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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #436  
Old 28 Sep 05, 14:39
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
1106 - Henry I of England defeated his brother, Robert of Normandy, and imprisoned him for 28 years until his death.

1396 - The Battle of Nicopolis. Crusader army was roundly defeated by the Ottoman Turks.

1863 - McCook and Crittenden blamed for Chickamauga. Union Generals Alexander M. McCook and Thomas Crittenden lose their commands and are ordered to Indianapolis, Indiana, to face a court of inquiry following the Federal defeat at Chickamauga, Tennessee.

Eight days before, the Union Army of the Cumberland, commanded by General William Rosecrans, had retreated from the Chickamauga battlefield in disarray. On the battle's second day, Rosecrans mistakenly ordered a division to move into a gap in the Federal line that did not exist, creating a real gap through which the Confederates charged, thus splitting the Union army. One wing collapsed, and a frantic retreat back to Chattanooga ensued. The other wing, led by General George Thomas, remained on the battlefield and held its position until it was nearly overrun by Confederates.

The search for scapegoats began immediately, and fingers soon pointed to McCook and Crittenden. Their corps had been part of the collapsed flank, so Rosecrans removed them from command. Crittenden's removal stirred anger in his native Kentucky, and the state legislature sent a letter to President Lincoln demanding a reexamination of the firing. In February 1864, a military court cleared McCook and Crittenden, but their careers as field commanders were over. By quickly removing McCook and Crittenden, Rosecrans had been trying to save his own job. Three weeks after firing the generals, Rosecrans was himself replaced by Thomas.

1942 - General Arnold fights for unique bombers. On this day in 1942, Gen. Henry "Hap" Arnold gives highest priority to the development of two exceptional aircraft--the B-35 Flying Wing and the B-36 Peacemaker--intended for bombing runs from bases in the United States to targets in Europe.

General Arnold was a man of distinction from the beginning of his career: Not only was he one of the first pilots in the U.S. Signal Corps, he was taught to fly by none other than one of the Wright brothers. During World War I, Arnold was director of aviation training for the Army. Between the wars, he embraced a controversial military philosophy that emphasized strategic bombing, eliminating the need for the use of ground forces altogether.

At the time of the United States' entry into the Second World War, the Army Air Forces had become an increasingly distinct military service. Arnold was made its first chief. Along with this honor came the opportunity of a seat with the Joint Chiefs of Staff; initially intended to boost his status to that of his counterpart in Britain, it also increased the stature and independence of the Army Air Forces. Arnold was able to form alliances with British RAF allies who also favored the use of strategic bombing in lieu of ground-force operations.

In 1942, Arnold gave the highest priority to the development of two extra long-distance transatlantic planes that would prove most useful to his strategic bombing game plan: the B-35 and the B-36 transatlantic bombers. The B-35 had been first proposed in early 1941, intended for use in defending an invaded Britain. But the design was so radical (it was tailless), the plane was put on the back burner. It was finally revived because of advantages the plane afforded over the B-36--bombing range in relation to gross weight, for example. Fifteen B-35 planes were ordered for construction--but the first did not take flight until 1946. Designs for the B-36 were also developed early in 1941, on the assumption that the United States would inevitably be drawn into the war and it would need a bomber that could reach Europe from bases in America. It was to be a massive plane--162 feet long with a 230-foot wingspan. But its construction lagged, and it was not completed until after the war.

Although Hap's "high priority" could not cut through the military bureaucracy, 1947 would see the Nation Defense Act establish an autonomous Air Force--a dream for which he had worked. The B-35 would become the prototype for the B-2 Stealth bomber built in 1989. And the B-36 was used extensively by U.S. Strategic Air Command until 1959, but never dropped a bomb.

1959 - Khrushchev and Eisenhower offer views on summit meeting. One day after concluding their summit meeting in Washington, D.C., Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev and President Dwight D. Eisenhower offer their opinions as to the importance and meaning of their talks. Both men were optimistic that progress had been made in easing Cold War tensions.

From September 15 to September 27, Nikita Khrushchev visited the United States, capping his trip with a two-day summit with President Eisenhower. For many people in America, the Soviet Union, and around the world, Khrushchev's trip and summit with Eisenhower were viewed as hopeful harbingers of easing Cold War tensions. On September 28, the two men suggested that significant progress had been made in improving the U.S.-Soviet relationship. Khrushchev spoke to a crowd of thousands of Russians and declared that he was very satisfied with his meeting with Eisenhower. "I got the impression that he sincerely wanted to liquidate the 'Cold War' and to improve relations between our two great countries." However, there were, he warned, "forces in the United States working against us and against the easing of international tensions." These people, Khrushchev declared, should be "exposed and publicly whipped. Let those who want to continue the Cold War be angry. They will not be supported by reasonable people." Khrushchev also sent a message to Eisenhower thanking him for his hospitality, and noting, "Our acquaintance with the life of American people was highly interesting and useful." Eisenhower, during a press conference in Washington, echoed Khrushchev's optimism. The Soviet leader, he believed, was a "dynamic and arresting personality." Although no specific agreements had been reached, Eisenhower felt that the talks were useful and would lead to a better relationship in the future.

In September 1959, U.S. relations with the Soviet Union were better than they had ever been since the end of World War II. In the United States and Russia, people greeted the words of their leaders with optimism and hope for a peaceful future. Those hopes seemed dashed, however, when in May 1960 the Soviets shot down an American spy plane over Russia. The resulting charges and countercharges between the two nations ruined any plans for another Eisenhower-Khrushchev summit. By the time Eisenhower left office in January 1961, the relationship between the U.S. and the Soviet Union was as bad as it had ever been.

1968 - Battle for Thuong Duc begins. A battle begins for the Special Forces camp at Thuong Duc, situated between Da Nang and the Laotian border. The communists briefly captured the base before being driven out by air and artillery strikes. They then besieged the base, which was only lifted after a relief column, led by the U.S. 7th Marines, reached the base and drove the enemy forces out of the area.

1972 - Weekly casualty figures contain no U.S. fatalities. On this day, weekly casualty figures are released that contain no U.S. fatalities for the first time since March 1965. There were several reasons for this. President Nixon's troop withdrawal program, first initiated in the fall of 1969, had continued unabated even through the height of the fighting during the 1972 North Vietnamese "Easter Offensive." By this time in the war, there were less than 40,000 U.S. troops left in South Vietnam. Of this total, only a small number, mostly advisors, were involved in ground combat. In addition, it appeared that the North Vietnamese offensive, which had been blunted by the South Vietnamese with the aid of massive U.S. airpower, was finally winding down; there had been a general lull in ground fighting for the sixth straight day. South Vietnamese losses continued to be high since they had assumed the responsibility for fighting the ground battle in the absence of U.S. combat troops
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September 29

Born...

1276 King Christopher II of Denmark

1547 Miguel de Cervantes, Marine, author ("Don Quixote")

1583 Count Johan VIII de Jongere of Nassau-Siegen

1755 Lord Robert Clive, the clerk who founded the British Empire in India

1758 Horatio Nelson, English naval hero, victor at Trafalgar, kia, 1805

1829 Bradley Tyler Johnson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1903

1829 Giles Alexander Smith, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1876

1830 John Parker Hawkins, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1914

1831 John McAlister Schofield, Maj Gen, U.S.

1901 Enrico Fermi, physicist, gone fission (Nobel-1938)

1907 Gene Autry, USAAF, WW II, cowboy, singer

1942 William Nelson, (Rep-D-Fla), Astronaut (STS 61C)

1943 Lech Walesa, President of Poland

Died...

855 Lothar I, Holy Roman Emperor

1833 King Ferdinand VII of Spain

1895 Louis Pasteur, developer of pasteurization process

1987 Henry Ford II, in Detroit at 70

Event...

1187 Saladin captures Jerusalem

1349 People of Krems, Austria, accuse Jews of poisoning wells

1364 Battle of Auray, English forces defeat French in Brittany

1399 Richard II is coerced into abdicating in favor of his cousin Henry IV

1789 US War Dept established a regular army

1812 Seminole Indians ambushed Marines at Twelve Mile Swamp, Florida

1813 William Henry Harrison recaptures Detroit from the British

1861 Munson's Hill, Va: 69th Pa accidentally fires on the 71st Pa, 9 die

1864 Battle of Waynesboro & New Market Heights, Va

1872 Kiowa chief Lone Wolf captures Satanta & Big Tree

1918 Allied forces score a decisive breakthrough of Hindenburg Line

1939 USS Arizona's engineering plant was sabotaged, San Pedro, California. A thorough FBI investigation into the occurrence opines that the deed was done to embarrass certain ship's officers rather than cause serious damage

1940 Midway Detachment, Third Defense Battalion, Fleet Marine Force (Major Harold C. Roberts, USMC) arrives on Midway Island to begin construction of defenses

1941 Nazi mass murder of Jews at Babi Yar, Soviet Union

1942 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-25 drops incendiary bombs on a forest in southern coastal Oregon--the second and last time a Japanese aircraft will bomb the continental United States during World War II in an attempt to ignite forest fires

1943 General Eisenhower & Italian Marshal Pietro Badoglio sign an armistice

1944 The German coastal artillery batteries near Calais are captured by Canadian troops. For the first time in four years the citizens of Dover and its environs are free from the harassing shellfire from these long-range guns

1944 Soviet troops invade Yugoslavia

1944 USS Narwhal (SS-167) evacuates 81 Allied prisoners of war that survived sinking of Japanese Shinyo Maru from Sindangan Bay, Mindanao

1959 USS Kearsarge (CVS-33) with Helicopter Squadron 6 and other 7th Fleet units begin 6 days of disaster relief to Nagoya, Japan, after Typhoon Vera

1959 Sultan of Brunei promulgates a constitution

1961 Syria seceeds from the UAR

1962 Launch of Alouette 1, 1st Canadian satellite (on US Delta rocket)

1973 Soyuz 12 returns to Earth

1977 Soviet space station Salyut 6 launched into Earth orbit

1983 1st time US Congress invokes War Powers Act

1988 UN peacekeeping forces win Nobel Peace Prize

2005 Admiral unleashes his cat on the neighbors rat. Die, rat, die!

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  #438  
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1917 - Battle of Ramadi. British-Indian army defeats Turkish garrison of Ramadi. Most of the Turks were captured.

