Originally Posted by Pruitt
You might want to define "dug in".
I'm thinking a two man fighting position with overhead cover. The type of fighting position that could be built by troops with hand tools, shovels, picks, and axes. Would have simple over head cover such as logs and sand bags. Basically holes in the ground, not heavy concrete structures.
the extensive fortifications the Japanese built in the Pacific Islands, or the German West Wall / Siegfried line etc.
In such a position if the men had their heads down they would be fairly safe from shell fragments, the main killer from an artillery shell.
I remember from my artillery days that the "kill radius" of a 105 mm howitzer was 25 meters, 1 155 mm howitzer 50 meters and a big 8" (pride of the 17th Field Artillery Battalion in Korea!) was 80 meters.
These figures assumed optimal conditions, troops standing, in the open on level ground. The kill radius of the various weapons would drop in less optimal conditions such as uneven ground, heavy vegetation and men in shelters.
If I remember correctly "kill" actually meant injury severely enough that they could no longer function.
What I can't remember is what size shell crater each shell could make.
If a shell with a delay fuse hit close enough to a fighting position, it could bury the defenders alive or kill them outright.
Bigger shells such as the 8" and possibly the 155 mm may
be able to injure defenders by over pressure. The ears being most vulnerable, the lungs to a lesser extent.