdorf, Switzerland.
1416 Expression of grievances: A Lithuanian and Polish delegation read their grievances against the Teutonic Knights at the Church Council at Constance.
1503 Tournament of Barletta: 13 Italian Knights defeat 13 French Knights.
1510 Charles of Gelre conquerors Oldenzaal.
1545 Willem of Nassau becomes Prince of Orange.
1633 Galileo before Inquisition: Italian astronomer Galileo Galilei arrived in Rome to stand trial before Inquisition for professing his belief that the Earth revolves around the Sun.
1668 Treaty of Lisbon: Spain recognizes Portugal.
1689 British Bill of Rights: accepted by Parliament.
1692 Massacre of Glencoe: The Campbells massacre the MacDonalds In the Glen Coe highlands of Scotland, thirty-eight members of the MacDonald clan, the smallest of the Clan Donald sects, were murdered by soldiers of the neighboring Campbell clan for not pledging allegiance to Willem of Orange. Ironically the pledge had been made but not communicated to the clans. Rumor has it that Willem himself order the massacre.
1706 Battle at Fraustadt: Swedish army beats Russia/Saksen.
1755 Treaty of Gianti Java: Rebel leader Mangkubuni chooses peace.
1809 After a long and bloody siege: The French take Zaragossa, Spain.
1782 Occupation of St. Christopher: A French fleet takes control.
1854 Admiral Perry remains at anchor off Yokosuka: He is waiting in Japan to receive the Emperor's reply to a treaty proposal.
1861 Neapolitan Royalists surrender: Gaeta falls to Italy. It had been under siege since Nov 12.
1861 Abraham Lincoln declared President: Congress makes it official.
1861 Action to subdue hostiles: Colonel Bernard Irwin attacks & defeats hostile Chiricahua, (Native Americans)
1862 Siege of Fort Donelson: Grant begins a 4 day offensive action & pursists until the fort surrenders Feb 16. "What determined my attack on Donelson was as much the knowledge I had gained of its commanders in Mexico, as anything else." (General Grant)
1864 Meridian Campaign: Skirmishes at Chunky Creek & Wyatt, Ms.
1865 CSA allows recruitment of slaves as soldiers: But only as long as the approval of their owner has been secured.
1912 The Chinese imperial government acknowledges the new republic.
1917 470 men of the Canadian 10th Brigade attack the German line near Lens. They return across No Man's Land having inflicted 160 casualties, including the capture of 50 prisoners, and destroyed many dug-outs and tunnelling shafts. The price, however, is 150 Canadian casualties.
1927 Unrest in Portugal: An uprising against Portuguese regime of General Carmona defeated.
1929 Cruiser Act: Upon it's passage, called for the construction of 19 new cruisers & an aircraft carrier.
1940 U.S. freighter Exford, detained at Gibraltar by British authorities since 5 February, is released.
1941 Light cruisers USS Brooklyn, USS Philadelphia, and USS Savannah and stores issue ship USS Antares (AKS 3) arrive at Midway with the remainder of the 3d Defense Battalion.
1942 Pacific:
*Japanese light forces sink the British gunboat HMS Scorpion in Banka Strait.
*Japanese sub I-17 shells oil depot at Goleta, California, to no effect.
*Fil-American troops eliminate Japanese at Canas Point beachhead, Bataan.
*Chartered U.S. passenger ship President Taylor, transporting 900 troops to occupy Canton Island, runs aground on a reef off her destination, and becomes stranded.
*ABDA cruiser-destroyer squadron prepares to sortie from Batavia.
1942 Atlantic:
*Destroyer USS Ericsson accidentally sinks Icelandic trawler Greedir in collision off Hvalfjordur, Iceland.
*Hitler cancels Operation Seelöwe: It was his proposed invasion of Britain.
1942 US and Canada agree to construct the ALCAN Highway.
1943 Assault on Sidi Bou Zid Tunisia: Eisenhower was visiting the front when the German attack occured.
1944 Pacific:
*Japanese 41st Div arrives at Wewak, New Guinea from China.
*Marines take possession of Arno atoll in the Marshall islands.
*Submarine USS Permit is damaged by depth charges off western Carolines, 07°42'N, 148°18'E, but remains on patrol.
*Submarine USS Robalo conducts unsuccessful attack on Japanese army cargo ships Minryu Maru and Sekino Maru.
*USAAF A-20s (5th Air Force) sink Japanese army cargo ship Yoshino Maru and motor sailboat Tok_n Maru (in tow of the cargo ship) off Aitape, 03°20'S, 143°00'E.
*USAAF B-25s (14th Air Force) sink Japanese cargo ship Shoka Maru and damage Kokoku Maru off Hainan Island, 18°35'N, 108°30'E; USAAF and Chinese aircraft sink fishing vessel Meiji Maru off the China Coast, 26°40'N, 121°40'E.
1944 Mediterranean:
*Tank landing craft LCT-220 founders in heavy weather and sinks off Anzio.
1945 Red Army captures Budapest after a 49-day battle with the Germans, 159,000 die.
1945 Fire Storm in Gemany: British & Commonwealth bombers in Operation Thunderclap firebombed the city of Dresden, Germany, and 135,000 people were killed. The Royal Air Force Bomber Command attacked the city of Dresden at night with raids by 873 heavy bombers. 796 Lancaster heavy bombers were led by 9 target marking Mosquito light bombers. A look at aerial maps of the city before and after the terror attacks clearly shows the large white oil tanks owned by British-controlled Shell Oil. These tanks remained entirely untouched by the bombardment. Regardless, the impact upon industry in the city was relatively destroyed. The resultant infernos caused by these types of attacks have been described as man made weather phenomenon, much resembling a huge blow torch due to the rise of hot air & the falling of cooler air as the target burned. The more previlent masonary of European citys made the fire-storms in Japans largely wooden citys much more furiously spectacular & a bit more deadly in regard to impact on human life in the vacinity.
1945 Indian Ocean:
*Frigate USS Corpus Christi rescues 102 survivors of U.S. freighter Peter Silvester, sunk on 6 February 1945 in the Indian Ocean by German submarine U-862.
1945 Pacific:
*Although submarine USS Sennet is damaged by gunfire of Japanese guardboat [No.8 Kotoshiro Maru or No.3 Showa Maru], south of Japan, she administers the coup de grace to No.8 Kotoshiro Maru after the enemy patrol craft had already been damaged by USS Lagarto and USS Haddock, 30°00'N, 136°30'E. USS Haddock then sinks No.3 Showa Maru, which had already been damaged by USS Lagarto and USS Sennet, 30°00'N, 136°30'E.
*Submarine USS Batfish sinks Japanese submarine RO 113 off Babuyan Islands, P.I., 19°10'N, 121°23'E.
*RAAF Liberator sinks Japanese motor sailship No.24 Sakura Maru in Lesser Sundas.
1951 At the Battle of Chipyong-ni: UN troops contained Chinese offensive forces throughout a two-day battle In Korea.
1960 France joins the nuclear club: It performs its1st nuclear test at Reggane Proving Grounds in Algeria.
1961 Launch on orbit: Soviet Union fires a rocket from Sputnik V to Venus
1966 USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.
1968 Operation Coronado XI begins in Mekong Delta.
1968 U.S. sends 10,500 additional soldiers to Vietnam.
1971 12,000 South Vietnamese troops cross into Laos.
1972 Enemy attacks decline: For the third day, as the U.S. continues its intensive bombing strategy in Vietnam, enemy attacks continue to dwindle.
1975 Cyprus premier Denktash proclaims Turkish-Cypriot Federation.
1978 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.
1985 Polish police arrests 7 Solidarity leaders.
1989 Salvadoran Army attack Encuentros Hospital: There they raped and killed numerous patients.
1990 German reunification approved: by the US, France and England.
1990 50 killed in Inkatha-UDF battle in Natal, South Africa.
1991 Struck at the wrong time of day: A result of incomplete intel, US a/c bomb an Iraqi command & control/civilain air raid shelter. 334 civilians were killed when a pair of laser-guided bombs destroyed an underground facility in Baghdad due to Iraqi night time use as a civilian shelter. In day time hours it was generally operational for Iraqi command & control operations. It was a "human shield" sort of thing by SadDams doing.
1997 Hubble & Discovery on orbit: Astronauts haul the Hubble Space Telescope aboard space shuttle Discovery for a one billion mile tune up which will extend operational capabilities & allow it to peer even deeper into the far reaches of the universe. Discoverys mission; To capture, repair prevalent design flaws, upgrade, conduct general maintanence, and release Hubble to continue its upgraded mission.

__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

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Old 13 Feb 06, 10:17
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1575 - Henry III of France is crowned at Reims.

1668 - Spain recognizes Portugal as an independent nation after 28 years of war. After portuguese king D. Sebastião died without leaving posterity, the old Cardinal D. Henrique took over the kingdom for a cople years. After failing to convince to Pope to release him from his celibacy he too died without a successor, so in 1580 king Philippe II of Spain became Filipe I of Portugal. This joint of the portuguese and spanish crowns lasted till 1640, when the Duke of Bragança gattered enough support to become D. João IV of Portugal. Spain wasn't ready to loose Portugal and it's colonial possessions that easy so they faught for 28 years to regain control of Portugal.
This conflict would come to an end in 1668.

1776 - Patrick Henry named colonel of First Virginia battalion.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...8&cat=16369276

1861 - First Medal of Honor action.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...4&day=10272978

1920 - League of Nations recognizes perpetual Swiss neutrality.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...8&cat=16369391

1965 - Johnson approves Operation Rolling Thunder.