1939 - Nazis and communists divvy up Poland. On this day in 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union agree to divide control of occupied Poland roughly along the Bug River--the Germans taking everything west, the Soviets taking everything east.

As a follow-up to the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, (also known as the Hitler-Stalin Pact), that created a non-aggression treaty between the two behemoth military powers of Germany and the U.S.S.R., Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German foreign minister, met with his Soviet counterpart, V.M. Molotov, to sign the German-Soviet Boundary and Friendship Treaty. The fine print of the original non-aggression pact had promised the Soviets a slice of eastern Poland; now it was merely a matter of agreeing where to draw the lines.

Joseph Stalin, Soviet premier and dictator, personally drew the line that partitioned Poland. Originally drawn at the River Vistula, just west of Warsaw, he agreed to pull it back east of the capital and Lublin, giving Germany control of most of Poland's most heavily populated and industrialized regions. In return, Stalin wanted Lvov, and its rich oil wells, as well as Lithuania, which sits atop East Prussia. Germany now had 22 million Poles, "slaves of the Greater German Empire," at its disposal; Russia had a western buffer zone.

On this same day, the Soviet Union also signed a Treaty of Mutual Assistance with the Baltic nation of Estonia, giving Stalin the right to occupy Estonian naval and air bases. A similar treaty would later be signed with Latvia. Soviet tanks eventually rolled across these borders, in the name of "mutual assistance," placing the Baltic States into the hands of the U.S.S.R. for decades to come. These "treaties" were once again merely the realization of more fine print from the Ribbentrop-Molotov Pact, giving Stalin more border states as buffer zones, and protecting Russian territory where the Bolshevik ideology had not been enthusiastically embraced from intrusion by its western neighbor, namely its non-aggression partner Germany. The highly vulnerable Baltic nations had little to say about any of these arrangements; they were merely annexed.

1965 - Hanoi announces that downed pilots will be treated as war criminals. Hanoi publishes the text of a letter it has written to the Red Cross claiming that since there is no formal state of war, U.S. pilots shot down over the North will not receive the rights of prisoners of war (POWs) and will be treated as war criminals.

The U.S. State Department protested, but this had no impact on the way the American POWs were treated and most suffered extreme torture and other maltreatment while in captivity. The first pilot captured by the North Vietnamese was Navy Lieutenant Everett Alvarez, who was shot down on August 5, 1964. The American POW held longest was Army Special Forces Captain Floyd James Thompson, who had been captured in the South on March 26, 1964. American POWs were held in 11 different prisons in North Vietnam and their treatment by the North Vietnamese was characterized by isolation, torture, and psychological abuse. The exact number of POWs held by the North Vietnamese during the war remains a debatable issue, but the POWs themselves have accounted for at least 766 verified captives at one point. Under the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords, the North Vietnamese released 565 American military and 26 civilian POWs in February and March 1973, but there were still more than 2,500 men listed as Missing in Action (MIA).

1969 - Charges dropped against Green Berets. Secretary of the Army Stanley Resor announces that the U.S. Army, conceding that it is helpless to enlist the cooperation of the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), is dropping the murder charges (of August 6) against eight Special Forces accused of killing a Vietnamese national.

Col. Robert B. Rheault, Commander of the 5th Special Forces Group in Vietnam, and seven other Green Berets had been charged with premeditated murder and conspiracy to commit murder in the summary execution of Thai Khac Chuyen, who had served as an agent for Detachment B-57. Chuyen was reportedly summarily executed for being a double agent who had compromised a secret mission. The case against the Green Berets was ultimately dismissed for reasons of national security when the CIA refused to release highly classified information about the operations in which Detachment B-57 had been involved. Colonel Rheault subsequently retired from the Army.


The cat dig, cracked me up.
A big to the man of the day, yes I do mean Admiral Nelson.
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  #439  
Old 29 Sep 05, 16:32
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Yeah, the neighbors gotta really really BIG rat.

I couldn't send young Fester in unarmed.

As for Horatio Nelson...

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  #440  
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September 30

Born...

1805 Samuel Peter Heintzelman, Maj Gen, U.S.

1827 Kenner Garrard, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1879

1917 Chung Hee Park, general and president of Korea (1961-79), assassinated

1934 Elie Wiesel, historian of the Holocaust, Nobel Peace Prize (1986)

Died...

1877 Toohoolhoolzote, prophet of the Nez Perce, in battle

1955 James Dean, killed in an auto collision at 24 near Cholame Calif, a real Rebel Without A Cause

Event...

1399 King Richard II of England abdicates throne

1452 1st book published, Johann Guttenberg's Bible

1707 Austrians storm Gaeta, seizing it from the Spanish

1775 Twelve British regulars and 30 militiamen conduct a raid on the American camp at Longeuil. The surprised rebels are put to flight and their provisions are seized

1777 Congress flees to York as British forces occupy more of Pennsylvania

1800 U.S. concludes treaty of peace with France, ending Quasi War with France

1835 Battle of Gonzales: Texians rout Mexicans, touching off Texas Revolution

1857 US occupies Sand, Baker, Howland, & Jarvis Is, south of Hawaii

1862 Battle of Newtonia, MS

1864 Battle of Preble's Farm/Poplar Springs Church, Va

1867 Midway Island formally declared a US possession

1885 Bechuanaland becomes a British protectorate

1895 France proclaims a protectorate over Madagascar

1918 The Canadian advance towards Cambrai, now in its 4th day, bogs down in front of the city. The German defenders are holding their ground with tenacity and inflicting heavy casualties on the Dominion troops

1929 1st manned rocket plane flight (by auto maker Fritz von Opel)

1932 "Chesty" Puller won his second Navy Cross

1936 Light Cruiser USS Brooklyn, commissioned (in Brooklyn, where else?)

1938 Munich Agreement: Czechoslovakia surrenders Sudentenland to Germany

1939 U.S. freighters Ethan Allen and Ipswich, detained by British authorities since 20 September, are released. Cargo destined for Bremen and Hamburg, however, is seized and taken off Ipswich

1939 European war again comes to the Americas: German armored ship DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops and sinks British steamship Clement 75 miles southeast of Pernambuco, Brazil, 09°05'S, 34°05'W

1941 TU 4.1.5 assumes escort duty for convoy. During the rough passage to the MOMP, which concludes on 9 October, all destroyers of the unit, USS Mayo (flag), USS Broome, USS Babbitt, USS Leary, and USS Schenck suffer varying degrees of storm damage

1941 TU 4.1.3 assumes escort duty for convoy ON 20 at the MOMP

1942 Heavy cruiser USS San Francisco and light minelayer USS Breese are damaged in collision, New Hebrides area, 15°39'S, 167°39'E

1942 Japanese make their first airstrike against Adak, in the Aleutians

1943 In the Solomons area, tank landing ships LST-334 is damaged by dive bombers, 07°43'S, 156°40'E; motor torpedo boat PT-126 is damaged, accidentally, by USMC F4Us, 07°50'S, 157°05'E

1943 Submarine USS Bowfin delivers supplies and evacuates people from Siquijor Island, P.I., and sinks small Japanese cargo ship Mitake Maru, 05°17'N, 121°57'E.

