HistoryNet.com RSS
ArmchairGeneral.com RSS

HistoryNet.com Articles
America's Civil War
American History
Aviation History
British Heritage
Civil War Times
MHQ
Military History
Vietnam
Wild West
World War II

ACG Online
ACG Magazine
Stuff We Like
War College
History News
Tactics 101
Carlo D'Este
Books

ACG Gaming
Boardgames
PC Game Reviews

ACG Network
Contact Us
Our Newsletter
Meet Our Staff
Advertise With Us

Sites We Support
HistoryNet.com
Once A Marine
The Art of Battle
Game Squad
Mil. History Podcast
Russian Army - WW2
Achtung Panzer!
Mil History Online

Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > American Civil War

Notices and Announcements

American Civil War The American Civil War.

Reply
 
Thread Tools Display Modes
  #1  
Old 04 Dec 04, 15:31
Cheetah772's Avatar
Cheetah772 Cheetah772 is offline
General of the Forums
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon ACG Ten Year Service Award March Offensive 
 
Real Name: Dan
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: Silver Spring, Maryland
Posts: 6,908
Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600]
Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600]
How did Confederate soldiers fare after the war?

Hello,

I have a question for all of you Civil War buffs. How did Confederate soldiers fare after the war was over? I know they all got pardons from Andrew Johnson, and somehow lived "peaceably" if only relcutantly. I find this interesting, because in European civil wars, I mean, nobody on the losing side would hope to receive some sort of amnesty or pardon. I mean, would English monarchical forces grant pardons for Parliamentary forces if they lost the most brutal war fought on English soil? I think not. I think Oliver Cromwell would have been hanged and quartered with no mercy. Pardon me if I got English history wrong.

I suppose the real question is how was different American Civil War from European civil wars of any time period?

Thanks,
Dan
__________________
Obama, "We don't have a strategy." (Press conference, 8/28)

So much for his intellectual superiority.

God help all of us.
Reply With Quote
Facebook Connect and Magazine Promotions

World War II Magazine
$26.95

Armchair General Magazine
$26.95
Military History Magazine
$26.95
  #2  
Old 04 Dec 04, 19:06
GeorgiaDixie's Avatar
GeorgiaDixie GeorgiaDixie is offline
Major General
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: Michael Kennedy
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Savannah, GA
Posts: 2,641
GeorgiaDixie is on the path to success [1-99]
Well the ACW was also different in that the Northern populace was just tired of the war. They themselves, while they may have lost family member in the war, had not actually had their homes touched by rebellion, which is much different than most any civil war. That's why the American Civil War wasn't really a "Civil War" in the true sense (though I'm sure some folks on this board will disagree ). Also, if the North had been even more vengeful towards the South (it was already, just not in a bloody sense) there would have been a full scale guerilla war, b/c the Southern soldiers would have quickly taken to those tactics if they were being hunted down.
__________________
"Anything worth fighting for is worth fighting dirty for"
"The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step, and a lot of bitching"
Reply With Quote
  #3  
Old 06 Dec 04, 09:49
hellboy30's Avatar
hellboy30 hellboy30 is offline
ACG Forums - General Staff
United_States
Distinguished Service Award 5 Year Service Ribbon ACG Ten Year Service Award March Offensive 
Summer Campaign 100 Greatest Generals, 2008 Most Decisive Battle Campaign, 2008 Greatest Blunders Campaign 
Best Pin-Up Of World War II 
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Georgia
Posts: 6,779
hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800]
hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800]
Good question

Quote:
Originally Posted by GeorgiaDixie
Well the ACW was also different in that the Northern populace was just tired of the war. They themselves, while they may have lost family member in the war, had not actually had their homes touched by rebellion, which is much different than most any civil war. That's why the American Civil War wasn't really a "Civil War" in the true sense (though I'm sure some folks on this board will disagree ). Also, if the North had been even more vengeful towards the South (it was already, just not in a bloody sense) there would have been a full scale guerilla war, b/c the Southern soldiers would have quickly taken to those tactics if they were being hunted down.
While I would agree that the Northern populace was tired of war, I would disagree that their homes had not been "touched". There were raids & burnings of Unionist homes all across the South & there were even some raids that reached parts of the North. While not on the same scale as what happened to the South, it did happen. There was a lot of other ways they were affected. Certainly the deaths & woundings of men had an impact as well as financially (inflation was way up & paper currency was being printed). Tragedy still followed some soldiers-like in the sinking of the Sultana. I don't believe that the North would have been nearly so "vengeful" if Lincoln had not been assasinated. The whole country was deeply affected by the war. Even today the effects of that conflict still run deep.