1968 - Additional troops ordered to South Vietnam.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...8&cat=10272949

1996 - The Nepalese People's War began.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nepalese_People%27s_War
__________________
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Old 13 Feb 06, 22:24
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February 14

Born...
1462 Edward I the Great, Earl of East-Friesland (1494-1528)
1813 John McNeil, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1891
1819 James Green Martin, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1878
1824 Winfield Scott Hancock, Maj Gen, U.S., "The Superb," d. 1886
1829 Alfred Iverson Jr., Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1911

Died...
1400 King Richard II of England (1377-99), murdered at 33
1405 Timur, (Tamerlane), crippled Mongol monarch, in Kazakhstan.
1779 James Cook, explorer, killed by Hawaiians
1831 Vincente Guerrero, Mexican revolutionary hero
1891 William Tecumseh Sherman, at 71

Events...
1014 Pope Benedict VIII crowned Henry II, German King (1002), as Roman German emperor (1014-1024).
1349 2,000 Jews burned at stake in Strasbourg Germany
1540 Emperor Charles V enters Ghent without resistance, executes rebels. He brutally beat down an uprising against taxes for an expansionist war. Nine leaders were beheaded and another hanged. City burgers were forced to walk the streets barefoot with rope hanging round their necks.
1549 Maximilian II recognized. The brother of the Emperor Charles V designated as the future king of Bohemia.
1610 Polish king Sigismund III forced Dimitri #2 and the Romanov family to sign covenant against Czar Vasili Shuishki
1645 Robert Ingle, commissioned by the English Parliament and captain of the tobacco ship Reformation, sailed to St. Mary’s (Maryland) and seized a Dutch trading ship. This marked the beginning of what came to known as “The Plundering Time.”
1689 English parliament placed Mary Stuart and Prince William III on the throne.
1778 First honors rendered: John Paul Jones in Ranger receives first official salute to U.S. Stars and Strips flag by a European nation, at Quiberon, France.
1797 The Spanish fleet was destroyed by the British under Admiral Jervis (with Nelson in support) at the battle of Cape St. Vincent, off Portugal.
1806 The French capture Naples.
1813 USS Essex is first U.S. warship to enter the Pacific Ocean when it rounds Cape Horn.
1814 Action in the Atlantic: USS Constitution captures British Lovely Ann and Pictou.
1840 An early first step to the South Pole. USS Vincennes makes first landing on the Antarctica ice pack
1862 USS Galena, the 1st US iron-clad warship for service at sea, was launched in Conn.
1900 General Roberts invades South Africa’s Orange Free State with 20,000 British troops.
1939 The Reich launched the battleship Bismarck.
1940 U.S. passenger liner Manhattan is detained at Gibraltar for several hours by British authorities but allowed to proceed; not as fortunate is freighter Exermont, which is also detained there.
1940 British merchant ships are armed against German submarines and raiders
1941 Fleet Landing Exercise No. 7, which had begun on 4 February, concludes in Culebra-Vieques, Puerto Rico, area.
1941 German Afrika Korps begins landing at Tripoli, Libya
1942 Pacific:
*Submarine USS Sargo delivers ammunition to Polloc Harbor, Mindanao, P.I., and evacuates USAAF ground crews (14th Bombardment Squadron).
*Submarine USS Swordfish torpedoes and sinks Japanese transport Amagisan Maru off Davao, P.I., 06°45'N, 126°54'E.
*Admiral Thomas C. Hart, USN, is relieved as Commander in Chief Allied Naval Forces in Southwest Pacific by Vice Admiral Conrad E. L. Helfrich, RNN.
*Aidan MacCarthy’s RAF unit flew to Palembang, in eastern Sumatra, where 30 Royal Australian Air Force Lockheed A-28 Hudson bombers were waiting. The elation was short-lived as Japanese soldiers were parachuting into the jungle that surrounded the airfield. During ensuing Allied air attacks on Japanese invasion convoy, RAF Blenheims bomb and sink merchant ship Inabasan Maru off Palembang.
*ABDA Float orders task force to proceed and attack Japanese Palembang-bound expeditionary force. As Doorman's ships--two Dutch light cruisers, a Dutch flotilla leader, one British heavy cruiser, one Australian light cruiser, four Dutch destroyers and six American--heads toward its objective, Dutch destroyer Van Ghent runs aground on a reef north of Banka Island; irreparably damaged, she is scuttled; sistership Banckert takes off the crew.
*On request from local British naval authorities, light cruiser USS Boise, at Ceylon en route to Bombay, India, for repairs following her grounding in Sape Strait on 21 January, provides her two SOCs (VCS 9) to augment routine RAF Catalina searches from the seaplane station at Kogalla, Ceylon. USS Boise's planes fly morning and evening search flights for the next three days.
*PBY (VP 73) accidentally bombs submarine USS Thresher, returning from a war patrol, southwest of Oahu, T.H.
*Japanese submarine I-23 is last reported south of Oahu, T.H. She is not heard from again, and her fate is unknown.
1943 Soviets recapture Rostov
1943 A German offensive was made through the de Faid pass in Tunisia.
1943 Pacific:
*Submarine USS Amberjack is probably sunk by Japanese naval aircraft (958th Kokutai), torpedo boat IJN Hiyodori and submarine chaser Ch 18 off Cape St. George, New Britain, 05°05'S, 152°37'E.
*Submarine USS Runner unsuccessfully attacks Japanese cargo vessel Tokyo Maru north of Biak, New Guinea, 07°31'N, 134°21'E.
*Submarine USS Thresher damages Japanese submarine I-62 off the Lesser Sundas, 06°05'S, 105°47'E.
*Submarine USS Trout sinks Japanese gunboat Hirotama Maru at south entrance to Makassar Strait, 04°11'S, 117°45'E. Return fire from the enemy warship in the last phases of the action fought on the surface wounds seven sailors.
*PB4Ys (VB 101) strafe and damage ammunition ship Hitachi Maru off Buin, Bougainville, 06°48'S, 155°50'E; USAAF B-17s bomb shipping at Buin as well, completing the destruction of Hitachi Maru.
1944 Pacific:
*Anti-Japanese revolt on Java
*Central Pacific Forward Area is established; Rear Admiral Hoover flies his flag in seaplane tender USS Curtiss.
*Light cruiser USS St. Louis, covering the unopposed landing at Pakonian Plantation, west side of Green Island, is damaged by bomb dropped by Japanese dive bomber, 06°15'S, 153°29'E.
*Submarine USS Flasher sinks Japanese army cargo ship Minryo Maru (which had escaped USS Robalo's attack the day before) off Cape Santiago, Luzon, 13°43'N, 120°39'E, and tanker Hokuan Maru, 13°44'N, 120°29'E.
*Submarine USS Snook sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Nittoku Maru southwest of Tsushima, Japan, 33°48'N, 128°50'E.
*British submarine HMS Tally Ho sinks Japanese submarine UIT 23 (ex-Italian Reginaldo Giuliani) off Penang, Malaya, 04°25'N, 100°09'E.
*PBY damages Japanese cargo ship Mitsu Maru and forces her aground east of Sepik, New Guinea. Allied air attacks subsequently destroy Mitsu Maru.
*USAAF B-25 aircraft sink Japanese ship Satsuma Maru off Wenchow, 28°00'N, 121°30'E.
*Salvage of Eiko Maru (sunk on 30 January) by U.S. Navy divers yields a large number of Japanese charts of the Pacific area and other intelligence material.
1945 American heavy bombers flew daylight raids over Dresden, Germany following the British/Commonwealth assault. The firestorm may have killed an estimated 135,000 people. At least 35,000 died and some people place the toll closer to 70,000. The novel "Slaughterhouse Five" by Kurt Vonnegut was set in Dresden during the firebombing where he was being held as a prisoner of war. US B-17 bombers dropped 771 tons on Dresden while P-51 Mustang fighters strafed roads packed with soldiers and civilians fleeing the burning city.
1945 The siege of Budapest ends as the Soviets complete the conquest of the city. Only 785 German and Hungarian soldiers managed to escape.
1945 Pacific:
*U.S. PT-boats enter Manila Bay.
*U.S. troops reach the Bataan peninsula outside Manila
*Japanese shore batteries sink motor minesweeper YMS-48 north of Corregidor, 14°24'N, 120°33'E, and damage destroyers USS Fletcher and USS Hopewell as they support the sweeping of those waters, 14°25'N, 120°30'E and 14°24'N, 120°33'E, respectively. On board USS Fletcher, Watertender First Class Elmer C. Bigelow, time not permitting his donning a rescue-breathing apparatus, plunges into the acrid powder smoke to extinguish the blaze that had resulted from shell fragments penetrating the number one gun magazine and setting fire to powder cases. Bigelow succumbs to smoke inhalation the following day; for his heroism, he is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.
*Japanese shore batteries also sink support landing craft LCS-26 and LCS-49 off Luzon.
*Mines damage destroyers USS Radford and USS LaVallette as they support the sweeping of a channel into Mariveles harbor, 14°25'N, 120°30'E.
*Destroyer USS Halford is damaged in collision with U.S. merchant vessel H.E. Stephenson.
*Submarine USS Gato sinks Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No.9 in Yellow Sea, 34°48'N, 125°28'E.
*Submarines USS Haddock, USS Lagarto, and USS Sennet damage Japanese guardboat No.3 Kanno Maru south of Japan, 29°50'N, 135°31'E.
*Submarine USS Hawkbill sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chasers Cha 4 and Cha 114 (ex-Dutch B-1 class patrol boat) in Java Sea, 08°28'S, 115°45'E.
*Japanese army cargo ship No.1 Yamanami Maru is sunk by mine west of Kyushu; hospital ship Hikawa Maru is damaged by mine in Singapore Strait.
*Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Tatsui Maru is damaged by aircraft, 27°35'N, 121°16'E.
1945 Arctic:
*U.S. freighter Horace Gray is torpedoed by German submarine U-711 at the entrance to Kola Inlet, 69°21'N, 33°43'W. Beached the following day, Horace Gray will subsequently be determined a total loss. There are no casualties to either the merchant complement or the 28- man Armed Guard.
1950 RCAF aircraft begin an intense Search and Rescue operation around Queen Charlotte Sound for an American B-36 bomber that has gone missing during a flight from Alaska to Texas. Joined in their efforts by US planes, Canadians will rescue the American aircrew tomorrow on Princess Royal Island.
1956 Khrushchev denounces Stalin at Soviet Communist Party Congress
1958 Arab Federation of Iraq & Jordan formed. King Hussein forged a federation with Iraq, which was led by his cousin, Faisal II. The federation failed when Faisal was killed during a revolution in Iraq.
1979 Armed guerrillas attack the U.S. embassy in Tehran.
1985 Vietnamese troops surround the main Khmer Rouge base at Phnom Malai.
1991 Iraqi weapons depot at Ukhaydir bombed. Iraqi authorities revealed to US authorities in 1996 that the site stored hundreds of rockets filled with mustard gas and nerve gas.
1992 Former Soviet republics of Ukraine, Moldova and Azerbaijan reject a proposed unified army in defiance of Russian President Boris N. Yeltsin.
1996 Failed Loral Intelsat satellite launch in China. The rocket hit a village near the Xichang Space Center in Sichuan province. US intelligence estimated the death toll at 200. The rocket was a Long March 3B. The satellite was intended for Latin America TV and financed by Rupert Murdoch’s News Corp.

__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

ACG History Today

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Last edited by Admiral; 13 Feb 06 at 22:31..
  #772  
Old 14 Feb 06, 08:57
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
1779 - Patriots defeat Loyalists at Kettle Creek.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...9&cat=16369276

1804 - Karadjordje leads the First Serbian Uprising against the Ottoman Empire.

1831 - Ras Marye of Yejju marches into Tigray and defeats and kills Dejazmach Sabagadis in the Battle of Debre Abbay.

1864 - Sherman enters Meridian, Mississippi.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...4&day=10272979

1879 - The War of the Pacific breaks out when Chilean armed forces occupy the Bolivian port city of Antofagasta.

1912 - In Groton, Connecticut, the first diesel-powered submarine is commissioned.

1919 - Wilson presents draft covenant for League of Nations.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...9&cat=16369391

1943 - Battle of the Kasserine Pass.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...9&cat=10272951

1962 - Kennedy authorizes U.S. advisors to fire in self-defense.