1943 Submarine USS Pogy sinks Japanese army transport Maebashi Maru 300 miles east of Palau, 06°01'N, 139°08'E

1943 Submarine USS Harder sinks Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Shosei Maru 3, 34°10'N, 150°45'E

1943 USAAF B-25s and P-40s sink Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Chikushi Maru in Kwangchow Bay, China, 21°12'N, 110°24'E; the vessel is later salvaged, however, and resumed active service

1943 Canadian aircrew from No.6 Group of Bomber Command join the raid against the German city of Bochum, Germany. Three aircraft are reported lost in the raid

1944 Calais captured by Allies

1944 USS Nautilus lands supplies and evacuates certain people from Libertad, Panay, Philipppine Islands

1945 Destroyer escort USS Fessenden sinks German submarine U-1062 in mid-Atlantic, 11°36'N, 34°44'W

1945 III Amphibious Corps (USMC) arrived at Tangku, China, for repatriation duty

1946 22 Nazi leaders found guilty of war crimes at Nuremberg, Von Ribbentrop & Goering sentenced to death

1946 U.S. Government announces that U.S. Navy units would be permanently stationed in the Mediterranean to carry out American policy and diplomacy

1949 Berlin Airlift ends after 277,000 flights

1949 US officially disbands the Philippine Scouts

1951 USS Monitor, sunk Dec 31, 1862, finally declared "out of commission"

1954 Commissioning of USS Nautilus (SSN-571) at Groton, CT, the world's first nuclear powered ship

1958 US Marines leave Lebanon

1960 On Howdy Doody's last show Clarabelle finally talks "Goodbye Kids"

1966 Spandau Prison: Albert Speer & Baldur von Schirach released after 20 years

1966 Botswana (Bechuanaland) gains independence from Britain

1967 USSR's Kosmos 186 & 188 complete the 1st automatic docking

1968 Battleship USS New Jersey arrives off Vietnam

1980 Iran rejects a truce call from Iraqi President Saddam Hussein

1986 US releases soviet spy Gennadiy Zakharov

1988 IBM announces shipment of 3 millionth PS/2 personal computer

1989 NASA closes down tracking stations in Hawaii & Ascension (Isle's)

1991 Haitian President Jean-Bertand Aristide is ousted

1992 Marine Barracks, Subic Bay, Philippines, was disestablished. The Naval Base had been used by Americans for many years

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1399 - Henry IV proclaimed. Henry Bolingbroke is proclaimed King Henry IV of England upon the abdication of King Richard II.

Henry was the eldest surviving son of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancaster. While his father was away in Spain, Henry joined other lords in opposing King Richard II's rule. Richard later regained the upper hand and in 1398 banished Henry from the kingdom. When John of Gaunt died in February 1399, Richard seized the Lancastrian estates, thus depriving Henry of his inheritance. Claiming to be defending the rights of the nobility, Henry invaded England in July 1399, and Richard surrendered to him without a fight in August.

Upon becoming king of England, Henry imprisoned Richard in Pontefract Castle in Yorkshire, where the former king died of undetermined causes in February 1400. After a turbulent reign, Henry was succeeded by his son Henry V, the second of England's three Lancastrian kings.

1744 - Battle of Madonna dell Olmo. Sardinian attack defeated, but French-Spanish were forced to abandon siege of Cuneo.

1745 - Battle of Sohr. Failed attempt by Austrians to regain Silesia from the Prussians.

1837 - Battle of Saint Eustache. French-Canadian rebellion was put down by Government troops.

1870 - Battle of Chevilly. French sortie from besieged Paris beaten back by Prussians during Franco-Prussian War.

1964 - First large scale antiwar demonstration staged at Berkeley. The first large-scale antiwar demonstration in the United States is staged at the University of California at Berkeley, by students and faculty opposed to the war. Nevertheless, polls showed that a majority of Americans supported President Lyndon Johnson's policy on the war.

1968 - Humphrey announces that he would halt the bombing of North Vietnam. Apparently trying to distance himself from Johnson's policies, Democratic presidential candidate Hubert Humphrey announces that, if elected, he would halt the bombing of the North if there was any "evidence, direct or indirect, by deed or word, of communist willingness" to restore the Demilitarized Zone between North and South Vietnam.

Humphrey had become his party's candidate when incumbent President Lyndon B. Johnson, devastated by the outcry that accompanied the communist Tet Offensive, had announced that he would not run for re-election. Despite Humphrey's hopes, many voters saw him as only a continuation of the Johnson approach to the war, which had been marked by escalation and continued stalemate. He was defeated by Richard Nixon, who hinted during the campaign that he had a secret plan to end the war and achieve "peace with honor."

Also on this day in Vietnam: The 900th US aircraft is shot down over the North and the USS New Jersey, the world's only active battleship, arrives in Vietnamese waters and begins bombarding the Demilitarized Zone from her station off the Vietnamese coast.
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October 1



Born...

1207 King Henry III of England (1216-72)

1685 Charles VI, Holy Roman Emperor (1711-40)

1730 Richard Stockton, Signer DOI, d. 1788

1746 Rev John Muhlenberg, Continental General (dies this date, 1807)

1781 James Lawrence, naval hero, kia, 1812 "Don't give up the ship!"

1830 Jeremiah Cutler Sullivan, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1890

1831 Claudius Charles Wilson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1863

1834 Francis Marion Cockrell, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1915

1835 Robert Houston Anderson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1888

1835 William Hicks "Red" Jackson, Brig Gen, C.S.A.

1881 William Edward Boeing, aviation entrepreneur

1921 James Whitmore, USMC, and actor (Battle Cry)

1924 James Earl Carter, naval officer and president (1977-1981)

1936 Stephen Ambrose, historian ("Band of Brothers"), d. 2002

1936 Charles G Fullerton, Astronaut (STS-3, 51F)

1950 Boris Vladimirovich Morukov, Russian Cosmonaut

Died...

1578 Don Juan of Austria, Victor of Lepanto, at 31

1807 Rev John Muhlenberg, Continental General, Lutheran pastor, at 61

1901 Emir Abdoer-Rahman of Afghanistan

1990 Curtis E LeMay, USAAF/USAF General, at 83

Event...

331 -BC- Alexander the Great of Macedon trounces the Persians at Gaugamela

1800 Spain cedes Louisiana to France in a secret treaty

1800 Schooner USS Experiment captures French Schooner Diana

1812 Provincial Marine troops from Kingston enter Genesee River (modern Rochester, N.Y.) and capture 2 American ships

1816 Canadian troops attempt to capture Regina Trench from its German defenders near Courcelette. The assault is repulsed and almost a thousand Canadians are lost in the fighting

1835 Battle of Guadelupe Ford: Texians defeat Mexican cavalry

1837 Treaty with Winnebago Indians

1844 Naval Observatory headed by LT Matthew Fontaine Maury occupies first permanent quarters.

1860 Battle of the Volturno: Garibaldi defeats the Neapolitan Royalists

1863 Russian fleet arrives to winter in New York

1864 Lincoln hires John Staples as a "substitute" to encourage recruiting

1874 Supply Corps purser, LT J. Q. Barton, given leave to enter service of new Japanese Navy to organize a Pay Department and instruct Japanese about accounts. He served until 1 October 1877 when he again became a purser in the U.S. Navy. In 1878, the Emperor of Japan conferred on him the Fourth Class of Rising Sun for his service

1880 John Philip Sousa becomes director of the Marine Corps Band

1898 Jews are expelled from Kiev Russia

1928 First class at school for enlisted Navy and Marine Corps Radio intercept operators (The "On the roof gang")

1932 Sir Oswald Mosley forms the British Union of Fascists

1936 Generalissimo Francisco Franco named leader of Spanish Nationalists,

1938 Munich Conference ends in the German annexation of the Sudetenland

1939 Churchill says the USSR "is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma"

1939 As of this date, the U.S. Navy consists of 396 commissioned ships divided amongst the major U.S. Fleet commands afloat: Battle Force (Battleships, Cruisers, Destroyers, and Aircraft), Submarine Force, and Base Force; the Scouting Force (Cruisers and Aircraft); the Atlantic Squadron; the Asiatic Fleet; the Special Service Squadron and Squadron 40-T. There are 175 district craft in service in the following naval districts: First (headquarters in Boston, Massachusetts), Third (New York), Fourth (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania), Fifth (Norfolk, Virginia), Sixth, Seventh and Eighth (Charleston, South Carolina), Ninth (Great Lakes, Illinois), Eleventh (San Diego, California), Twelfth (San Francisco, California), Thirteenth (Seattle, Washington), Fourteenth (Pearl Harbor, Territory of Hawaii), Fifteenth (Balboa, Canal Zone) and Sixteenth (Cavite, Philippine Islands); vessels not in commission (but includes those ordered recommissioned incident to the expansion of the fleet) number 151; 5 district craft are carried as not in service. Vessels listed as "in service" include some used for USNR or Naval Militia training. Vessels not in commission include those loaned to the states of Pennsylvania, California, New York and Massachusetts for use as maritime school ships, the Maritime Commission and the Sea Scouts; as well as "relics" like the Civil War vintage Hartford, the Spanish-American War prize Reina Mercedes, and Spanish-American War veterans USS Olympia and USS Oregon. Interestingly, the 1 October 1939 list contains the gunboat USS Panay (PR-5), bombed and sunk by Japanese naval aircraft in the Yangtze River on 12 December 1937

1939 Word of German armored ship DKM Admiral Graf Spee's sinking of British freighter Clement reaches British Admiralty, which begins disposition of ships to meet the threat posed by the surface raider in the South Atlantic

1940 Coast Guard cutter USCG Campbell reports to Chief of Naval Operations for duty. She will then proceed to Lisbon, Portugal

1941 United States, British, and Soviet representatives conclude three-day conference in Moscow on aid to the Soviet Union

1941 Secretary of the Navy Knox approves "popular" names for naval combat aircraft: "Avenger" (Grumman TBF), "Buccaneer" (Brewster SB2A), "Buffalo" (Brewster F2A), "Catalina" (Consolidated PBY), "Coronado" (Consolidated PB2Y), "Corsair" (Vought F4U), "Dauntless" (Douglas SBD), "Devastator" (Douglas TBD), "Helldiver" (Curtiss SB2C), "Kingfisher" (Vought OS2U/Naval Aircraft Factory OS2N), "Mariner" (Martin PBM), "Sea Ranger" (Boeing PBB patrol bomber), "Seagull" (Curtiss SO3C), and "Vindicator" (Vought SB2U). Names supplement the Navy's letter-number designations, which remain unchanged and continue to be used in correspondence. As can be seen, the name "Avenger" is assigned well before either Pearl Harbor (7 December 1941) or the slaughter of torpedo planes at the Battle of Midway (4-6 June 1942). These two events are commonly believed to have motivated the assignment of this particular nickname to the TBF/TBM series. The name "Seagull" is also applied unofficially to the Curtiss SOC series which is in use in cruiser-based observation squadrons. Ironically, the SO3C proves a failure in service, and the SOC it was designed to replace serves on.