Back to the original question: "How did Confederate soldiers fare after the war was over?" Good question. I'm not sure right off the top of my head as most of the unit histories, journals, & letters I have read were from during the war. What you said in comparing it to other Civil Wars is also intriguing, as I have asked many of my friends that same question. Militarily, physically, emotionally, & financially they were pretty well whipped. I suppose it was somewhat like the end of the Vietnam conflict as far as morale went. They had a lot of pieces to pick up when they got home. They probably felt betrayed by their leaders & by the soldiers who left, deserted, surrendered, etc. I haven't seen any books on the subject or I would recommend one to you. I'll poke around a little & ask friends who might know of something or somewhere to look.

Here is a good article that may answer some questions...from:http://experts.about.com/q/672/673214.htm

Quote:
I have a broad understanding of post Civil War conditions in the South, but there are some details that I can`t seem to work out in spite of my research efforts. So I have several "little" questions.

1. Were all former Confederate soldiers disenfranchised or only officers?

2. Were all former Confederates not allowed to purchase land, or did that policy only apply to homestead grants?

3. Did southerners lose all of their cash in hand that was in Confederate currency?

4. How visible were the Federal soldiers during military occupation of the south? Were they stationed in forts or were they on the streets in towns? Did they act as military police of civilians?

Thanks for your assistance.
Howard Blount

Answer
Mr. Blount:

1.First it must be realized that there were actually three Reconstruction plans: Lincoln's, Johnson's, and the Congressional, or Radical Republican's.

Lincoln's Plan, first applied to Tennessee in 1863, provided for a state to return to its proper position in the Union when a number of citizens equal to 10% of the 1860 electorate took an oath of loyalty to the Union. Lincoln sought to restore the Union as soon as possible.

After Lincoln's assassination in 1865, Johnson became President and attempted to carry out Lincoln's policies.
His plan provided for readmission of a state when it abolished slavery, repealed its ordinance of secession, and repudiated its war debt. He also recognized several of Lincoln's "10%" states. Johnson's Amnesty Proclamation of May 29, 1865, provided for the pardon of all who would take a loyalty oath with the exception of certain individuals, most notably, those who held a rank of colonel in the army or lieutenant in the navy. Additionally, all who left seats in Congress to aid the Confederacy or who were educated at the Military Academy or the Naval Academy were excepted. He did provide for disenfranchisement of certain leading Confederates and those with taxable property worth more than $20,000, although they might petition him for presidential pardons.

The Congressional Reconstruction plans were much harsher. They provided that former Confederates who, as federal officeholders, had once sworn to support the US Constitution were disqualified from holding state and federal office (14th Amendment).

In actuality, few former Confederates were disenfranchised by the law, only a few high ranking officers and office holders. The Third Reconstruction Act gave the Commanding General, in the five military districts that ten of the former Confederate states were put under, wide authority to decide who could and who could not be registered to vote.The only enlisted men who were disenfranchised by the law were ones who fell under the provisions of the 14th Amendment. Most who were disenfranchised could apply for pardon to the Federal Government. Most were approved.

2. The Homestead Act of 1862 entitled anyone to acquire homestead lands excepting, among others, those who had "borne arms against the United States Government or given aid and comfort to its enemies. . ."
I am not familiar to the extent that this provision was enforced against former Confederate soldiers.

3. Since all former Confederate states were required to repudiate their wartime debts, Confederate currency became worthless. There was some coinage by the Confederacy, very little, and these coins would have kept the intrinsic value of the specie each contained, of course.

4.There were approximately 20,000 Union troops stationed in the ten former Confederate states; Tennessee was already back in the Union. The troops were very visible and were used in both civil and military capacities. They were often garrisoned in former military barracks, but were stationed wherever the General Officer commanding the district decided they could best help him with his policies.

Keep in mind that there was military occupation and government in several Southern states well before the end of the War. For example, New Orleans was occupied and governed by the notorious Benjamin(Spoons)Butler from 1863.