1970 - Gallup Poll released.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...9&cat=10272949
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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February 15



Born...
37 Nero, Roman Emperor (54-68)
1368 Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (1410-37)
1483 Babur, first Mughal Emperor of India (1526-30) 1519 Pedro Menendez de Aviles, explored Florida, founded St Augustine
1564 Galileo Galilei, Italian astronomer, born in Pisa. The first modern man to fully realize that mathematics can truly describe the physical world. He said: “The Book of Nature is written in mathematics.” He suffered the displeasure of the Catholic Church by defending the Copernican system, & its premise that the earth is in orbit of the sun.
1650 Duke Anne Jules de Noailles, Marshal of France
1710 King Louis XV the "Well-Beloved" of France (1715-74)
1726 Abraham Clark, Signed Declaration of Independence
1795 Charles Niellon, general, Belgian War for Independence, 1831
1835 Alexander Stuart Webb, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1911
1845 Elihu Root, reforming Secretary of War (1901-05), State (1905-09), Nobelist
1892 James Forrestal, naval aviator, Secty of the Navy and Defense
1922 Herman Kahn, nuclear strategist, (Thinking About the Unthinkable)
1929 James Schlesinger, Secretary of Defense (1973-75)

Died...
1152 Conrad III, Holy Roman Emperor (1138-1152)
1400 King Richard II (1377-99), murdered
1637 HR Emperor Ferdinand II, King of Bohemia and Hungarian, Hun, (1619-37)
1818 King Charles XIII of Sweden (1809-18 and Norway (1814-18)
1905 Lew Wallace, general, novelist ("Ben Hur), at 77

Events...
399 -BC- Socrates condemned to death: He was brought up on charges of corrupting the youth in addition to introducing new gods into Greek thought. A tribunal of 501 citizens found Socrates guilty of the charge of impiety and corruption of youth. It seems they were somewhat disturbed that Socrates (469-399 BC) had been teacher of 2 leaders held responsible for the Greek loss to Sparta in the Peloponnesian War.
1637 Ferdinand III succeeds Ferdinand II: becoming Holy Roman Emperor.
1563 Ivan IV leads Russian forces: He was victorious against Polocka, then defended by Stanislav Davaina.
1797 Battle of Cape St Vincent.
1856 US Navy gets camels for US Army: USS Supply, commanded by LT David Dixon Porter, sails from Smyrna, Syria, bound for Indianola, Texas, with a load of 21 camels intended for experimental use in the American desert west of the Rockies.
1869 Charges of Treason against Jefferson Davis are dropped
1898 USS Maine blows up in Havana Harbor: She had been sent to menace Imperial Spain. Originally proclaimed an act of sabotage, it is likely that sponontanious combustion of coal dust in her bunkers was the actual cause, 258 die. On April 25, the U.S. Congress declared war on Spain to the shouts of "Remember the Maine and to Hell with Spain!" It was the match that lit kindling already gathered.
1916 In Berlin, Ontario, a mob of citizens, led by unruly soldiers, throws the statue of Kaiser Wilhelm II into a local lake. Shops and businesses owned by German-Canadians are ransacked and smashed. Anti-German sentiment will lead the citizens to change the name of the city to modern-day Kitchener.
1918 The 1st WW I US Army troopship was sunk after it was torpedoed off Ireland by Germany.
1919 The American Legion is formed: Fittingly so, in Paris, France.
1933 FDR escapes assassination attempt in Miami: Giuseppa Zangara fires five pistol shots at the back of President-Elect Franklin Roosevelt's head from a distance of only 25'. All five rounds missed their target, yet each round found a different victim. Chicago Mayor Anton Cermak was the one to die that day. FDR would survive to fight another day.
1936 Hitler ordered it. And the Volkswagen was built.
1940 President Roosevelt embarks in heavy cruiser USS Tuscaloosa at Pensacola, Florida, for a cruise to Panama and the west coast of Central America to discuss Pan-American defense and to inspect the Panama Canal.
1940 Destroyer USS Goff collides with and sinks harbor tug Wicomico in Hampton Roads, off Naval Operating Base, Norfolk. Goff, her bow damaged in the mishap, rescues Wicomico's 11-man crew.
1940 Hitler ordered that all British merchant ships would be considered warships.
1941 Naval Air Station, Kaneohe Bay, Oahu, T.H., is established.
1942 Action in the Pacific:
*Singapore surrenders: Japanese General Tomoyuki Yamashita prevailed, when British Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur Percival and 130,000 Empire troops surrendered. It was the largest surrender in British history. It is still considered the greatest disaster in British military history by many.
*Japanese army paratroops secure vital oil refineries at Palembang, on southeast Sumatra, N.E.I.; enemy capture of this territory establishes sea and air control of the Karimata Channel and Gaspar Strait.
*Having proceeded through Gaspar Strait to the north of Banka and failed to contact the Japanese force (which has already reached Banka Strait), ABDA striking force is attacked by Japanese naval land attack planes (Genzan, Mihoro, and Kanoya Kokutais) as well as carrier attack planes from carrier IJN Ryujo. Australian light cruiser HMAS Hobart is straddled, while near misses damage U.S. destroyers USS Barker and USS Bulmer , which will need to retire to Australia for repairs.
*U.S. Army transport Meigs, U.S. freighters Mauna Loa and Portmar, and Australian coaster Tulagi, escorted by heavy cruiser USS Houston, destroyer USS Peary and Australian corvettes HMAS Swan and HMAS Warrego sails from Darwin, Australia, for Timor.
Japanese First Air Fleet departs Palau for the Dutch East Indies.
1942 Action in the Atlantic:
*Brazilian steamship Buarque is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-432 30 miles southwest of Cape Henry, 36°35'N, 75°20'W.
*U.S. tanker Point Breeze suffers explosion in engine room that damages steering gear, forcing the ship to go around off Throggs Neck, New York; one man is killed and one is blown overboard. Point Breeze later floats free and is towed to New York for repairs.
*German U-Boat shells Antillian oil refinery.
1943 The Germans broke the U.S. lines at the Fanid-Sened Sector in Tunisia.
1943 Action in the Pacific:
*Joint air command designated Aircraft, Solomons is established with headquarters at Guadalcanal.
*Submarine USS Gato sinks Japanese stores ship Suruga Maru in Bougainville Strait, 06°27'S, 156°02'E.
*Submarine Pickerel attacks Japanese convoy, sinking cargo vessel Tateyama Maru off the east coast of Honshu, 39°18'S, 142°08'E.
*USAAF aircraft sink Japanese cargo ship Kokoku Maru in the Bismarck Sea, 05°32'S, 150°09'E.
1943 Action in the Atlantic
*U.S. tanker Atlantic Sun, straggling from convoy ON 165, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-607, 150 miles off Cape Race, 51°00'N, 41°00'W; other than one deckhand rescued by U-607, all hands (45 merchant sailors, a 19-man Armed Guard and one passenger) perish with the ship.
*AIRSOLS (Aircraft Solomons Command) formed.
1944 Allied bombers attack the Abbey of Monte Cassino: It was an unsuccessful effort to neutralize the mountain top Monastary as a German observation post. Many 'observers' fled the abby during bombing & then simply moved back into its remains after it ceased.
1944 Action in the Pacific:
*TF 31 lands Third New Zealand Division on Green Island, east off New Ireland. TF 38 (two light cruisers and five destroyers) covers the operation from the south; TF 39 (two light cruisers and five destroyers) from the north and east; Solomons-based aircraft also operate in support. During Japanese air attack on invasion shipping, tank landing ship LST-486 is damaged by near-miss of bomb off Green Island.
*Naval aircraft from Abemama, Gilbert Islands, bomb Wake Island.
*Submarine USS Aspro sinks Japanese submarine I-43 transporting sailors from the Sasebo Special Landing Force to Truk, 280 miles east-southeast of Guam, 10°23'N, 150°23'E.
*Submarine USS Gato sinks Japanese guardboat No.3 Taiyo Maru off Rabaul, New Britain, 04°00'N, 150°10'E.
*Submarine USS Snook sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship No.2 Hoshi Maru off south coast of Korea, 34°23'N, 128°23'E.
*Submarine USS Steelhead damages Japanese cargo ship Enju Maru 110 miles from Chichi Jima.
*Submarine USS Tinosa attacks Japanese convoy east of Mindanao, P.I., sinking army cargo ship Odatsuki Maru east of Dinagat Island, 09°30'N, 127°00'E.
*British submarine HMS Tally Ho sinks German-manned Italian cargo submarine UIT-23, 04°53'N, 100°15'E.
*USAAF B-25s and A-20s damage auxiliary netlayer Matsu Maru at Rabaul. *USAAF B-25s (14th Air Force) sink Vichy French patrol craft Ping Sang off Hongay, French Indochina, 21°00'N, 107°22'E.
*Mine laid by 14th Air Force B-24s on 10 February sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Ryoka Maru off entrance to Yangtze River, 31°16'N, 121°46'E; a mine also sinks merchant cargo ship Hoshi Maru off south coast of Korea, 34°27'N, 128°45'E;
1944 Action in the Mediterranean:
*Off Anzio, destroyer escort USS Herbert C. Jones is damaged by radio-controlled bomb, 41°27'N, 12°35'E, and large infantry landing craft LCI(L)-2 is damaged by mine, 41°24'N, 12°43'E. Bomb holes freighter Elihu Yale; the explosion start fires that spread to tank landing craft LCT-35 alongside, destroying that vessel as well. Firefighting efforts by fleet tug Hopi ultimately prove successful but Elihu Yale is later written off as a total loss. Two of the 40-man Armed Guard perish in the attack, as do three of the 45-man merchant complement and seven of the 182 stevedores working cargo. Tank landing craft LCT-152 rescues survivors from Elihu Yale and LCT-35.
1945 Pacific
*TG 78.3 lands army forces (151st Infantry RCT and 3d Battalion, 34th RCT) in the Mariveles Harbor area of Bataan Peninsula, Luzon; the troops encounter only light opposition andquickly secure the town and the nearby airfield. Medium landing ship LSM-169 is damaged by mine off Mariveles; motor minesweeper YMS-46 is damaged by shore battery, 14°23'N, 120°36'E.
*Japanese troops in Manila are surrounded.
*TF 58 planes sink Japanese guardboats No.3 Choyo Maru and No.2 Santoku Maru off southern Japan, 30°00''N, 141°00'E, and 30°00'N, 143°00'E, respectively.
*Aircraft damage Japanese fast transport T.16 off Iwo Jima.
*Japanese auxiliary minesweeper No.3 Taihei Maru is damaged by aircraft off Yonaguni Island.
1948 A question of control in China: Mao Tse-Tung & the People's Liberation Army occupies Jenan.(Yenan)
1950 USSR & PRC conclude a mutual defense treaty: Joseph Stalin and Mao Tse-tung become friends... get each other autograph... in Moscow.
1967 13 U.S.helo's shot down in Vietnam. All in one day.
1973 Prognoz 3 launched: USSR looking to study the sun
1984 500,000 Iranian soldiers moved into Iraq. Things get ugly over the border real fast.
1989 Soviet General Boris Gromov left Afghanistan: The USSR announced that the its last troops had left Afghanistan, after more than nine years of military intervention, war, and occupation. In defeat, the war was effectively over for Soviet forces. Some have called it the Soviet 'Vietnam'.