1941 Sale of War Savings Bonds to naval personnel is inaugurated on this date; under the direction of a Coordinator for War Savings Bonds, Supply Corps officers are designated as issuing agents and assigned to 28 major shore activities. Actual sales of the bonds will amount to $61,000,000--over 50 in excess of the predicted sales.

1942 First US jet, the Bell P-59 Airacomet fighter, makes its maiden flight

1942 Submarine USS Grouper torpedoes and sinks Japanese army transport Lisbon Maru 20 miles north of Chushan Island, 29°57'N, 122°56'N.


1942 Submarine USS Kingfish torpedoes and sinks merchant cargo ship Yomei Maru off Ichiezaki, Japan, 33°31'N, 135°26'E.

1942 Submarine USS Nautilus sinks merchant cargo ship Tosei Maru east of Shiriyazaki, Japan, 41°20'N, 141°35'E.

1942 Submarine USS Sturgeon damages Japanese aircraft transport Katsuragi Maru off Cape St. George, New Ireland, 05°51'S, 153°18'E.

1942 Advanced Group, Amphibious Forces, Atlantic Fleet becomes Amphibious Forces, Europe under the Commander U.S. Naval Forces Europe (Admiral Harold R. Stark).

1942 Destroyer USS Roe, 20 miles off the coast of Trinidad, rescues the 19 men (17 merchant seamen and 2 Armed Guard sailors) from U.S. freighter West Chetac, sunk by German submarine U-175 on 24 September 1942, and transports them to Port-of-Spain.

1942 Italian blockade runner Orseolo departs Bordeaux for Kobe

1943 Allied forces liberate Naples

1943 Motor torpedo boat PT-68, damaged by grounding off Vincke Point, Huon Peninsula, eastern New Guinea, 05°56'S, 147°18'E, is scuttled by motor torpedo boat PT-191 to prevent capture.

1943 Destroyer USS Saufley is damaged by near-miss of bombs from Japanese horizontal bomber, Solomons, 07°42'S, 160°14'E.

1943 Tank landing ships LST-448 is damaged by horizontal bomber, Solomons, 07°45'S, 156°30'E.

1943 Mobile degaussing barge YDG-4 sinks nine miles southeast of Bulari Passage, after running aground off New Caledonia.

1943 Submarine USS Peto sinks Japanese transport Tonei Maru and Japanese army cargo ship Kinkasan Maru, Southern Carolines, 04°00'N, 143°50'E.

1943 Submarine USS Wahoo sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Masaki Maru in Sea of Japan.

1943 Naval Air Facility, Recife, Brazil, is established.

1943 Naval forces under Commander Naval Forces Europe (Admiral Harold R. Stark) are designated the Twelfth Fleet.

1943 Escort carrier USS Block Island and destroyer USS Black are damaged in collision in Elizabeth River channel, Norfolk, Virginia.

1943 PV-1s (VB-128) attack German submarines U-402 and U-448 as they seek (unsuccessfully) convoy HX 258 in the North Atlantic.

1943 U.S. freighter Metapan, in convoy UGS 15, is mined and sunk at 37°20'N, 10°35'E. Fuel-oil barge Syncline (YO-63) rescues the 50-man merchant complement, the 23-man Armed Guard and the one passenger.

1944 Canadian troops capture the city of Calais, netting 7500 German prisoners

1944 Office of Deputy Commander in Chief U.S. Fleet and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Vice Admiral Richard S. Edwards) is established.

1944 Special Air Task Force (STAG 1) drone operations continue with two separate attacks on Japanese positions on Bougainville. In the first, four TDRs are launched against antiaircraft gun positions on Ballale and Poporang Islands; one lands in the midst of them, a second detonates within 100 feet of the southwest end of Ballale runway; two explode on Poporang in the general area of the target. In the second, four TDRs (two allocated to each target) are launched against antiaircraft positions on Kangu Hill, two miles south of Kahili airdrome, and the Pororeri River bridge north of Kangu Hill; the first two TDRs hit the lower slope of Kangu Hill but one does not explode; one TDR crashes (perhaps hit by antiaircraft fire) while the second cannot find the target, and explodes north of Kangu Hill.

1944 Destroyer USS Bailey is damaged by strafing off Palau, 06°59'N, 134°13'E.

1944 During minesweeping operations in Ulithi lagoon with TU 33.13.1, motor minesweeper YMS-385 is sunk by Japanese mine in Zowariyau Channel, 09°52'N, 139°37'E.

1944 Submarine USS Cabrilla sinks Japanese tanker Kyokuho Maru, and merchant tanker Zuiyo Maru in South China Sea, west of Luzon, 16°15'N, 119°43'E.

1944 Submarine USS Hammerhead sinks Japanese ore carriers Kokusei Maru and Hiyori Maru and cargo ship Higane Maru north of Borneo, 06°30'N, 116°11'E.

1944 Submarine USS Snapper sinks Japanese coastal minelayer Ajiro and transport Seian Maru northwest of the Bonins, 28°11'N, 139°30'E.

1944 Submarine USS Trepang sinks Japanese supply ship Takunan Maru north of Ogasawara-gunto, 25°30'N, 142°30'E.

1944 Auxiliary minesweeper Kaiyo Maru is sunk by mine off Tsingtao, China.

1944 Destroyer USS Gleaves shells German gun positions in Ventimiglia, Italy, area and encounters intense shore battery fire; destroyer USS Benson shells enemy gun emplacement and then destroys two Italian motor torpedo boats (MAS).

1944 Destroyer USS Forrest is damaged in collision with tank landing ship LST-550 off Southern France, 43°20'N, 05°20'E.

1945 The 1st Battalion, 7th Marine Regiment landed and occupied Chinwangtao, China

1945 Heavyweight champ Joe Louis is discharged from the US Army

1946 Truculent Turtle lands at Columbus, Ohio, breaking world's record for distance without refueling with flight of 11,235 miles

1949 People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Tse-tung

1949 Republic of China (Taiwan) forms on the island of Formosa

1949 5th Marines became part of 1stMarDiv under Col. Victor H. Krulak

1950 South Korean troops cross the 38th Parallel as they advance northwards

1951 24th Infantry Regiment, last all-black military unit, deactivated, (restored in 1991)

1952 Britain explodes its first atom bomb, Monte Bello Island, Australia

1953 Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras

1954 British colony of Nigeria becomes a Federation

1955 USS Forrestal, the first supercarrier, is commissioned

1957 B-52 bombers begin full-time flying alert in case of USSR attack

1958 Britain transfers Christmas Island (south of Java) to Australia

1958 NASA established

1958 Vanguard Project transferred from military control to NASA

1960 Nigeria gains independence from Britain

1961 East & West Cameroon merge as Federal Republic of Cameroon

1963 Nigeria becomes a republic within the Commonwealth

1975 Britain grants internal self-government to Seychelles

1975 Ellice Islands split from Gilbert Islands, take name "Tuvalu"

1978 Tuvalu (Ellice Islands) gains independence from Britain

1979 President Jimmy Carter awards the Congressional Space Medal of Honor to former naval aviators Neil Armstrong, CAPT Charles Conrad, Jr., USN (Ret.), COL John Glenn, USMC (Ret.), and RADM Alan Shepard, Jr., USN (Ret.)

1979 US returns Canal Zone to Panama after 75 years (but not the canal)

1980 Cosmonauts Ryumin & Popov break space endurance record of 176 days

1989 Thousands of East Germans flee to West Germany

1990 Pres Bush at the UN, condemns Iraq's takeover of Kuwait

1990 USS Independence enters Persian Gulf (first aircraft carrier in Persian Gulf since 1974)

__________________
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ACG History Today

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  #443  
Old 01 Oct 05, 07:47
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1756 - Battle of Lobositz. Frederick the Great defeated Austrian relief army leading to the surrender of Pirna and the inclusion of Saxony into Prussian control.

1864 - Rose Greenhow dies. Confederate spy Rose O'Neal Greenhow drowns off the North Carolina coast when a Yankee craft runs her ship aground. She was returning from a trip to England.

At the beginning of the war, Maryland native Rose O'Neal Greenhow lived in Washington, D.C., with her four children. Her deceased husband was wealthy and well connected in the capital, and Greenhow used her influence to aid the Southern cause. Working with Lieutenant Colonel Thomas Jordan, she established an elaborate spy network in Washington. The effectiveness of the operation was soon demonstrated when Greenhow received information concerning the movements of General Malcolm McDowell's army shortly before the First Battle of Bull Run in July 1861. A female courier carried messages from Greenhow to Confederate General Pierre G.T. Beauregard at his Fairfax, Virginia, headquarters. Beauregard later testified that because of the gained intelligence, he requested extra troops from General Joseph Johnston's nearby command, helping the Confederates score a dramatic victory against the Yankees in the first major battle of the war. Confederate President Jefferson Davis sent Greenhow a letter of appreciation the day after the battle.