Military occupation of Southern states continued in Louisiana, Florida, and South Carolina until 1877.

I hope this helps.
__________________
The muffled drums sad roll has beat the soldier's last tatoo. No more on life's parade shall meet that brave and fallen few.
Reply With Quote
  #4  
Old 06 Dec 04, 18:31
GeorgiaDixie's Avatar
GeorgiaDixie GeorgiaDixie is offline
Major General
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: Michael Kennedy
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Savannah, GA
Posts: 2,641
GeorgiaDixie is on the path to success [1-99]
The Confederate soldiers, after the Reconstruction period, were seen as any regular citizen and veteran, at least in the South. They participated in every facet of the government (except for the fact that no Southern veteran ever received a Presidential or Vice Presidential nomination). I also don't think that the Southern soldier was disgruntled with his leaders, at least not those in the East. Probably many Western Confederate soldiers were, but in the East the troops still worshipped their commanders (especially Lee) after the war.
__________________
"Anything worth fighting for is worth fighting dirty for"
"The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step, and a lot of bitching"
Reply With Quote
  #5  
Old 06 Dec 04, 21:12
MajorH's Avatar
MajorH MajorH is offline
Major
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: I.L. Holdridge
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: San Antonio, Texas
Posts: 1,163
MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100] MajorH has demonstrated strength of character [100]
> They probably felt betrayed by their leaders

My great grandfather, John Thomas Holdridge (1845 - 1927), served in Company D, 14th Alabama Regiment, Pryns Brigade. After the war he named two of his sons after Robert E. Lee and Col. D. W. Baine (his regimental commander). Doesn't sound disillusioned to me.
__________________
Best regards, Major H
MajorH@satx.rr.com
Reply With Quote
  #6  
Old 06 Dec 04, 22:38
hellboy30's Avatar
hellboy30 hellboy30 is offline
ACG Forums - General Staff
United_States
Distinguished Service Award 5 Year Service Ribbon ACG Ten Year Service Award March Offensive 
Summer Campaign 100 Greatest Generals, 2008 Most Decisive Battle Campaign, 2008 Greatest Blunders Campaign 
Best Pin-Up Of World War II 
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Georgia
Posts: 6,779
hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800]
hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800] hellboy30 gives and gets respect [800]
Quote:
Originally Posted by MajorH
> They probably felt betrayed by their leaders

My great grandfather, John Thomas Holdridge (1845 - 1927), served in Company D, 14th Alabama Regiment, Pryns Brigade. After the war he named two of his sons after Robert E. Lee and Col. D. W. Baine (his regimental commander). Doesn't sound disillusioned to me.
What I meant was more in a POLITICAL sense than militarily. Most of the men I know (& I work very closely with 3 of them) who fought in Vietnam have few problems with their military leaders, but have nothing but scorn for the political leaders. I'm sure many a man felt betrayed by Jeff Davis, his cabinet, the Confederate Congress, & the state governors in some capacity or another. Many of the diaries, letters, & journals I have read have born out some sort of disappointment during the war, so I'm sure most felt something afterwards.
__________________
The muffled drums sad roll has beat the soldier's last tatoo. No more on life's parade shall meet that brave and fallen few.
Reply With Quote
  #7  
Old 07 Dec 04, 09:14
Aragos's Avatar
Aragos Aragos is offline
Lance Corporal
United_States
 
Real Name: LTC Bob Mackey, USA
Join Date: Nov 2004
Location: Washington, DC
Posts: 46
Aragos is on the path to success [1-99]
IMHO, I think the veterans 1) idolized their wartime military commanders, and 2)had little respect for their political leaders. Lee, Jackson, Stuart, etc. were lifted to the level of demi-gods by the ex-CSA soldiers, but the political leaders were pretty much reviled--including Davis. I think, (again, just an opinion) that that may have had much do with the fleeing of the CS government at the end plus the bonding of soldiers plus the general dislike for centralized government by most Southerners.