__________________
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February 16

Born...
1519 Gaspard de Coligny, French Admiral and Huguenot leader
1620 Frederick William, the Great Elector, founder of Brandenburg-Prussia
1807 Lysander Cutler, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1866
1813 Joseph Reid Anderson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
1822 James Patton Anderson, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1872 1823 John D Imboden, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1895
1832 Camille Armand Jules Marie de Polignac, Maj Gen, C.S.A. & French Army
1904 George F Kennan, diplomate, historian, inventor of "Containment"
1942 Kim Jong-Il, "Dear Leader" of North Korea


Died...
1279 King Afonso III of Portugal (1248-79)
1391 Johannes V Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor (1341-91)
1991 Enrique Varela, commandant of Nicaraguan Contras


Events...
1270 Karusa Ice War: In Estonia, Lithuanian forces defeated the Livonian Knights of the Cross.
1495 French capture Gaeta (invested Dec 16, 1494) from Ferrante II.
1495 The Colonna brothers capture Naples for Charles VIII of France.
1693 A French-Indian force of 600 men attacks two Mohawk villages below Lake Champlain. French authorities report 25 Mohawks killed and over 300 prisoners taken.
1760 Cherokee Indians held hostage at Fort St. George, SC, were killed in revenge for Indian attacks on frontier settlements.
1804 "The most daring act of the age." So said England's Lord Nelson of it. Lt Stephen Decatur, with Marines & sailors from the American frigate USS Constitution and schooner USS Enterprise, enters Tripoli harbor by night in the ketch Intrepid to burn the captured frigate USS Philadelphia. Decatur's raid succeeds without American losses.
1808 The Peninsular War began when Napoleon ordered a large French force into Spain under the pretext of sending reinforcements to the French army occupying Portugal.
1813 The New Brunswick Regiment (104th Foot) begins its legendary cross country march from Fredericton to Quebec, so as to bolster the defence of the Canadas. Supplies are dragged along the route on toboggans. The only casualty on the two-month winter expedition will be one case of frostbite.
1815 Action in the Atlantic: Frigate USS Constitution captures the brig HMS Susannah.
1862 During the Civil War, some 14,000 Confederate soldiers surrendered at Fort Donelson, Tenn. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant's victory earned him the nickname "Unconditional Surrender Grant." Nathan Bedford Forrest escaped.
1909 Serbia mobilizes against Austria-Hungary
1916 Russian troops conquered Erzurum, Armenia.
1920 The Allies accepted Berlin’s offer to try World War I war criminals in Leipzig’s Supreme Court.
1940 British destroyer HMS Cossack violates Norwegian territorial waters, boards German tanker/prison ship Altmark in Jøssingfjord, and recovers 303 merchant seamen from ships destroyed by German armored ship DKM Admiral Graf Spee during her commerce raiding activities.
1942 Operation NEULAND begins with simultaneous attacks on Dutch and Venezuelan oil ports to disrupt production and flow of petroleum products vital to the Allied war effort; German submarine U-156 shells refinery on Aruba, N.W.I. and torpedoes and damages U.S. tanker Arkansas as she lies alongside Eagle Dock; a second torpedo misses the ship and runs up on the beach. There are no casualties among the 37-man crew. The enemy does not emerge from the action unscathed, however, for the explosion of a shell prematurely in a gun barrel injures two men on board U-156, which will receive permission to put in to Martinique. They did succeed in sinking the tanker Pedernales.
1942 Action in the Atlantic:
*Unarmed U.S. tanker E.H. Blum blunders into U.S. minefield off Cape Henry, Virginia, 36°57'N, 75°52'W and is damaged by mine and breaks in half.
*Coast Guard cutter USCG Calypso rescues 42 survivors from Brazilian steamship Buarque, that had been sunk by German submarine U-432 the day before.
1942 Tojo outlined Japan’s war aims to the Diet, referring to "new order of coexistence" in East Asia. During the Japanese war crimes trials, Tojo himself took responsibility, as premier, for anything either he or his country had done. He asserted, however, with the other defendants, that they--and Japan--had made war only in "self-defense."
1942 Action in the Pacific:
*Japanese planes bomb U.S. Timor-bound convoy, escorted by heavy cruiser USS Houston and destroyer USS Peary; U.S. Army transport Miegs and U.S. freighter Mauna Loa are damaged by near-misses. On board the latter, one crewman is killed; of the 500 troops embarked, one is killed and 18 wounded. USS Houston's heavy antiaircraft fire saves the convoy from destruction, but the imminent fall of Timor results in the recall of the convoy and its routing back to Darwin.
*Japanese continue to secure Palembang.
1943 Withdrawing Africa Corps reached the Mareth-line in North Africa.
1943 Action in the Pacific:
*U.S. fighters begin using a new airstrip on Amchitka, the Aleutians.
*Submarine USS Flying Fish sinks Japanese stores ship Hyuga Maru 24 miles off Pagan, Marianas, 18°30'N, 145°57'E.
*Submarine USS Triton departs Brisbane for her sixth war patrol. She will never be seen again.
1943 Sign on Munich facade: "Out with Hitler! Long live freedom!" was posted by the "White Rose" student group. They were caught on 2/18 and beheaded on 2/22.
1943 Fleet Air Wing 16 is established at Norfolk, Virginia.
1943 Red Army liberates Kharkov
1943 U.S. freighter Deer Lodge is torpedoed by German submarine U-607 about 60 miles east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, and abandoned
1944 Action in the Pacific:
*TG 58.4 conducts air attacks and reconnaissance of Eniwetok.
*Destroyer USS Phelps and minesweeper USS Sage sink Japanese submarine RO-40, 45 miles northwest of Kwajalein, Marshalls, 09°50'N, 166°35'E.
*Submarine USS Skate sinks Japanese light cruiser IJN Agano 170 miles north of Dublon Island, Truk, 10°10'N, 151°40'E.
*Submarine USS Tinosa continues pursuit of convoy engaged the previous day, and sinks Japanese army cargo ship Chojo Maru off Sarangani Island, 09°15'N, 127°05'E.
*USAAF B-25s (38th and 345th Bomb Groups) carry out succession of attacks on Japanese convoy off New Hanover and Kavieng, sinking submarine chaser Ch 39, auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 16, and transport Sanko Maru, 02°24'S, 150°06'E.
*Japanese transport Sanko Maru is sunk by aircraft off New Hanover Island, 02°24'S, 150°06'E.
1944 Destroyer USS Hilary P. Jones is damaged by near miss of a bomb off Anzio.
1945 Action in the Pacific:
*TF 58 planes bomb airfields, aircraft factories, and shipping in the Tokyo area, Japan; attack is repeated on 17 February.
*Fire support vessels and carrier-based aircraft begin three-day prelanding bombardment and bombing of Iwo Jima, Volcano Islands. Destroyers USS Ingraham and USS Barton are damaged in collision off Iwo, 31°45'N, 141°54'E.
*TF 92 bombards Japanese installations at Kurabu Zaki, Paramushiro, Kurils.
*Army forces, preceded by naval bombardment and attack by army aircraft, land on Corregidor, Luzon; 503d Parachute Infantry are air-dropped onto the main plateau while the 3d Battalion, 24th RCT is lifted to the island in navy medium landing craft (LCM). Support landing craft (large) [LCS(L)] and infantry landing craft (rocket) [LCI(R)] provide covering fire close-in. Motor torpedo boats also support the operation, at one point rescuing stranded army paratroopers. Submarine chaser PC-1119 is damaged by shore battery, off Luzon, 14°23'N, 120°35'E.
*Special gunfire support unit of six destroyers is formed to provide naval gunfire support for the conquest of Corregidor. Between 16 and 28 February, this unit will deliver pin-point fire that proves a considerable help to the final elimination of Japanese troops on the island.
*Support landing craft LCS(L)-7 is sunk by Japanese assault demolition boats off entrance to Mariveles harbor.
*Submarine USS Sennet sinks Japanese minelayer IJN Naryu southeast of Honshu, 32°10'N, 135°54'E, but is damaged by depth bombs from enemy aircraft.
*Coast Guard lighthouse tender USCG Bramble is damaged by grounding on Lockwood Rock, Wrangell Narrows, Aleutians.
*Japanese army cargo ship No.23 Ryoyu Maru is sunk by aircraft, 14°36'N, 109°06'E.
*PB4Y-1 (VPB-117) sinks Japanese army cargo ship I ida Maru in Cape St. Jacques harbor, French Indochina, 10°20'N, 107°06'E.; Japanese merchant cargo ships sunk on this date: No.3 Seikai Maru, by aircraft, Central Pacific (exact location unspecified); Kaian No.10, by aircraft, Yangtze River, Wuhu, China; and No.2 Nagaoka Maru, by aircraft, off Hachijo Jima. Japanese naval vessels damaged on this date: Coast Defense Vessel No.47, by aircraft, Yokohama, Japan; escort destroyer IJN Amakusa, by aircraft, east of Izu Oshima; auxiliary submarine chasers Cha 211, Cha 225, and Cha 236, by aircraft, Shimoda, Japan; and auxiliary minesweeper Hagoromo Maru, by aircraft, 10 miles south of Miyake Jima. USAAF B-24 damages small Japanese cargo vessel No.23 Yoshitomo Maru off Qui Nhon, French Indochina.
*USAAF P-51s sink Japanese auxiliary powered sailing vessel Minsui Maru in Yangtze between Wuhu and Hankow.
1945 Motor torpedo boat PT-303 and two British motor torpedo boats, operating out of Leghorn, Italy, engage two southbound enemy barges off Vernazza with doubtful results.
1945 Destroyer USS Edison is damaged when accidentally rammed by British merchant tanker Benedick in New York harbor.
1945 Venezuela declares war on Nazi Germany
1951 Stalin contended that the U.N. was becoming the weapon of aggressive war.
1953 Red Sox baseball legend survives: Marine Captain Ted Williams crash landed his F9F Pantherjet after his aircraft was shot up during a bombing raid on North Korea. Williams walked away from the wheels-up landing.
1959 Fidel Castro becomes premier of Cuba
1960 US nuclear submarine USS Triton set off on underwater round-world trip.
1967 Operation River Raider begins in Mekong Delta.
1979 Nematullah Nassiri, Iranian General, head of Savak, was executed.
1987 John Demjanjuk went on trial in Jerusalem, accused of being "Ivan the Terrible," a guard at the Treblinka concentration camp. He was convicted, but the Israeli Supreme Court overturned the ruling.
1988 First combat action by US military advisors in El Salvador
1992 Israeli helicopters attacked a convoy in Sidon, Lebanon, killing Sheik Abbas Musawi, leader of the pro-Iranian group Hezbollah.
2000 In Israel German Pres. Johannes Rau spoke before the parliament and gave an apology for WW II Nazi genocide. In Germany Wolfgang Schaeuble, leader of the Christian Democrats, resigned.
2000 Russia and NATO announced a resumption of contacts that were broken in Mar 1999 due to NATO bombing in Yugoslavia.
2003 The SF anti-war demonstration cost organizers some $85,000. An estimated 200,000 people participated. Some 1000 protesters clashed with police at the end of the rally and 46 people were arrested. A later aerial study numbered the crowd at 65,000.