Federal authorities soon learned of the security leaks, and the trail led to Greenhow's residence. She was placed under house arrest, and other suspected female spies were soon arrested and joined her there. The house, nicknamed "Fort Greenhow," still managed to produce information for the Rebels. When her good friend, Massachusetts Senator Henry Wilson, visited Greenhow, he carelessly provided important intelligence that Greenhow slipped to her operatives. After five months, she and her youngest daughter, "Little Rose," were transferred to the Old Capitol Prison in Washington. She was incarcerated until June 1862, when she went into exile in the South.

Greenhow and Little Rose spent the next two years in England. Greenhow penned a memoir titled My Imprisonment and traveled to England and France, drumming up support for the Southern cause. She then decided to return to the Confederacy to contribute more directly to the war effort. Greenhow and her daughter were on board the British blockade-runner Condor when it was intercepted by the U.S.S. Niphon off Cape Hattaras, North Carolina. The Yankee ship ran Condor aground near Forth Fischer. Greenhow was carrying Confederate dispatches and $2,000 in gold. Insisting that she be taken ashore, she boarded a small lifeboat that overturned in the rough surf. The weight of the gold pulled her under, and her body washed ashore the next morning. Greenhow was given a hero's funeral and buried in Oakdale Cemetery in Wilmington, North Carolina, her body wrapped in the Confederate flag.

1916 - Battle of Eaucourt l'Abbaye. First New Zealand V.C. awarded posthumously to Sergeant Donald Brown.

1918 - Lawrence of Arabia captures Damascus. A combined Arab and British force captures Damascus from the Turks during World War I, completing the liberation of Arabia. An instrumental commander in the Allied campaign was T.E. Lawrence, a legendary British soldier known as Lawrence of Arabia.

Lawrence, an Oxford-educated Arabist born in Tremadoc, Wales, began working for the British army as an intelligence officer in Egypt in 1914. He spent more than a year in Cairo, processing intelligence information. In 1916, he accompanied a British diplomat to Arabia, where Hussein ibn Ali, the emir of Mecca, had proclaimed a revolt against Turkish rule. Lawrence convinced his superiors to aid Hussein's rebellion, and he was sent to join the Arabian army of Hussein's son Faisal as a liaison officer.

Under Lawrence's guidance, the Arabians launched an effective guerrilla war against the Turkish lines. He proved a gifted military strategist and was greatly admired by the Bedouin people of Arabia. In July 1917, Arabian forces captured Aqaba near the Sinai and joined the British march on Jerusalem. Lawrence was promoted to the rank of lieutenant colonel. In November, he was captured by the Turks while reconnoitering behind enemy lines in Arab dress and was tortured and sexually abused before escaping. He rejoined his army, which slowly worked its way north to Damascus. The Syrian capital fell on October 1, 1918.

Arabia was liberated, but Lawrence's hope that the peninsula would be united as a single nation was dashed when Arabian factionalism came to the fore after Damascus. Lawrence, exhausted and disillusioned, left for England. Feeling that Britain had exacerbated the rivalries between the Arabian groups, he appeared before King George V and politely refused the medals offered to him.

After the war, he lobbied hard for independence for Arab countries and appeared at the Paris peace conference in Arab robes. He later wrote a monumental war memoir, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, and enlisted in the Royal Air Force (RAF) under an assumed name to escape his fame and acquire material for a new book. Discharged from the RAF in 1935, he was fatally injured in a motorcycle accident a few months later.

1944 - Experiments begin on homosexuals at Buchenwald. On this day in 1944, the first of two sets of medical experiments involving castration are performed on homosexuals at the Buchenwald concentration camp, near Weimar, Germany.

Buchenwald was one of the first concentration camps established by the Nazi regime. Constructed in 1937, it was a complement to camps north (Sachsenhausen) and south (Dachau), and was built to hold slave laborers, who worked in local munitions factories 24 hours a day, in 12-hour shifts. Although not technically a death camp, in that it had no gas chambers, nevertheless hundreds of prisoners died monthly, from malnutrition, beatings, disease, and executions.

The camp boasted a sophisticated-sounding facility on its grounds called the Division for Typhus and Virus Research of the Hygiene Institute of the Waffen SS. In truth, it was a chamber of horrors where medical experiments of the cruelest kind were carried out on prisoners against their will. Victims were often intentionally infused with various infections to test out vaccines. Euthanasia was also performed regularly on Jews, Gypsies, and mentally ill prisoners.

Among the cruelest of Buchenwald's overseers was the infamous Ilsa Koch, wife of SS commandant Karl Koch and known as the "Witch of Buchenwald." Among her fetishistic tendencies was her penchant for lampshades, gloves, and other items made from the tattooed skin of dead inmates. She also had a reputation for forcing prisoners to participate in orgies. She was ultimately sentenced to life in prison for her sadism, but she hanged herself after 16 years behind bars.

Buchenwald was liberated by the Allies on April 11, 1945, one day before the death of President Franklin Roosevelt. It was later used by the Soviet Union as a concentration camp for the enemies of East Germany.

1946 - Nazi war criminals sentenced at Nuremberg. On October 1, 1946, 12 high-ranking Nazis are sentenced to death by the International War Crimes Tribunal in Nuremberg. Among those condemned to death by hanging were Joachim von Ribbentrop, Nazi minister of foreign affairs; Hermann Goering, founder of the Gestapo and chief of the German air force; and Wilhelm Frick, minister of the interior. Seven others, including Rudolf Hess, Adolf Hitler's former deputy, were given prison sentences ranging from 10 years to life. Three others were acquitted.

The trial, which had lasted nearly 10 months, was conducted by an international tribunal made up of representatives from the United States, the USSR, France, and Great Britain. It was the first trial of its kind in history, and the defendants faced charges ranging from crimes against peace to crimes of war and crimes against humanity. On October 16, 10 of the architects of Nazi policy were hanged one by one. Hermann Goering, who at sentencing was called the "leading war aggressor and creator of the oppressive program against the Jews," committed suicide by poison on the eve of his scheduled execution. Nazi Party leader Martin Bormann was condemned to death in absentia; he is now known to have died in Berlin at the end of the war.

1961 - South Vietnam requests a bilateral defense treaty. On this day, South Vietnam requests a bilateral defense treaty with the United States. President John F. Kennedy was faced with a serious dilemma in Vietnam. The government of Ngo Dinh Diem in Saigon was increasingly unpopular with the South Vietnamese people because of his refusal to institute political reform and the suppression of opposing political and religious factions. However, Diem was staunchly anticommunist, which made him attractive to the American president, who was concerned about the growing strength of the Communists in Southeast Asia.

The United States had taken over the fight against the Communists in Vietnam from the French, who had been defeated by the Viet Minh at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. The United States had been providing military aid to the South Vietnamese through the French since 1951. In 1955, this aid, which included American military advisers, was provided directly to the Diem government in Saigon. With the formal request for a bilateral defense treaty, the number of U.S. personnel in South Vietnam grew to more than 3,000 by the end of 1961, and the American commitment to Saigon grew steadily over the next two years. When President Kennedy was assassinated in November 1963, there were over 16,000 American personnel in Vietnam. Under Kennedy's successor, Lyndon B. Johnson, this number would grow to more than 500,000.

1965 - Suharto crushes Indonesian coup. A communist coup against Indonesian President Sukarno is crushed by General Suharto, the Indonesian army chief of staff. In the aftermath, Suharto moved to replace Sukarno and launched a purge of Indonesian communists that resulted in thousands of deaths. In 1967, Suharto assumed full executive authority and in 1968 was elected president. Reelected every five years until his resignation in 1998, Suharto stabilized his nation and oversaw significant economic progress. However, he was criticized for his repressive rule and for Indonesia's 1975 invasion of East Timor, which left an estimated 100,000 Timorese dead from famine, disease, and warfare.

1988 - Mikhail Gorbachev becomes head of Supreme Soviet. Having forced the resignation of Soviet leader Andrei Gromyko, Mikhail Gorbachev names himself head of the Supreme Soviet. Within two years, he was named "Man of the Decade" by Time magazine for his role in bringing the Cold War to a close. Beginning in 1985, when he became general secretary of the Communist Party in the USSR, Gorbachev moved forward to both liberalize the Soviet economy (perestroika) and political life (glasnost), as well as decrease tensions with the United States. By late 1991, the Soviet Union was moving toward dissolution, and Gorbachev retired from office in December 1991.
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Old 02 Oct 05, 00:48
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October 2



Born...

1452 King Richard III of England (1483-85), who needed a horse

1800 Nat Turner, leader of the Great Southampton Slave rebellion, killed 1831

1819 George Washington Getty, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1901

1821 Alexander Peter "Old Straight" Stewart, Lt Gen, C.S.A.

1827 Edmund Jackson Davis, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1883

1847 Generalfeldmarschal Paul Ludwig Hans von Beneckendorf von Hindenburg

1851 Marechel de France Ferdinand Foch, believed by many to be responsible for Allies winning WW I

1869 Karamchand Ghandi, the Mahatma, Pacifist

1871 Cordell Hull, Secretary of State (1933-1944), Nobel Peace Prize (1945)

1904 Dermot Boyle, Marshal of the RAF

1912 Eric Wilson, VC

1939 Yuri N Glazkov, cosmonaut (Soyuz 24)

Died...