A good example could be a look at the names of the UCV (United Confederate Veterans, the CSA veterans organization) organizations across the South in the years following the war. Almost all were named after CS military leaders (RE Lee Post #97, etc.). I dont think I've ever heard of one named after CS political leaders.
Reply With Quote
  #8  
Old 07 Dec 04, 17:53
GeorgiaDixie's Avatar
GeorgiaDixie GeorgiaDixie is offline
Major General
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: Michael Kennedy
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Savannah, GA
Posts: 2,641
GeorgiaDixie is on the path to success [1-99]
Quote:
Originally Posted by hellboy30
What I meant was more in a POLITICAL sense than militarily. Most of the men I know (& I work very closely with 3 of them) who fought in Vietnam have few problems with their military leaders, but have nothing but scorn for the political leaders. I'm sure many a man felt betrayed by Jeff Davis, his cabinet, the Confederate Congress, & the state governors in some capacity or another. Many of the diaries, letters, & journals I have read have born out some sort of disappointment during the war, so I'm sure most felt something afterwards.
Oh, I got ya hellboy. I agree 100%. There really is a similarity there between Confederate soldiers and Vietnam vets, about the disillusionment with their political leaders. Especially the Congress. You don't see many former Confederate politicians being elected to office in later years. Most of the folks are former Confederate officers. Now that we settled the confusion, I agree completely with you!
__________________
"Anything worth fighting for is worth fighting dirty for"
"The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step, and a lot of bitching"
Reply With Quote
  #9  
Old 07 Dec 04, 17:55
GeorgiaDixie's Avatar
GeorgiaDixie GeorgiaDixie is offline
Major General
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: Michael Kennedy
Join Date: Apr 2004
Location: Savannah, GA
Posts: 2,641
GeorgiaDixie is on the path to success [1-99]
Quote:
Originally Posted by Aragos
IMHO, I think the veterans 1) idolized their wartime military commanders, and 2)had little respect for their political leaders. Lee, Jackson, Stuart, etc. were lifted to the level of demi-gods by the ex-CSA soldiers, but the political leaders were pretty much reviled--including Davis. I think, (again, just an opinion) that that may have had much do with the fleeing of the CS government at the end plus the bonding of soldiers plus the general dislike for centralized government by most Southerners.

A good example could be a look at the names of the UCV (United Confederate Veterans, the CSA veterans organization) organizations across the South in the years following the war. Almost all were named after CS military leaders (RE Lee Post #97, etc.). I dont think I've ever heard of one named after CS political leaders.
Excellent post and I don't think I have had the chance to welcome you the board, so welcome! I actually think Jefferson Davis is one of the few Confederate politicians who did not suffer the distrust of the common Confederate after the war. I also think there are a few SCV camps named after him. Besides Davis, most weren't highly respected by their constituents.
__________________
"Anything worth fighting for is worth fighting dirty for"
"The journey of a thousand miles begins with one step, and a lot of bitching"
Reply With Quote
  #10  
Old 14 Dec 04, 08:04
Janos's Avatar
Janos Janos is offline
General of the Forums
Hungary
Distinguished Service Award 5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: János ispán Vezérőrnagy
Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Fredericksburg, Virginia (CSA)
Posts: 14,851
Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700]
Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700]
Many of the vets faced the same problem everyone faced in the South...poverty following 4 years of war, military occupation to rub their nose in the dirt, and high taxes to strip away anything of property (for awarding to scalawags and carpetbaggers).

My father's father's family owned a house in Fredericksburg (destroyed during the war) and lost their farm to the tax man. One of the men was held in prison until the summer of 1866. Many of the non-combatants has been killed and the nerest city, where they sought shelter, (Fredricksburg) was in ruins. At least one of the men joined the Klan (1860s version -- he was disgusted by the later forms) to regain political power for Southern men.

My father's mother's family was also impoverished, but being in No. Carolina did not have their property destroyed in the war. It was all taken by the tax man afterwards. Two generations later their descendents were picking tobacco. Their slaves were freed, but as many as could be taken care of stayed with the family well into the 20th Century; many former slaves' families kept the family name. They also moved into the city (Nashville NC).
__________________
Barcsi János ispán vezérőrnagy
Time Magazine's Person of the Year for 2003 & 2006


"Never pet a burning dog."