__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

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1249 - Andrew of Longjumeau was dispatched by Louis IX of France as his ambassador to meet with the Khan of the Mongols.

1816 Battle of Puente. Columbian Patriots badly beaten by Spanish Royalists.

1838 - Weenen Massacre: Hundreds of Voortrekkers along the Blaukraans River, Natal were killed by Zulus.

1865 - Columbia, South Carolina, surrenders to Federal troops.

1866 - Spencer Compton Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington becomes the British Secretary of State for War.

1873 - Spanish King Amadeo II of Savoy abdicates as Spanish first Republic was proclaimed. The next year monarchy was reinstalled when Alfonso XII of Bourbon takes the throne with support from the Army.

1918 - Lithuania declares its independence from both Russia and Germany.

1933 - Czechoslovakia, Romania and Yugoslavia strenghten their 1920 mutual defense pact by forming Le Petitte Entente alliance.

1934 - Austrian Civil War ends with the defeat of the Social Democrats and the Republican Schutzbund.

1941 - Remaining Italian forces are expelled form the Sudan.

1945 - Bataan recaptured.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...ory=worldwarii

1968 - Tet Offensive results in many new refugees.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...1&cat=10272949

1991 - Gulf War: U.S. and U.K. war planes bomb the suburbs of Baghdad, injuring at least 11 civilians and killing three others.

1999 - In Uzbekistan a bomb explodes and gunfire is heard at the government headquarters in an apparent assassination attempt against President Islam Karimov.

1999 - Across Europe, Kurdish rebels take over embassies and hold hostages after Turkey arrested one of their rebel leaders, Abdullah Öcalan.
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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Old 17 Feb 06, 02:13
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February 17
Born...
364
Flavius Jovianus (~32), Christian Emperor of Rome (363-64)
1490 Charles de Bourbon, French soldier
1519 Francois de Guise, French General
1804 Samuel Read Anderson, Brig General, C.S.A., d. 1883
1824 William Farrar "Baldy" Smith, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1903
1837 Francis Jay Herron, Maj General, U.S., d. 1902
1854 Friedrich A Krupp, German arms manufacturer
1880 Alvaro Obregon, General and President of Mexico
1929 Yasser Arafat, PLO/PA leader

Died...
1478
George Duke of Clarence, allegedly drowned in a barrel of Malmsey
1905 Serge Alexandrovitsj, governor general of Moscow, murdered
1909 Geronimo, Apache Chief, of pneumonia at age 80, while still in captivity at Fort Sill, Okla.
1934 Albert I of Saxe-Coburg, King of Belgium (1909-34), while mountaineering
1968 Richard W. Pershing, grandson of John J. Pershing, KIA, Vietnam, 101st A/B
2003 Isser Harel, founder of the Mossad, who captured Eichman, at 91.

Events...
1461
2nd Battle of St Albans: Lancastrians defeat the Yorkists. Queen Margaret defeats the Earl of Warwick and freed Henry VI.
1621 Miles Standish appointed first militia commander of Plymouth colony.
1720 Treaty of the Hague with the Quadruple Alliance: Spain signed this document ending a war that was begun in 1718.
1772 1st partition of Poland: By Russia & Prussia, joined later by Austria
1814 Action in the Atlantic: USS Constitution captures the British schooner Phoenix by the hands of her Marines.
1833 Search begins for English Explorer: Lt. George Back (1796-1878) departed Liverpool, England, on the packet ship Hibernia with 4 men to search for missing Arctic explorer Captain John Ross. Ross had left England in 1829 to seek a Northwest Passage by way of the Arctic Ocean.
1854 British recognize independence of Orange Free State.
1864 1st confirmed submarine victory: CSS H.L. Hunley sinks USS Housatonic, and herself. 5 Union soldiers died on the USS Housatonic as did the 9-man crew of the CSS H.L. Hunley when it sank. On Aug 8, 2000, the CSS H.L. Hunley was raised and returned to Charleston.
1865 Union forces recapture Fort Sumter.
1865 Sherman captures Charleston: The South Carolina capital city was half destroyed by fire as the Confederates evacuated and Union forces under Major General William Tecumseh Sherman marched through. It's not known which side truly set the blaze.
1879 Assassination attempt on Tsar Alexander in St Petersburg fails
1913 The "Armory Art Show" opens at NY's 69th Armory
1915 Edward Stone, 1st US combatant to die in WW I, is mortally wounded
1917 Flt. Lt. Hugh Aird of Toronto takes part in a bombing mission against the Buk bridge in Macedonia. Aird drops three 100-pound bombs on the bridge, preventing its further use by the Turks.
1919 Germany signs an armistice: It effectively gives up territory in Poland.
1940 U.S. freighter Exhibitor is detained by British authorities at Gibraltar.
1942 Pacific
*Seabees get to work: The First Naval Construction Battalion arrives at Bora Bora, Society Islands.
*Submarine USS Triton torpedoes and sinks Japanese gunboat No. 5 Shin'yo Maru off Nagasaki, Japan, 32°14'N, 127°14'E.
*Japanese destroyer IJN Ayanami is damaged when she fouls an uncharted reef 2.4 nautical miles off Durai, Anambas Islands.
*Dutch destroyer Van Ness is sunk by Japanese aircraft in Banka Strait
1942 Atlantic
*Coastal minesweeper USS Detector is accidentally sunk in collision with U.S. tanker Oswego 300 yards east-northeast of Finn's Ledge Buoy, at the entrance to the north channel at Boston, Massachusetts. There are no casualties.
*Coastal minesweeper USS Paramount accidentally runs aground off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, and is abandoned without loss. Cutter USCG Dione provides assistance. USS Paramount is salvaged and returned to service.
*Destroyer USS Jacob Jones rescues 16 men from Brazilian steamship Buarque, that had been sunk by German submarine U-432 on 15 February; U.S. steamship Eagle rescues 16 more, thus accounting for all survivors.
*Cutter USCG Woodbury rescues all hands (40 men) from mined tanker E.H. Blum. Both halves of the ship are later salvaged and rejoined, and E.H. Blum returns to active service.
1943 55th Indian Bde unable to capture Japanese strongpoint in the Arakan
1943 Pacific
*Submarine USS Sawfish accidentally sinks Soviet cargo ship Ilmen off east coast of Kyushu, 30°56'N, 135°30'E.
*HMNZS Moa lands a reconnaissance team on Banika, Russell Islands
1943 Atlantic/Mediterranean
*Moroccan Sea Frontier is established.
1943 Indian Ocean
*U.S. freighter Deer Lodge, torpedoed by German submarine U-607 about 60 miles east of Port Elizabeth, South Africa, the previous day, sinks at 33°46'S, 26°57'E. Two merchant seamen are lost with the ship, but the survivors (37 civilians and an 18-man Armed Guard) are rescued by South African minesweeper Africana (13 men) and British trawler Havorn (32 men)
1944 Pacific
*TF 58 , which includes nine carriers and six battleships, strikes Japanese installations and shipping at Truk, in Operation HAILSTONE inflicting massive damage, sinking 200,000 tons of shipping.; enemy air attacks in response succeed in only damaging carrier USS Intrepid with an aerial torpedo, 07°23'N, 153°32'E. SB2Cs and TBFs from carrier USS Bunker Hill and TBFs from small carrier USS Cowpens sink Japanese light cruiser IJN Naka 35 miles west of Truk, 07°15'N, 151°15'E, while battleships USS New Jersey and USS Iowa, heavy cruisers USS Minneapolis and USS New Orleans and destroyers USS Radford and USS Burns sink training cruiser IJN Katori northwest of Truk, 07°45'N, 151°20'E, after she had been damaged by planes from carriers USS Yorktown, USS Intrepid and USS Bunker Hill and small carrier USS Cowpens. TG 50.3 gunfire sinks destroyer IJN Maikaze 40 miles northwest of Truk, 07°45'N, 151°20'E. Destroyer USS Burns, detached from TG 50.9, sinks Japanese submarine chaser Ch 24 west of Truk, 07°24'N, 150°30'E.
*TF 58 planes sink Japanese destroyer IJN Oite (carrying survivors of light cruiser IJN Agano sunk the day before), 07°40'N, 151°45'E; destroyer IJN Tachikaze, 07°40'N, 151°55'E; armed merchant cruiser Akagi Maru, 07°54'N, 151°25'E; auxiliary submarine depot ship Heian Maru; aircraft transport Fujikawa Maru; transports Rio de Janeiro Maru, Kiyozumi Maru, Aikoku Maru, Gosei Maru, Hanakawa Maru, Hokuyo Maru, Amagisan Maru, and Kensho Maru; Matsutani Maru, 07°23'N, 151°05'E; Momokawa Maru, 07°20'N, 151°53'E; Reiyo Maru, 07°25'N, 151°45'E; San Francisco Maru, 07°22'N, 151°54'E; Seiko Maru, 07°22'N, 151°45'E; Taiho Maru, 07°22'N, 151°34'E; Zukai Maru,07°46'N, 150°27'E; No.6 Unkai Maru; Yamagiri Maru, 07°23'N, 151°51'E; fleet tankers Fujisan Maru, Hoyo Maru (damaged on 4 November 1943 by submarine USS Scorpion), Shinkoku Maru, and No.3 Tonan Maru; water carrier Nippo Maru, 07°20'N, 151°40'E; auxiliary vessel Yamakisan Maru, 07°25'N, 151°45'E; army cargo ships Nagano Maru and Yubai Maru; merchant cargo ship Taikichi Maru; and motor torpedo boat Gyoraitei No.10, 07°31'N, 151°59'E.
*TF 58 aircraft damage Japanese destroyers IJN Shigure and IJN Matsukaze, submarines I 10 and RO 37, target ship Hakachi, repair ship IJN Akashi, ammunition ship IJN Soya, seaplane tender IJN Akitsushima, and auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 20.
*Elements of TF 58 initiate landing on Eniwetok and Engebi
*Destroyer USS Nicholas sinks Japanese submarine I-11 northwest of the Marshalls, 10°34'N, 173°31'E.
*Submarine USS Cero sinks Japanese transport Jozan Maru between Truk and New Ireland, 00°53'N, 146°26'E.
*Submarine USS Sargo, in attack on Japanese convoy about 150 miles northeast of Palau, sinks ammunition ship Nichiro Maru and damages oiler Sata, 08°50'N, 135°40'E.
*Submarine USS Tang attacks Japanese convoy, sinking army cargo ship Gyoten Maru and merchant tanker Kuniei Maru about 130 miles west-northwest of Truk, 08°00'N, 149°17'E, and survives depth-charging by escorts (escort vessel IJN Amakusa, submarine chaser Ch 31, auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 24 and auxiliary minesweeper Hagoromo Maru are screening the merchantmen).
*Navy SBDs and TBFs bomb Japanese shipping in Keravia Bay, near Rabaul, sinking minesweeper W.26 (which had been damaged previously, 2 November 1943, and had been beached at that time to prevent her loss), guardboat No.2 Fuku Maru, and army cargo ship Iwate Maru.
*USAAF B-25s attack Japanese ships going to the aid of convoy attacked north of New Hanover the day before damaging Kashi Maru and forcing her to be run aground to prevent sinking.
USAAF P-40s attack Japanese shipping at Jaluit atoll, damaging cargo ship Chosen Maru.
*Japanese merchant tanker Zuih_ Maru is damaged by mine downstream from Woosung, China.
1945 Pacific
*Fire support ships, minesweeping units, and underwater demolition teams (UDT) arrive off Iwo Jima and encounter fire from shore batteries. UDT reconnaissance discloses that no underwater obstacles exist, and that the surf and beach conditions are suitable for landings. Infantry landing craft (gunboat) LCI(G)-474 is sunk by shore battery, while supporting UDT operations. Japanese guns also account for damage to battleship USS Tennessee, 24°44'N, 141°19'E; heavy cruiser USS Pensacola and destroyer USS Leutze, 24°46'N, 141°19'E; as well as to infantry landing craft (gunboats) LCI(G)-346, LCI(G)-348, LCI(G)-438, LCI(G)-441, LCI(G)-449, LCI(G)-450, LCI(G)-457, LCI(G)-466, LCI(G)-469, LCI(G)-471, and LCI(G)-473. On board the damaged LCI(G)-449, her commanding officer, Lieutenant Rufus G. Herring, although badly wounded, cons his crippled ship himself, maintaining her position in support of the unfolding UDT operations until she is able to move to safety. For his heroism, Herring is awarded the Medal of Honor.
* General MacArthur’s troops landed on Corregidor.
*Light cruisers USS Phoenix and USS Boise, along with three destroyers, provide call-fire support for continuing operations on Corregidor. Light cruiser USS Cleveland and destroyers USS O'Bannon and USS Taylor bombard the Ternate area, south shore of Manila Bay. Fleet tug Hidatsa is damaged by mine in Mariveles harbor, Luzon, 14°25'N, 120°30'E.
*Destroyer USS Haynesworth sinks Japanese guardboat No.36 Nanshin Maru southwest of Mikimoto light and auxiliary submarine chaser Wafu Maru off Omaezaki Light.
*Submarine USS Bowfin sinks Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No.56 five miles east of Mikura Jima, central Honshu, 33°53'N, 139°43'E. USS Bowfin and aircraft sink guardboat No.26 Nanshin Maru southwest of Mikimoto light, 30°05'N, 135°15'E.
*British submarine HMS Statesman attacks Japanese convoy off Ujong Tamiang, 04°26'N, 98°16E, sinking motor sailships No.3 Matsujima Maru and 19 Nippon Maru and 17 Nanyo Maru and No. 14 Nippon Maru.
*Minesweeper USS Champion damaged by horizontal bomber, 26°00'N, 128°00'E.
*Coast Guard cutter USCG Atalanta, en route to assist lighthouse tender USCG Bramble (damaged by grounding the previous day) collides with and damages mail boat Neptune near Steamer Point Light, Aleutians. District patrol craft YP-251 escorts the damaged Neptune to Naval Section Base, Ketchikan, while USCG Atalanta, undamaged, continues on her mission.
*District patrol craft YP-94, returning from landing supplies on Chirikof Island runs aground at the southern end of Tugidak and Sitkinak Islands; rescue tug ATR-68 is dispatched from Kodiak, Alaska, to render assistance, while air-sea rescue coordination succeeds in rescuing all hands.
*USAAF B-24s (5th Air Force), on an antishipping sweep over the South China Sea, sink Japanese landing ship T.114 off southern coast of Formosa, 23°04'N, 120°30'E.
*Japanese army cargo vessel Yamashio Maru is sunk by aircraft, Yokohama harbor.
*Japanese merchant tanker No.28 Nanshin Maru is sunk by aircraft, 30°00'N, 138°30'E.
*Japanese merchant cargo ship Daibi Maru is sunk, by aircraft, off Chichi Jima.
*Japanese submarine chaser Ch 47 is damaged by aircraft, 32°45'N, 111°56'E.
*During diving operations in West Loch, Pearl Harbor, on the wreckage of tank landing ships sunk in the ammunition explosions in that area in 1944, Boatswain's Mate Second Class Owen F. P. Hammerberg risks his own life to save two fellow divers trapped while tunnelling under a wrecked LST. Although Hammerberg's efforts are successful, he suffers mortal injuries in a cave-in, to which he succumbs 18 hours later. For his heroism, Hammerberg is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.
1945 Europe
*Motor torpedo boat PT-605 is sunk by striking submerged object off Ostend, Belgium.
1945 Atlantic:
*U.S. freighter Michael J. Stone, in convoy UGS 72, is torpedoed by German submarine U-300 27 miles from Gibraltar, 35°55'N, 05°53'W. There are no casualties on board and the damaged freighter reaches her destination under her own power.
1947 Voice of America begins broadcasting to USSR
1955 Britain announced its ability to make hydrogen bombs.
1959 The U.S. launched its first weather station in space, Vanguard II weighing 9.8 kg.
1979 China invades Vietnam The "pedagogical" border war lasted until after the offensive battle of Liang Shan in March.
1988: Marine Lt Colonel William Higgins abducted: He was assigned to the U.N. Truce Supervision Organization & was abducted by pro-Iranian terrorists. He was later slain by his captors.
1994 Bosnian Serbs began large-scale withdrawal: removing its heavy guns from the hills around Sarajevo under pressure from Russia.
1998 Iranian crowd cheered the US: As wrestlers carried the Stars and Stripes into an international meet in Tehran, the youthful crowd broke out into voracious applause, frowned upon by the official Iranian press & government.
1999 Consulate skirmish in Germany: In Berlin Israeli security guards shot and killed 3 Kurds who forced their way into the Israeli consulate. The protesters were enraged by reports that Israel aided in the arrest of Kurdish rebel leader Abdullah Ocalan.