322 -BC- Aristotle dies of indigestion ???

1678 Gen Wu San-kuei, invited Manchus in China, dies trying to expell them

1707 Duke Anne Jules de Noailles, Marshal of France, at 57

1780 Bitish Major John Andre, US General Benedict Arnold's British contact, hanged by US as a spy

1786 Admiral Viscount Augustus Keppel, RN

Event...

1187 Saladin captures Jerusalem from the Crusaders, ending 83 years of Christian rule

1535 Jacques Cartier discovers Mount Royal (Montreal)

1608 Prototype of modern reflecting telescope was completed by Jan Lippershey & offered to the Dutch Government

1799 The Duke of York captures Alkmaar in the Netherlands

1799 Washington Navy Yard established

1836 Darwin returned to England aboard HMS Beagle

1853 Austrian law forbad Jews from owning land

1864 Battle of Saltville, Va: Confederates slaughtered black POWs

1870 Italy annexes Rome & the Papal States, Rome became capital of Italy

1901 Royal Naval launched its first submarine, at Barrow

1918 US Marines participated in the Battle of Blanc Mont in France

1919 Pres Woodrow Wilson suffered a stroke. His wife secretly took the reins of his presidency, for a large part

1935 Italy invaded Abyssinia (Ethiopia)

1939 Act of Panama: Foreign ministers of countries of the Western Hemisphere (OAS) agree to establish a neutrality zone 300 miles wide around the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North and South America to be enforced by the U. S. Navy

1939 German government notifies the United States that merchant vessels must submit to visit and search, and that neutral merchant vessels refrain from suspicious actions when sighting German men-of-war and that they stop when summoned to do so. Maritime Commission, and State and Navy Department representatives who meet to contemplate the request consider it proper and should be complied with

1939 Chief of Naval Operations instructs all planning agencies within the naval establishment to accord precedence to the preparation of ORANGE (Japan) war plans

1939 Norwegian motor vessel Hoegh Transporter is sunk by mine off St. John Island, at the entrance to Singapore harbor

1940 British liner RMS Empress, with refugees for Canada, torpedoed & sunk, hundreds died

1941 Six Parisian synagogues were bombed

1942 FDR rejects Japanese PM Prince Konoye's request to meet and discuss Pacific and Far Eastern questions

1942 Enrico Fermi establishes the first self-sustaining nuclear reaction under a sports stadium in Chicago

1942 RMS Queen Mary sliced cruiser HMS Curacao in half, 338 die

1942 U.S. air raid on Rabaul damages light cruiser IJN Yubari and other shipping

1942 Major J. L. Smith shot down 18th Zero. Highest scoring USMC ace to date

1942 Destroyer USS Winslow, in screen of convoy ON 20, is detached from TU 4.1.3 to proceed to the assistance of Dutch motor vessel Tuva, torpedoed by German submarine U-575 at 54°16'N, 26°36'W. Although USS Winslow finds the freighter still afloat, the destroyer depth charges a "doubtful" submarine contact in the vicinity and upon her return is unable to locate any survivors. She rejoins ON 20 the following morning. The Dutch freighter's crew, however, is apparently rescued by another ship, for the Lloyd's List of Shipping Losses: World War II lists only one man missing from among the complement of 35

1942 Cutter USCG Campbell scuttles irreparably damaged British tanker San Florentino which had been torpedoed by German submarine U-575 at 52°50'N, 34°40'W and 52°42'N, 34°51'W.

1943 Australian 20th Brigade secures Finschhafen, in eastern New Guinea

1943 Japanese troops evacuate Kolombangara, Solomon Island

1943 Destroyer USS Henley sunk off Finschhafen, NG, by Japanese submarine Ro-103

1944 Polish uprising in Warsaw suppressed by Nazis

1944 The Battle of the Scheldt opened with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division advancing north out of Antwerp. The objective of the new campaign was to neutralize the German forces stationed along the approaches of the Scheldt estuary

1944 Tank landing ships LST-129, LST-278, and LST-661 are damaged by storm, Palau, 06°59'N, 134°13'E.

1944 Submarine USS Aspro sinks Japanese cargo ship Azuchisan Maru in South China Sea west of Luzon, 18°25'N, 120°32'E.

1944 Submarine USS Pomfret sinks Japanese army transports Tsuyama Maru and Makassar Maru south of Formosa, 21°00'N, 121°46'E.

1944 Japanese army vessel Ryochi Maru is sunk by aircraft off Bantayan Island, north of Cebu.

1944 U.S. freighter Johns Hopkins drags anchor in storm and is mined off Marseilles, France, 43°16'N, 05°08'28"E; destroyer USS Hobson is among the ships that proceeds to the stricken freighter's assistance. Rescue tug ATR-127 tows the merchantman into Marseilles, where she discharges her cargo and disembarks the 466 U.S. and French troops she had had embarked. There are no casualties among the 41-man merchant complement or the 28-man Armed Guard.

1949 USSR recognizes People's Republic of China

1952 Britain explodes its first nuclear weapon, in Australia

1952 HMCS Iroquois is lobbing shells at enemy repair crews working on the coastal rail line used to supply Communist forces. Three Canadian sailors are killed when Korean shore batteries open up on Iroquois; the only Canadian Navy fatalities in the Korean War

1954 Former French possession of Chandernagore made part of West Bengal

1958 Guinea gained independence from France

1984 3 Cosmonauts return after a record 237 days in orbit

1986 Sikhs attempted to assassinate Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi


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  #445  
Old 02 Oct 05, 02:57
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1263 - Battle of Largs. Driven ashore by storms, Norse force routed forcing them to abandon the invasion of Scotland.

1284 - Battle of Messina. Sicilian-Catalon fleet burned or destroyed a French fleet.

1835 - First shots of the Texas Revolution fired in the Battle of Gonzales. On this day in 1835, the growing tensions between Mexico and Texas erupt into violence when Mexican soldiers attempt to disarm the people of Gonzales, sparking the Texan war for independence.

Texas--or Tejas as the Mexicans called it--had technically been a part of the Spanish empire since the 17th century. However, even as late as the 1820s, there were only about 3,000 Spanish-Mexican settlers in Texas, and Mexico City's hold on the territory was tenuous at best. After winning its own independence from Spain in 1821, Mexico welcomed large numbers of Anglo-American immigrants into Texas in the hopes they would become loyal Mexican citizens and keep the territory from falling into the hands of the United States. During the next decade men like Stephen Austin brought more than 25,000 people to Texas, most of them Americans. But while these emigrants legally became Mexican citizens, they continued to speak English, formed their own schools, and had closer trading ties to the United States than to Mexico.

In 1835, the president of Mexico, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, overthrew the constitution and appointed himself dictator. Recognizing that the "American" Texans were likely to use his rise to power as an excuse to secede, Santa Anna ordered the Mexican military to begin disarming the Texans whenever possible. This proved more difficult than expected, and on October 2, 1835, Mexican soldiers attempting to take a small cannon from the village of Gonzales encountered stiff resistance from a hastily assembled militia of Texans. After a brief fight, the Mexicans retreated and the Texans kept their cannon.

The determined Texans would continue to battle Santa Ana and his army for another year and a half before winning their independence and establishing the Republic of Texas.

1918 - Damascus fell to the British under General Allenby.

1941 - Operation Typhoon is launched. On this day in 1941, the Germans begin their surge to Moscow, led by the 1st Army Group and Gen. Fedor von Bock. Russian peasants in the path of Hitler's army employ a "scorched-earth" policy.

Hitler's forces had invaded the Soviet Union in June, and early on it had become one relentless push inside Russian territory. The first setback came in August, when the Red Army's tanks drove the Germans back from the Yelnya salient. Hitler confided to General Bock at the time: "Had I known they had as many tanks as that, I'd have thought twice before invading." But there was no turning back for Hitler--he believed he was destined to succeed where others had failed, and capture Moscow.

Although some German generals had warned Hitler against launching Operation Typhoon as the harsh Russian winter was just beginning, remembering the fate that befell Napoleon--who got bogged down in horrendous conditions, losing serious numbers of men and horses--Bock urged him on. This encouragement, coupled with the fact that the Germany army had taken the city of Kiev in late September, caused Hitler to declare, "The enemy is broken and will never be in a position to rise again." So for 10 days, starting October 2, the 1st Army Group drove east, drawing closer to the Soviet capital each day. But the Russians also remembered Napoleon and began destroying everything as they fled their villages, fields, and farms. Harvested crops were burned, livestock were driven away, and buildings were blown up, leaving nothing of value behind to support exhausted troops. Hitler's army inherited nothing but ruins.

1958 - The Cold War comes to Africa, as Guinea gains its independence. The former French colony of Guinea declares its independence on October 2, 1958, with Sekou Toure as the new nation's first leader. Guinea was the sole French West African colony to opt for complete independence, rather than membership in the French Community, and soon thereafter France withdrew all aid to the new republic.