RECOMMENDED WEBSITES:
http://www.mormon.org
http://www.sca.org
http://www.scv.org/
http://www.scouting.org/
Reply With Quote
Sponsored Links

  #11  
Old 14 Dec 04, 08:21
TacCovert4's Avatar
TacCovert4 TacCovert4 is online now
General of the Forums
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon March Offensive Greatest/Best Tank of WW2 Campaign CWiE 1939-45 Campaign 
 
Real Name: Knight of Rome
Join Date: Oct 2004
Location: On Crusade
Posts: 11,430
TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100]
TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100] TacCovert4 is a pillar of the community [1100]
I have a purchase order for land, dating in the 1870s from my family. the 135 Acres of cutover forest and prime farmland was later lost to the tax man.
__________________
Commander Chinese Forces

Lt. Dan, Company XO and sometimes Armored Car commander.
Reply With Quote
  #12  
Old 21 Dec 04, 05:54
Janos's Avatar
Janos Janos is offline
General of the Forums
Hungary
Distinguished Service Award 5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: János ispán Vezérőrnagy
Join Date: Mar 2004
Location: Fredericksburg, Virginia (CSA)
Posts: 14,851
Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700]
Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700] Janos is a glorious beacon of light [700]
Quote:
Originally Posted by TacCovert4
I have a purchase order for land, dating in the 1870s from my family. the 135 Acres of cutover forest and prime farmland was later lost to the tax man.
Was the land lost in Reconstruction or later?
__________________
Barcsi János ispán vezérőrnagy
Time Magazine's Person of the Year for 2003 & 2006


"Never pet a burning dog."

RECOMMENDED WEBSITES:
http://www.mormon.org
http://www.sca.org
http://www.scv.org/
http://www.scouting.org/
Reply With Quote
  #13  
Old 01 Jan 05, 19:28
Hunter's Avatar
Hunter Hunter is offline
Corporal
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: Danville. Va
Posts: 61
Hunter is a balanced individual [0]
The post war period known as Reconstruction was a very difficult period. The late Confederacy has been raveged by 4 years of combat and the countryside was a quilt of fallow fields, burned out plantations, destroyed cities. The infrastructure was litteraly non existant due to the conquering Union Armies had taken all the rolling stock, destroyed the railway and bridges.

Law and order was non existant due to the collaspe of the Confedrategovernment. Lawless bands of guerrillas, deserters roamed the countryside and preyed on the surviving countryside.

Thousands perished from exposure, disease and hunger. For example a group of horses killed by Sherman's army lay unburried for six weeks near Columbia SC because all spades, picks and shovels were taken by the Federal troops.

Shortly the combat troops were replaced by 200,000 occupation troops, the Freedman's Bureau, and Northern relief agencies. Immeadiately Martial law was established which ment that the civillian law enforcement was not in effect- justice was handled by the military, the Freedman's Bureau, dealt with relations between the former slaves and the former owners. This bureau handed out 150,000 daily rations during the summer of 1865 and continued to do so until 1870. By the end of Reconstruction they had provided over twenty two million rations.

This was a positive aspect, but there were negative aspects as well. The Treasurey Department sent special agents throughout the South to seize whatever Confederate assets that were left, much of which was taken for their personal enrichment.A special tax the "Cotton Tax" of 2.5 cents per lb was levied , later upped to 3 cents. It's purpose was to help pay for the cost of the war.

These predecessors of the IRS also took over property of the former plantation owners because they were unable to pay the tax bill. Arlington, Lee's home, was lost this way to the Lee family because Lee due to the war couldn't pay the tax bill. So called "Carpet Baggers" flooded the defeated states and preyed on the populace. This added further tot he misery of the population.

The typical attitude of the Southern populace was one of continued defiance towards the occupiers as well as violence towards the freedmen. As one North Carolinian innkeeper told a Northern reporter, " The Yankees killed my sons, burned my house down and stolen my slaves. They left me with one thing and is the privilage to hate 'em. I git up in the mornin' at half past four and sit up 'till twelve at night, to hate 'em."

This aspect though was less prevailant in the former Confederate Soldiers than in the noncombatants.
One Northern writer reported that most Southern whites were so despondent that " they would have submitted to any terms of reconstruction that the government imposed. They expected nothing, were prepared for the worst; would have been thankful for anything... They asked for no terms. made no conditions. They were defeated and helpless- they submitted."

By 1867 with the election of a hard line Republican majority in Congress, the softer Presidential Reconstruction was replaced with the harsher Congressional Reconstruction. This act set harder guidelines for the late Confederacy to rejoin the Union. 1.) Acceptance of the 14th Amendment, Sufferage for the former slaves, long term disenfranchisement of the ex Confedrates, to set up new state governments before a counter revolution of Southern Demeocrats could destroy them,

2.)Confiscation and redistribution of land , to give he freedmen an economic basis for their new political power.