__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

ACG History Today

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Old 17 Feb 06, 02:48
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1545 - Battle of Ancrum Moor, wholesale desertion of English army to the Scots.

1782 - Battle of Madras. Drawn French and spanish naval engagement.

1782 - French and British battle in the Indian Ocean.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...2&cat=16369276

1797 - British capture Trinidad from the French.

1843 - Battle of Meeanee. Charge of the 9th Bengal Cavalry turns the tide in a close battle between the British and 30,000 Baluchis. 61-year-old Sir Charles Napier personally led the British with musket in hand.

1915 - Zeppelin L-4 crashes into North Sea.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...2&cat=16369391

1966 - Taylor testifies on Operation Rolling Thunder.

1968 - U.S. casualty rate reaches record high.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...ory=vietnamwar
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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Old 18 Feb 06, 00:40
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February 18

Born...
1516
Mary Tudor, later Queen Mary I of England (1553-1558) and popularly known as
"Bloody Mary," in Greenwich Palace.
1805 Louis Malesherbes Goldsborough, Rear Admiral, U.S.
1817 Lewis A. Armistead, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA, Gettysburg, July 3, 1863
1817 Walter Page Lane, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892
1829 Jean Jacques Alfred Mouton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1864
1833 James Deshler, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA, 1863
1895 Semjon Timoshenko, Marshal of the Soviet Union
1925 George Kennedy, army officer, actor

Died...
1397
Enguerrand VII, Seigneur de Coucy, at 56, in Turkish captivity
1478 George, the Duke of Clarence, who had opposed his brother Edward IV, was
murdered in the Tower of London. George underwent forced drowning in a wine
barrel ("A butt of Malmsey").
1564 Michaelangelo, sometime military engineer
1817 Lewis Addison Armistead, Brig General (Confederate Army
1932 Frederik Augustus III, deposed King of Saxony (1904-18), at 66
1967 Robert Oppenheimer (62), theoretical physicist and leader of atomic bomb
development. His work included outlining processes by which old stars of sufficient
mass might collapse beyond the Schwarzschild radius and become black holes. Physicist
John Wheeler named the phenomena black holes.