It soon became apparent that Toure would pose a problem for the United States. He was fiercely nationalistic and anti-imperialist, and much of his wrath and indignation was aimed at the United States for its alliances with colonial powers such as Great Britain and France and its refusal to openly condemn the white minority government of South Africa. More troubling for U.S. officials, however, was Guinea's open courting of Soviet aid and money and signing of a military assistance agreement with the Soviet Union. By 1960, nearly half of Guinea's exports were going to eastern bloc nations and the Soviets had committed millions of dollars of aid to the African republic. Toure was also intrigued by Mao's communist experiments in China.

Toure played the Soviet Union and the United States against one another to get the aid and trade he desired. While Guinea's relations with the United States got off to a rocky start (American newspapers routinely referred to the nation as "Red" Guinea), matters improved during the Kennedy administration when Toure refused to accommodate Soviet aircraft wishing to refuel on their way to Cuba during the missile crisis of 1962. In 1975, Toure changed course and allowed Soviet and Cuban aircraft to use Guinea's airfields during the Angolan civil war, then he again reversed position by revoking the privileges in 1977 and moving closer to France and the United States.

The concerns of U.S. officials over communist influences in Guinea, and the up-and-down relationship with Guinea were but precursors of other difficulties the United States would face in postcolonial Africa. As Guinea and other former colonies achieved independence during the post-World War II period, Africa became another battleground in the U.S.-Soviet conflict.

1966 - Soviets report that Russian military personnel have come under fire. The Soviet Defense Ministry newspaper, Krasnaya Zuezda, reports that Russian military experts have come under fire during U.S. raids against North Vietnamese missile sites while the Soviets were training North Vietnamese soldiers in the use of Soviet-made anti-aircraft missiles.

This was extremely significant because it was the first public acknowledgment that Soviets had trained North Vietnamese missile crews and were observing them in action. U.S. officials had long maintained that the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China were providing military aid--including training advisers, weapons, and equipment--that permitted the North Vietnamese to continue the war. Until this pooint, both the Soviets and Chinese had denied they had personnel in North Vietnam.

The North Vietnamese fired over 10,000 SA-2 SAMs (surface-to-air missiles) at U.S. aircraft from 1965 to 1972, and each of those missiles was supplied by the Soviet Union. This was also true for the T-54 medium tanks, 130-mm field guns, and other sophisticated weapons and equipment the North Vietnamese used to launch their 1972 and 1975 offensives. The only time that this steady source of weapons and equipment from the Soviets was significantly impeded was during 1972, when President Richard Nixon ordered the stepping up of air raids against Hanoi and the mining of Haiphong harbor, through which most of the weapons and heavy equipment normally came.

1967 - Aerial offensive against North Vietnam continues. The increased U.S. aerial offensive against North Vietnam that had started August 11 continues. According to U.S. State and Defense officials, the offensive had slowed the flow of war supplies from Communist China to Hanoi. Intelligence overflights revealed that the bombing of bridges had halted the movement of military material on the key rail line from Dong Dang, near the Chinese border, to Hanoi. However, U.S. officials conceded that Communist military equipment was reaching Hanoi by other means.

In Congress, dissention continued over the bombing issue. Senator John Sherman Cooper (R-New York) urged the United States to take the "first step" toward negotiations with an "unconditional cessation" of the bombing of North Vietnam. Senator Gale McGee (D-Wyoming) defended the Vietnam policies of the Johnson administration saying the "stake is not only Vietnam but all the nations in Southeast Asia."
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  #446  
Old 02 Oct 05, 17:03
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October 3

Luis, my town, Rossville, is now flooding & I'm not sure if I'm gonna be back on-line for awhile. So far we're alright, but water will not crest for another 3 hours. This may be pre-mature, but just in case, I wanted to give you a bit of notice. I will try to keep in touch & may yet get lucky.

As Avalon is likely in transit, you may be on your own for awhile. I thank you for all that you do, sir.

Anybody that wishes to chime in is always welcome.

Admiral
_________________________________



Born...

1605 Li Tzu-ch'eng, Chinese revolutionary, dethroned the Ming Dynasty

1789 Francis Hoyt Gregory, naval officer, U.S., d. 1866

1800 George Bancroft, Greatest Secretary of the Navy, historian

1854 William Crawford Gorgas, military surgeon, conqueror of yellow fever

1882 Gunther von Kluge, German field marshal

1925 Gore Vidal, sometime warrant officer, U.S.A.

1935 Charles M Duke Jr, Brig Gen USAF/Astronaut (Apol 16)

1949 Yekaterina A Ivanova, Russian Cosmonaut

1951 Kathryn D Sullivan, PhD/Astronaut (STS 41-G, 28, 31, 45)

Died...

1283 Dafydd ap Gruffyd, last Prince of Gwynnedd (North Wales)

1656 Myles Standish, Plymouth Colony leader

1795 Tula, leader a slave rebellion on Curacao, executed

1929 Gustav Stresemann, German chancellor, Nobel Peace Prize, 1926, at 51

Event...

2333 -BC- Traditional date on which Tangun established (Legendary?) The Kingdom of Chosun (Korea)

1430 Jews are expelled from Eger, Bohemia

1574 Dutch breach the dykes to drive off the Spanish at Leyden

1707 Last Spanish troops in Naples surrender to Austrian Marshal Daun.

1789 Geo. Washington proclaims the 1st national Thanksgiving Day on Nov 26

1860 Piedmontese-Italian Army invades Naples

1861 Combat at Greenbriar, WVa

1863 Abe Lincoln re-designates the last Thursday in November as "Thanksgiving Day"

1871 The Battle of the Scheldt opens today with the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division advancing north out of Antwerp. The objective of the new campaign is to neutralize the German forces stationed along the approaches of the Scheldt estuary

1895 Stephen Crane's "The Red Badge of Courage" is published

1899 US Marines skirmished with Filipino "Insurrectos" on Luzon

1904 France and Spain sign a treaty to divide up Morocco

1912 US Marines participated in the Battles of Coyo Tepe and Barranca Hills during the Nicaraguan Campaign

1918 Boris III becomes Tsar of Bulgaria (1918-1943)

1921 USS Olympia sails for France to bring home the Unknown Soldier from World War I

1928 French submarine Ondine sinks returning to Toulon, 42 die

1929 Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, & Slovenes changes its name to Yugoslavia

1942 Launch of the 1st A-4/V-2 rocket to altitude of 53 miles (85 km)

1942 US troops occupy the Andreanof Islands, in the Aleutians.

1942 US Marines occupy Funafuti in Ellice Islands

1943 9,500 Japanese troops complete withdrawing from Kolombangara.

1943 Central China, Japanese begin major "rice" offensive, to grab crops.

1944 The South Saskatchewan Regiment liberates the Belgian town of Brasschaet, just north of Antwerp where the Prairie soldiers are greeted with kisses, beer, apples, handshakes, and tears from a grateful populace

1955 Soviet battleship Novorossiisk (ex-Giulio Cesare) struck WWII mine in the Baltic Sea, many die

1955 USS Saipan begins disaster relief at Tampico, Mexico rescuing people and delivering supplies. Operations ends 10 October

1955 Former Marine Bob Keeshan's "Captain Kangaroo" airs, to run 29 years

1961 "Mr Ed" premieres

1962 Launch of Sigma 7 (Mercury 8) piloted by CDR Walter M. Schirra, Jr., USN. In a mission lasting 9 hours and 13 minutes, he made 6 orbits at an altitude up to 175.8 statute miles at 17,558 mph. Recovery by USS Kearsarge (CVS-33)

1967 William Knight sets X-15 speed rec of 7,297 KPH/4,534 MPH/Mach 6.72

1985 21st Shuttle Mission (51J)-Atlantis, first all-military flight launched

1986 Soviet Yankee-class sub sinks off North Carolina, 3 die

1989 Attempted Panamanian Defense Force coup against Manuel Noriega fails
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Last edited by Admiral; 04 Oct 05 at 20:09..
  #447  
Old 02 Oct 05, 23:44
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Back on deck Admiral. We'll mind the fort. Take care and we'll be praying all is well for you and your family.

Australian

1918 Lieutenant J. Maxwell, 18th Battalion, originally from Sydney, New South Wales, performed the action that resulted in him being awarded the Victoria Cross, on the fortified 'Beaurevoir line', near Estrees, France.

1942 Australians advance along the Kokoda Track, New Guinea.

1950 3RAR suffers first Australian casualties of Korean War.

1951 3 - 8 October Battle of Maryang-San, Korea. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, made a successful assault against Chinese positions on Hill 317 (Maryang-San) and held the important feature in the face of fierce counter-attacks. 3RAR secures Hill 199, Korea, during Operation Commando.

1992 Dedication, Australian Vietnam Veterans' National Memorial. The Vietnam Veterans' National Memorial, ANZAC Parade, Canberra, was opened by the Prime Minister, the Hon. Paul Keating, MP, and honours those Australians who served and died in the war in Vietnam.
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  #448  
Old 03 Oct 05, 08:26
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No problem Admiral, we got your back, it sticks what's going on over there. I just hope it won't be to serious and that everything gets back to normal soon.
Nice to see you around Avalon, wellcome back. We sure missed you around here.
As for today in military history, I'll try to do my best, but I'm sure this will make us all appreciate Admiral's work a lot more.


October 3



1569 - Battle of Moncontour. Huguenots defeated near Poitiers.