3.) Reduction of the former Confederate States to territories which meant that they would be treated AS territories and go through the process of applying for state hood.

4.) New State Constitutions which abolished slavery, established public education for both races, universal manhood sufferage, increased the state's responsibility for social welfare beyond what had previously existed, Prison reforms and reduced capital crimes.

One of the sticking points was the disenfranchisement of the ex Confederate leaders. Texas, South Carolina, Georgia,Florida, Lousiana, adopted costitutions that disfrancisedno one for participation in the rebellion, thhough Louisiana required that a statement confessing the error of their ways before gaining the right to vote.

Virginia, Akansas,Alabama, Missisippi selected certain categories of ex Confederate leaders ranging from 10 to 20 percent of the potential white voters. These proved unpopular and were rejected initialy by both white and black voters. Once they were removed the constitiutions passed muster with Congresshey were readmitted to the Union. Texas being the last Confederate state re admitted in 1869.

Supposedly this event ended Reconstruction, but other issues such as the financial issue, the rise of the Ku Klux Klan and it's terror campaign against the freedmen, carpet baggers, and others. what started out as a secret organization of former Confederate soldiers, had by 1868 evolved into the organization that elected fear in many parts of the black population as well as the loss of many civil rights granted to them under the 14th amemdment and the Reconstruction Acts . The Klan would be a part of the American political scene well for nearly 100 years- it's peak of violence being around 1930's. Congress would pass laws designed to supress the Klan and drive it underground where it still practiced terrorist activities such as lynchings of blacks for percieved slights against whites, bombings of churches in the 60's. It is still crawling in the slime though it is not limited to the South but has spread to other areas of the United States where it goes by the title of White Supremacy.

Sorry about the diatribe...

To summarize reconstruction is a hard thing to do. It is a complicated list of issues that took nearly thirty years after the war to finish-and even then the issues would continue to fester even to the 1960's. In 1894 the Democratic Congress repealed much of the Republican 1870-71 enforcement legislaion. The Lodge Bill in 1890 would be the last attempt at a Civil Rights Act until 1957. It didn't pass. With the repeal of the 1870-71 acts, the era of Reconstruction was officialy over.

Most confederate soldiers were left alone by the occupation forces to try and rebuild their lives and fortunes. If they stepped out of line and caused civil disturbances and could be proved then they would be "hassled".
Reply With Quote
  #14  
Old 01 Jan 05, 21:15
last_cav1971's Avatar
last_cav1971 last_cav1971 is offline
General
United_States
Distinguished Service Award 5 Year Service Ribbon 
 
Real Name: Mark Christian
Join Date: Feb 2004
Location: West Virginia
Posts: 4,203
last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99] last_cav1971 is on the path to success [1-99]
Hunter,
That is a pretty darn good summation of the period.

Mark
Deo Vindice
__________________
Si vis pacem, para bellum. (If you want peace, prepare for war.)
Reply With Quote
  #15  
Old 17 Jan 05, 16:38
Cheetah772's Avatar
Cheetah772 Cheetah772 is offline
General of the Forums
United_States
5 Year Service Ribbon ACG Ten Year Service Award March Offensive 
 
Real Name: Dan
Join Date: Aug 2002
Location: Silver Spring, Maryland
Posts: 6,908
Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600]
Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600] Cheetah772 is simply cracking [600]
Hello,

Thank you for all brilliant answers. However, what I want the most is HOW DIFFERENT were European and American soldiers fared after fighting in civil wars? Would you agree that basically, American soldiers were better off than most of European counterparts when civil wars were over for the losing sides?

Has this been even researched at all? No? Would it make an interesting subject or an entirely pointless attempt seeing that European and American cultures are vastly different from each other in respect of rebel soldiers faring after civil wars?

Dan
__________________
Obama, "We don't have a strategy." (Press conference, 8/28)

So much for his intellectual superiority.

God help all of us.
Reply With Quote
Reply

Please bookmark this thread if you enjoyed it!


Thread Tools
Display Modes



Forum Jump

All times are GMT -4. The time now is 22:12.
Powered by vBulletin® Version 3.8.8 Beta 1
Copyright ©2000 - 2014, vBulletin Solutions, Inc.