Events...
1229
Holy Roman Emperor Frederik II enters Jerusalem
1248 Parma breaks a siege by Emperor Frederick II
1563 Huguenot Jean Poltrot de Merde shot French General. Francois De Guise.
1574 Spanish-held Zeeland falls to Dutch rebels
1713 French under Jacques Cassard land on Curacao
1745 Bonnie Prince Charlie's troops occupied Inverness, Scotland.
1813 Czar Alexander entered Warsaw at the head of his Army.
1846 General Order 18 - Port & Starboard: "It having been represented to the (US
Navy)Department, that confusion arises from the use of the words "Larboard" and
"Starboard," in consequence of the similiarity of sound, the word "Port" is hereafter to
be substituted for "Larboard.""
1857 Insurrection of Chinese in Sarawak, Borneo
1861 Jefferson F. Davis was inaugurated as the Confederacy’s provisional president at a
ceremony held in Montgomery, Ala., where the Confederate constitutional convention
was held.
1861 King Victor Emanuel II of Sardinia becomes King of Italy
1865 Union troops force Confederates to abandon Ft Anderson, NC
1865 Union troops occupy Ft Moultrie, Charleston
1878 The Lincoln County War begins: Hired killers of James J. Dolan gunned down
John Tunstall in Lincoln, N.M. With the murder of Billy the Kid's mentor, Englishman
rancher John Tunstall, his partner, Alexander McSween, formed a posse known as the
Regulators to get even. Billy the Kid was part of that posse.
1884 General Charles Gordon arrived in Khartoum to battle the Mahdi and his
terrorists.
1899 San Francisco named as Port of Embarkation for Army transports.
1900 The Battle of Paardeburg begins: Canadians lose 21 killed after a failed charge
against concealed Boer positions. The battle continues for five more days, with
Canadians engaged in more cautious skirmishing and consolidation operations before
the Boers eventually abandon their bombed defenses. It should also be noted that the
British lost 1270 to death & injury.
1915 Germany proclaims a blockade of England
1921 British troops occupy Dublin.
1932 Japan declares Manchuria independent under Pu-Yi, "The Last Emperor". In
1928 the Japanese army had unilaterally instigated armed clashes in China's Manchuria
region to justify full-scale intervention. In 1931 the Japanese army invaded Manchuria
without its own government's consent.
1942 Atlantic:
*Destroyer USS Truxtun and stores issuing ship USS Pollux run aground during storm
near Placentia Bay, Newfoundland; the former just east of Ferryland Point and the
latter off Lawn Point. Minesweeper USS Brant arrives on scene and contributes rescue
parties as well as brings medical officer and corpsmen from destroyer tender and
Support Force flagship USS Prairie. The tragedy produces deep admiration for the
lifesaving efforts of the local population. "Hardly a dozen men from both ships would
have been saved," one observer writes later, "had it not been for the superb work of the
local residents." Many men jeopardize their own lives frequently to save the American
sailors; several hang by lines over the cliffs to keep survivors from dragging over sharp
rocks as they are pulled up from the beach below; others go out in a dory, risking
swamping several times in the rough waves; after working all day rescuing USS
Truxtun's people, some of the local inhabitants then toil all night rescuing USS
Pollux's men with a stamina that defies description. Though poor, the men, women,
and children of the town of St. Lawrence turn out to outfit the "survivors with
blankets, warm clothes, boots, fed them, cleaned them up as best they could and turned
them in their own beds." Subsequently, they turn a deaf ear to offers to pay for food
and clothing used in succoring the shipwrecked Americans. Destroyer USS Wilkes also
runs aground off Lawn Head, 46°53'N, 55°28'W, but manages to free herself from her
predicament and escape the fates of USS Truxtun and USS Pollux.
*Brazilian tanker Olinda is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-432 at
37°30'N, 75°00'W.
1942 U.S. freighter Mokihana is torpedoed by German submarine U-161 while lying at
anchor at Port of Spain, Trinidad, 12°55'N, 80°33'E; there are no casualties among the
36-man merchant crew or 9-man Armed Guard.
1942 Pacific Dutch ship Soerabaya & a sub destroyed by air attack at Soerabaya, Java.
1943 Pacific:
*TG 8.6, consisting of light cruiser USS Richmond, heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis,
and four destroyers, bombards Japanese installations at Holtz Bay and Chichagof
Harbor, Attu, Aleutians.
*Heavy cruiser HMAS Australia and three U.S. destroyers of TF 44.3 operate south of
Australia to cover passage of five-ship convoy transporting the 30,000 troops of the
9th Australian Division to Sydney.
*Submarine USS Grampus damages Japanese transport Keiyo Maru, 05°04'S,
152°18'E.
*German auxiliary cruiser Michel (Schiffe 28) arrives at Singapore; the next day she
turns over to the Japanese the merchant and Armed Guard sailors she had captured
when she sank U.S. freighter Sawokla on 29 November 1942.
*HMNS Moa lands a reconnaissance team on Pavuvu, Russell Islands Allied
intelligence concludes Japanese had evacuated the Russell islands.
*Attu: U.S. ships shell Japanese positions for the first time.
1943 "White Rose" resistance group is broken by the Gestapo in Munich.
1944 Pacific:
*After preliminary landings had been made the previous day, TG 51.11 lands Marines
and Army troops on Engebi Island, Eniwetok Atoll, in Operation CATCHPOLE.
*TF 58 repeats strike on Japanese installations and vessels at Truk; TF 58 planes sink
destroyer IJN Fumizuki, 07°24'N, 151°44'E; submarine chaser Ch 29, 07°25'N,
151°45'E; and motor torpedo boat Gyoraitei No.10, 07°31'N, 151°59'E.
*Bismarcks: Allied destroyers shell Japanese bases at Rabaul and Kavieng.
*Destroyer Squadron 23 (TG 39.4) bombards Japanese positions at Kavieng; destroyer
Squadron 12 shells Rabaul, Japanese installations on the Crater Peninsula, and bivuoac
and supply areas at Vunapope and Cape Gazelle.
*British submarine HMS Trespasser sinks Japanese gunboat Eifuku Maru off Burma,
07°55'N, 93°03'E.
*USAAf B-25s (14th Air Force) sink Japanese transport Shinsoku Maru south of
Takhow Island, Wenchow, China, 28°23'N, 121°51'E.
*U.S. aircraft sink Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 17 off Kavieng, 02°30'S,
150°30'E.
*Japanese cargo ship Gokenzan Maru is stranded and sunk off northwestern Hokkaido,
44°01'N, 141°38'E.
1944 Mediterranean
*Heavy German air attacks, as well as artillery fire, continue on beachhead at Anzio on
an almost daily basis; harbor tug YT-198 is sunk by mine off Anzio, 41°27'N, 12°38'E.
*Tank landing craft LCT-205 capsizes in Gulf of Tunis, while being towed; tank
landing craft LCT-340 is stranded by heavy weather at Pantelleria, Italy. Heavy
weather also damages large infantry landing craft LCI(L)-211, resulting in her being
towed to Palermo, Italy; and minesweeper USS Pilot is accidentally rammed by U.S.
merchant ship Samuel Ashe and damaged off Naples, Italy, 40°48.7'N, 14°16.5'E.
1945 British troops land behind Japanese lines in the Arakan, Burma
1945 Atlantic:
District patrol craft YP-94 sinks after running aground off Trinity Islands, 56°32'N,
154°22'W.
1945 Pacific:
*U.S. Marines begin to storm ashore at Iwo Jima: About 60,000 US Marines went
ashore at Iwo Jima, an 8-sq. mile island of rock, volcanic ash and black sand. The
36-day battle took the lives of 7,000 Americans and about 20,000 of 22,000 Japanese
defenders.
*Battleship USS Washington and destroyer USS Hailey are damaged in collision off
Iwo Jima.
*Destroyer USS Waldron is damaged when she intentionally rams Japanese guardboat
at 29°27'N, 141°34'E. USS Dortch sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Ayukawa
Maru northwest of Iwo Jima, 27°35'N, 121°16'E, but is damaged by gunfire in the
encounter.
*Light minelayer USS Gamble is damaged by kamikaze, 24°55'N, 141°08'E.
*High speed transport USS Blessman is damaged by horizontal bomber, 25°05'N,
141°10'E.
*TF 58 planes sink Japanese gunboat No.2 Hiyoshi Maru at Futami, Chichi Jima,
27°05'N, 142°11'E.
*Destroyers USS Barton, USS Ingraham and USS Moale sink Japanese guardboats
No.35 Nanshin Maru west of Torishima, 30°00'N, 137°30'E; No.3 Kyowa Maru south
of Honshu, 31°00'N, 137°30'E; and No.5 Fukuichi Maru off Torishima, 30°00'N,
141°00'E.
1945 Canadians attack German defenders in Moyland Wood. Using self-propelled
flame-throwers ("Wasps"), they gain a foothold in the forest, but advance no further.
1955 1st of 14 detonations in the Operation Teapot nuclear test series.
1956 The US lifted its arms ban and shipped tanks to Saudi Arabia.
1997 Astronauts on the space shuttle Discovery complete their tune-up of the Hubble
Space Telescope after 33 hours of spacewalking; the Hubble was then released using the
shuttle's Canada Arm..
1999 Israeli troops seized the village of Arnoun Lebanon: The effort was to prevent
guerrilla attacks from the Crusader Castle of Beaufort.

__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

ACG History Today

BoRG
  #779  
Old 18 Feb 06, 07:14
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
1776 - Lord Dunmore dispatches note of “inexpressible mortification”.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...3&cat=16369276

1913 - Raymond Poincare becomes president of France.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...3&cat=16369391

1964 - United States punishes nations for trading with Cuba.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...tegory=coldwar

1965 - United States warns of forthcoming bombing operations.

http://www.historychannel.com/tdih/t...3&cat=10272949
__________________
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Old 19 Feb 06, 02:40
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February 19

Born...
1630Shivaji, founder of the Maratha Dynasty.
1683 King Philip V of Spain (1700-1724 and again 1724-1746)
1817 King William III of the Netherlands (1849-90), last Dutch King
1880 Alvaro Obregón, Mexican revolutionary and President (1920-1924)
1960 Prince Andrew, the Duke of York, naval officer, Falklands veteran

Died...
197
D Clodius Septimus Albinus, Roman dignitary in England, KIA.
1867 Samuel Downey, last Revolutionary War veteran (b. Nov 31, 1761)
1945 Wim Speelman, Dutch resistance fighter, executed at 26
1997 Deng Xiaoping, Communist Chinese leader