1813 - Battle of Wartemberg. In strong positions, French held out for five hours against a Prussian army four times their size.

1862 - Battle of Corinth. Confederates under General Earl Van Dorn suffer a major defeat when they fail to recapture Corinth, a vital rail center in Mississippi.

Northern Mississippi was the scene of much maneuvering during the summer of 1862. The Confederates were forced to evacuate Corinth in May in the face of heavy Union pressure, but they maintained two armies in the area. On September 19, one of these armies, commanded by Van Dorn, was defeated by William Rosecrans at the Battle of Iuka, 20 miles east of Corinth. Shortly after, Van Dorn combined his force with that of General Sterling Price to form a 22,000-man army that turned toward Corinth to again attack Rosecrans, who had consolidated his forces there.

Van Dorn hurled his army at the outer defenses of Corinth on the morning of October 3. Over the course of the spring and summer, both Union and Confederate occupiers of Corinth had constructed concentric rings of trenches around the city. The Confederates were initially successful at capturing the outer defenses, driving the 23,000 defenders back nearly two miles. The battle lasted all day, and only nightfall brought relief to the battered Yankees.

The next day, the Confederates made a series of desperate assaults on the inner trenches. They suffered heavy losses and began to withdraw from Corinth by early afternoon. The Confederate defeat was devastating. The Union losses included 315 dead, 1,812 wounded, and 232 prisoners, while the Confederate losses included 1,423 dead, 5, 692 wounded, and 2,268 prisoners. The Confederate defeat at Corinth allowed the Union to focus attention on capturing Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Rebel stronghold on the Mississippi River.

1873 - U.S. Army hangs four Modoc Indians for the murder of a Civil War hero. On this day in 1873, the United States military hangs four Indians found guilty of murdering the Civil War hero, General Edward Canby, during the Modoc War in Oregon. Canby was the highest ranking military official--and the only general--ever killed by Indians.

As with most of the American military conflicts with Indians, the Modoc war began with a struggle over land. A treaty signed in 1864 had forced a band of Modoc Indians under the leadership of Chief Keintpoos-known to Americans as Captain Jack--to move to a reservation in southeastern Oregon dominated by Klamath Indians, who viewed the Modoc as unwelcome intruders on their traditional lands. Frustrated with the ill--treatment they received at the hands of the Klamath, Captain Jack and his followers abandoned the reservation in 1870 and returned to their former territory and traditional hunter-gatherer life.

But during their six-year absence, white settlers had flooded into the Modoc's former territory. Despite Captain Jack's repeated assurances that his people wanted only peace, many feared the Indians. In 1872, bowing to public pressure, the U.S. dispatched military forces to remove the Modoc and force them back onto the reservation. When some of the more hotheaded Modoc resisted, war broke out; and the Modoc fled to a stronghold among the Lava Beds south of Tule Lake, where they succeeded in holding off U.S. forces for almost half a year.

During the early months of the Modoc War, Captain Jack had strongly opposed armed resistance and continuously searched for a peaceful solution. But under pressure from more aggressive Modoc who were challenging his leadership, he made the fatal error of agreeing to a plan to kill the leader of the American forces, General Edward Canby. On April 11, 1873, Canby and two other men entered the Modoc stronghold under a flag of truce, hoping to negotiate a peaceful end to the conflict. Captain Jack murdered Canby, and other Modoc killed one of his companions. The third man escaped to give a detailed report of the Modoc's treachery.

Outraged by the murder of an honored Civil War hero, Americans demanded swift retribution. The Army stepped up its attacks on the Modoc, and by early June Captain Jack and his followers had been captured. After a military trial at Fort Klamath, Oregon, Captain Jack and three other Modoc leaders were found guilty of murder and hanged. As a result of the Modoc War and the murder of Canby, the U.S. began to take a much more aggressive approach to dealing with Indian problems throughout the nation.

1888 - "The Yeomen of the Guard" was performed for the first time. It was the first of 423 shows.

1929 - The Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes officially changed its name to the Kingdom of Yugoslavia.

1932 - Iraq wins independence. With the admission of Iraq into the League of Nations, Britain terminates its mandate over the Arab nation, making Iraq independent after 17 years of British rule and centuries of Ottoman rule.

Britain seized Iraq from Ottoman Turkey during World War I and was granted a mandate by the League of Nations to govern the nation in 1920. A Hashemite monarchy was organized under British protection in 1921, and on October 3, 1932, the kingdom of Iraq was granted independence. The Iraqi government maintained close economic and military ties with Britain, leading to several anti-British revolts. A pro-Axis revolt in 1941 led to a British military intervention, and the Iraqi government agreed to support the Allied war effort. In 1958, the monarchy was overthrown, and for the next two decades Iraq was ruled by a series of military and civilian governments. In 1979, General Saddam Hussein became Iraqi dictator and was removed from power after the beginning of Iraq War in 2003.

1935 - Italian forces invaded Abyssinia (now Ethiopia).

1941 - Adolf Hitler stated in a speech that Russia was "broken" and they "would never rise again."

1942 - Germany conducts first successful V-2 rocket test. On this day in 1942, German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun's brainchild, the V-2 missile, is fired successfully from Peenemunde, as island off Germany's Baltic coast. It traveled 118 miles. It proved extraordinarily deadly in the war and was the precursor to the Intercontinental Ballistic Missiles (ICBMs) of the postwar era.

German scientists, led by von Braun, had been working on the development of these long-range missiles since the 1930s. Three trial launches had already failed; the fourth in the series, known as A-4, finally saw the V-2, a 12-ton rocket capable of carrying a one-ton warhead, successfully launched.

The V-2 was unique in several ways. First, it was virtually impossible to intercept. Upon launching, the missile rises six miles vertically; it then proceeds on an arced course, cutting off its own fuel according to the range desired. The missile then tips over and falls on its target-at a speed of almost 4,000 mph. It hits with such force that the missile burrows itself into the ground several feet before exploding. It had the potential of flying a distance of 200 miles, and the launch pads were portable, making them impossible to detect before firing.

The first launches as part of an offensive did not occur until September 6, 1944 when two missiles were fired at Paris. On September 8, two more were fired at England, which would be followed by more than 1,100 more during the next six months. More than 2,700 Brits died because of the rocket attacks.

After the war, both the United States and the Soviet Union captured samples of the rockets for reproduction--they also captured the scientists responsible for their creation.

1944 - During World War II, U.S. troops broke through the Siegfried Line.

1952 - Britain successfully tests A-bomb. Britain successfully tests its first atomic bomb at the Monte Bello Islands, off the northwest coast of Australia.

During World War II, 50 British scientists and engineers worked on the successful U.S. atomic bomb program at Los Alamos, New Mexico. After the war, many of these scientists were enlisted into the secret effort to build an atomic bomb for Britain. Work on the British A-bomb officially began in 1947, and Los Alamos veteran William Penney served as the program head. In February 1952, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill publicly announced the plans to test a British nuclear weapon, and on October 3 a 25-kiloton device--similar to the U.S. atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan--was successfully detonated in the hull of the frigate HMS Plym anchored off the Monte Bello Islands. The test made Britain the world's third atomic power after the United States and the Soviet Union.

1967 - Operation Wallowa commences. Elements of the 1st Cavalry Division launch Operation Wallowa in South Vietnam's northernmost provinces.

A task force was sent in to relieve pressure on the U.S. Marines, who were fighting a heavy series of engagements along the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). As these operations commenced, U.S. planes raided North Vietnamese supply routes and attacked bridges only 10 miles from the Chinese frontier.

1968 - Twenty-four die in Army helicopter accident. At Camp Evans, 11 miles north of Hue, 24 U.S. military personnel die when a U.S. Army CH-47 helicopter collides with an American C-7 Caribou transport aircraft. All aboard both aircrafts perished. Meanwhile, U.S. planes severed roads in more than 20 places, destroying over 75 supply vehicles in the heaviest raids over North Vietnam since July 2.

1989 - An unsuccessful coup was attempted against Panamanian Gen. Manuel Antonio Noriega.

1989 - East Germany suspended unrestricted travel to Czechoslovakia in an effort to slow the flow of refugees to the West.

1990 - The Berlin Wall was dismantled eleven months after the borders between East and West Germany. The unification ended 45 years of division.

1990 - Iraqi President Saddam Hussein made a visit to Kuwait since his country had seized control of the oil-rich nation.

1994 - The headquarters of the Haitian pro-army militia was raided by U.S. soldiers.
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  #449  
Old 03 Oct 05, 10:58
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3 October 1918:

Actions by Captain John MacGregor of the 2nd Canadian Mounted Rifles Battalion near Cambrai earn him the Victoria Cross.
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  #450  
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October 4

Thanks Luis Will be right when I get over the jetlag


Australia


1917 Sergeant Lewis McGee, 40th Battalion, originally from Campbelltown, Tasmania, wins the Victoria Cross near Ypres, Belgium. McGee was awarded the Victoria Cross posthumously.

1917 Lance Corporal Walter Peeler, 3rd Pioneer Battalion, originally from Castlemaine, Victoria, was awarded the Victoria Cross for his actions at Broodseinde Ridge, during the battle of Ypres, Belgium.

1943 Australians capture Dumpu in the Ramu Valley, New Guinea.

1951 3RAR continues Operation Commando and captures Kowang San (Hill 355), Korea.


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