Events...
1408
Battle of Bramham Moor: Henry IV led a victory that marked the end of domestic threats. The revolt of Henry Percy, Earl of Northumberland, against King Henry IV, ended with his defeat and death at Bramham Moor.
1634 Battle at Smolensk: Polish King Wladyslaw IV defeated the Russians.
1674 Peace of Westminster: Netherlands and England signed the treaty on this day. New Amsterdam effectively becomes New York and English as well.
1690 A French-Indian force of some 200 men attack the English settlement at Schenectady, New York. The assault begins at 11p.m., taking the garrison and inhabitants by surprise. After burning the settlement and massacring most of the settlers, the raiders return to their base at Montreal.
1797 French Republic annexes papal lands in France with Papal agreement.
1807 British squadron under Adm Duckworth forces passage of Dardanelle
1814 USS Constitution captures HMS Catherine.
1861 Tsar Alexander II abolishes serfdom.
1903 Two year mandatory military service decreed by the government of Austria-Hungary.
1915 British and French warships begin attacks on Turkish forts at the mouth of the Dardenelles, in an abortive expedition to force the straits of Gallipoli. Winston Churchill was the architect of the disastrous campaign.
1917 American troops recalled from the Mexican border.
1936 Popular Front government installed in Spain
1941 Nazi police attacked: They were then driven from Koco, Amsterdam by young Jews. Nazis raided Amsterdam and rounded up 429 young Jews for deportation.
1941 Rear Admiral William P. Blandy relieves Rear Admiral William R. Furlong as Chief of the Bureau of Ordnance.
1941 Coast Guard Reserve is established.
1942 Executive Order 9066: President Roosevelt signed the order that gave the military the authority to relocate and intern Japanese-Americans. The order resulted in the incarceration of more than 110,000 Japanese-Americans living in California, Oregon, Washington and Arizona. By the end of March, 1942, the Japanese-Americans were moved to 10 relocation camps throughout the U.S. interior. The mass expulsion of Japanese-Americans from the West Coast ended on January, 2, 1945.
1942 Pacific:
* Japanese troops landed on Timor. Australian commandos battled the Japanese with support from local people. Japanese reprisals killed 60,000 civilians, 13% of the population.
*Battle of Badoeng Strait begins as ABDA squadron of three cruisers and accompanying destroyers attacks retiring Japanese Bali occupation force in Badoeng Strait. Destroyer USS Stewart is damaged by gunfire of destroyers IJN Oshio and IJN Asashio, 07°18'S, 112°46'E. Dutch destroyer Piet Hien is sunk; 30 of her survivors board a motor whaleboat jettisoned by destroyer USS John D. Ford and proceed unaided to Java. Dutch light cruisers Java and Tromp are damaged by Japanese gunfire. Japanese destroyers IJN Ushio and IJN Michisio are damaged by Allied gunfire.
*Japanese carrier striking force attacks Darwin, Australia; 189 planes from carriers IJN Akagi, IJN Kaga, IJN Hiryu and IJN Soryu bomb shipping, airfields, and shore installations; carrier bombers sink destroyer USS Peary , 12°30'S, 130°50'E, U.S. Army Transport Miegs and U.S. freighter Mauna Loa (on board the latter all hands--37-man crew and seven passengers--survive); and damage seaplane tender (destroyer) USS William B. Preston. U.S. freighter Portmar is damaged and beached (one of her 34-man crew is killed; two of the 300 embarked soldiers perish as well; 12 men are injured); freighter Admiral Halstead (carrying drummed gasoline) is damaged as well (she suffers no casualties). In related actions, U.S. freighter Florence D, under charter to the Army and carrying a cargo of ammunition, rescues eight-man PBY (VP 22) crew (Lieutenant Thomas H. Moorer) off north coast of Australia, near Darwin, and later comes under attack by Japanese carrier aircraft that bomb and sink the ship (one man of Moorer's crew and three of the 37-man ship's complement are killed in action); Australian minesweeper HMAS Warrnambol and mission boat St. Francis rescue the survivors. Japanese carrier planes also bomb and sink Philippine motorship Don Isidro (chartered by the U.S. Army to run supplies to Corregidor) off northwest coast of Bathurst Island, 11°00'S, 130°00'E; 11 of the 67-man crew and one of the 16 embarked soldiers are killed. HMAS Warrnambol rescues the surviving crew and passengers. Japanese naval land attack planes (Kanoya and 1st Kokutais) bomb airfield at Darwin. General George C. Kenney, who pioneered aerial warfare strategy and tactics in the Pacific theater, ordered 3,000 parafrag bombs to be sent to Australia, where he thought they might come in handy against the Japanese. Darwin itself was virtually destroyed by 64 bombing raids over 21 months.
*Submarine S-37 is damaged by grounding off the northeast corner of Lembogan Island, Lombok Strait, N.E.I., but continues on patrol.
*Aviation Chief Machinist's Mate Harold F. Dixon (Naval Aviation Pilot) and his two-man crew (VT 6), whose plane ditched due to fuel exhaustion on 16 January, reach Danger Islands, 10°48'S, 165°49'E, having spent 34 days at sea in their rubber boat. They have subsisted on occasional fish speared with a pocket knife, two birds, and rain water. While the straight line distance traveled measures 450 miles, the estimated track is approximately 1,200 miles. Dixon is awarded the Navy Cross for heroism, leadership, and resourcefulness.
1942 Atlantic:
*Destroyer USS Dallas rescues 46 survivors from Brazilian tanker Olinda, sunk the day before by German submarine U-432.
*Unarmed U.S. tanker Pan Massachusetts is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-128 about 20 miles off Cape Canaveral, Florida, 28°27'N, 80°08'W; Coast Guard lighthouse tender USCG Forward and British tanker Elizabeth Massey rescue 18 survivors from the 38-man crew.
*U.S. freighter Lake Osweya is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-96 in the North Atlantic, 43°14'N, 54°45'W. Although U-96 sees three lifeboats pull away from the ship, no survivors from the 30-man merchant complement or the seven-man Armed Guard are ever found.
1943 Pacific:
*Naval forces under MacArthur are designated the Seventh Fleet.
*Heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis and destroyers USS Coghlan and USS Gillespie (TU 8.6.2), intercept Japanese army cargo ship Aragane Maru bound for the Aleutians and engage her northwest of Attu, Aleutians.
*Submarine USS Gato torpedoes Japanese ammunition ship Hibari Maru off eastern Bougainville, 06°27'S, 156°05'E. Hibari Maru is beached off Buin.
*Submarine USS Grampus torpedoes Japanese transport/aircraft ferry Keiyo Maru, 04°55'S, 152°26'E.
*Submarine USS Runner is damaged by aerial bomb off the Palaus, 07°35'N, 134°25'E, and is forced to terminate her patrol.
*USAAF B-17s bomb Japanese shipping off Buin, Bougainville, damaging transport Tokai Maru, 06°45'S, 155°50'E.
1943 German tanks under brig. general Buelowius attacked Kasserine Pass, Tunisia.
1943 Atlantic:
*Submarine USS Blackfish torpedoes and sinks German patrol craft VP 408 (ex-trawler Haltenbank), 43°30'N, 002°54'W, but is damaged by depth charges from what she reports as two converted trawlers, and is forced to terminate her patrol.
1944 The U.S. Eighth Air Force and Royal Air Force began "Big Week," a series of heavy bomber attacks against German aircraft production facilities.
1944 Pacific:
*Marines and Army troops supported by naval bombardment land on Eniwetok Island. The operation is under the command of Rear Admiral Harry W. Hill.
*USAAF, USN and USMC land-based aircraft bomb airfield and other Japanese installations at Rabaul. The area has been repeatedly pounded, and after this date theJapanese abandon air defense of Rabaul.
*Submarine USS Cero attacks Japanese cargo ship No.18 Shinsei Maru while en route to Palau, 03°34'N, 136°36'E, but does not score any damage on her quarry.
*Submarine USS Grayback sinks Japanese army cargo ship Taikei Maru southwest of Takao, Formosa, 21°48'N, 119°50'E; subsequently, USS Grayback sinks army cargo ship Toshin Maru, 21°46'N, 120°06'E, which had arrived on the scene and rescued Taikei Maru's survivors.
*Submarine USS Jack attacks Japanese convoy of six tankers shepherded by escort vessel IJN Shimushu in South China Sea about 300 miles west of Luzon, sinking merchant tankers Kokuei Maru and Nanei Maru, 14°34'N, 114°11'E; Nichirin Maru, 15°40'N, 115°48'E; and Ichiyo Maru 15°46'N, 115°57'E.
*USAAF B-25s sink auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 34 west of Kavieng, 02°45'S, 150°47'E; B- 25s, A-20s, and P-38s wipe out Japanese convoy O-902 off Kavieng, sinking submarine chasers Ch 22 and Ch 40, 03°04'S, 150°42'E, and cargo vessels No.1 Shinto Maru and Shinkiku Maru, 02°46'N, 150°42'E.
*USAAF B-24s and B-25s sink Japanese cargo vessel Ebon Maru at Kusaie.
*USAAF B-24s sink Japanese cargo ship Tairyu Maru and damage auxiliary submarine chaser Chikuzen Maru in Formosa Strait, 25°25'N, 121°30'E.
*Japanese cargo ship Kogen Maru is sunk in collision in Kii Channel, 35°00'N, 135°00'E.
*Fighting continues on Engebi and Eniwetok atoll, the Marshall Islands.
1944 Mediterranean:
*Motor torpedo boats engage German convoy southeast of Elba.
*Light cruiser USS Philadelphia arrives off Anzio to provide gunfire support; she is thrice under shore battery fire but suffers no damage in the encounters.
*Destroyer USS Madison conducts unsuccessful hunt for enemy submarine believed off Anzio.
1945 Ivan Kozhedub of the Ukraine became the only Soviet pilot to shoot down a Messerschmitt Me-262 jet fighter and, on April 19, 1945, he downed two Focke-Wulf Fw-190s to bring his final tally to 62--the top Allied ace of the war. He was the Allies` top ace and one of only two Soviet fighter pilots to be awarded the Gold Star of a Hero of the Soviet Union three times during World War II. Ironically prevented from fighting because his skill as a pilot made him more useful as an instructor, Kozhedub did not fly his first combat mission until March 26, 1943.
1945 Pacific:
*Preceded by intense naval and air bombardment, 4th and 5th Marine Divisions land on Iwo Jima in Operation DETACHMENT. The operation is under the overall command of Admiral Raymond A. Spruance, Commander Fifth Fleet; Vice Admiral Richmond K. Turner is the Joint Expeditionary Force Commander. Naval gunfire and aircraft will support the troops ashore during this difficult campaign. Offshore, collisions account for damage of varying degrees to heavy cruiser USS Chester and amphibious force flagship USS Estes, 24°13'N, 141°25'E; heavy cruiser USS Indianapolis and ammunition ship USS Shasta during replenishment operations; destroyer escort USS Finnegan and infantry landing craft LCI-627, 22°46'N, 141°19'E; and attack cargo ship Starr and heavy cruiser USS Salt Lake City, 24°46'N, 141°19'E. Destroyer USS John W. Weeks is damaged by shore battery, 25°32'N, 141°01'E; hospital ship Samaritan by friendly fire, 24°46'N, 141°19'. Japanese mortar fire damages medium landing ships LSM-74, LSM-145, LSM-245 and LSM-323.
*Army troops covered by USMC aircraft are landed on the northwest coast of Samar and on Capul Island P.I., to insure control of San Bernardino Strait.
*Japanese merchant ship Zuiho Maru is sunk by aircraft in Yangzte River near Kiukiang, China.
1952 French offensive begins at Hanoi.
1959 Mach 4.1 achieved: A USAF rocket-powered rail sled attained the speed of 4970 kph in NM.
1959 Cyprus independence: An agreement was signed by Britain, Turkey and Greece granting it.
1963 Soviets blink:The USSR informed President Kennedy it would withdraw "several thousand" of an estimated 17,000 Soviet troops in Cuba.
1990 Snubbed by Philippine President Aquino, Defense Secretary Dick Cheney, met in Manila with Defense Minister Fidel Ramos to discuss the future of U.S. bases in the country.
1991 President Bush told reporters a Soviet proposal to end the Persian Gulf War fell “well short of what would be required.”
1991 Russian Federation President Boris Yeltsin delivered an unprecedented public appeal for Soviet President Mikhail S. Gorbachev to resign.
1994 Withdrawl from Sarajevo looms: With Bosnian Serbs facing a NATO deadline to withdraw heavy weapons encircling Sarajevo or face air strikes, President Clinton delivered an address from the Oval Office reaffirming the ultimatum.
2001 Philippine peace offering: Pres. Arroyo announced a cease-fire with southern separatists. She hoped Mindanao rebels would reciprocate.
2005 Last Seawolf commissioned: The $3.2 billion USS Jimmy Carter entered the Navy's fleet as the most heavily armed submarine ever built, and as the last of the Seawolf class of attack subs that the Pentagon ordered during the Cold War's final years.

__________________
On the Plains of Hesitation lie the blackened bones of countless millions who, at the dawn of victory, sat down to rest-and resting... died. Adlai E. Stevenson

ACG History Today

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Last edited by Admiral; 19 Feb 06 at 02:42..
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