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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1381  
Old 28 Nov 06, 16:37
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 28


By Admiral:

Born...

1810 William Froude, England, engineer/naval architect

1811 King Maximilian II Josef of Bavaria (1848-64)

1820 Friedrich Engels, Marx's henchman & meal ticket, exploiter of the workers

1820 Lawrence O'Bryan Branch, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862

1857 King Alfonso XII of Spain (1874-85)

1887 Ernst Rohm, Nazi, SA, murdered by Hitler, 1934

1902 Philippe Le Clerc, Liberator of Paris (dies this date, 1947)

1913 Hugo Pos, Suriname/Neth WW II prosecutor of minor war crimes Tokyo

Died...

1058 Duke Casimir I the Restorer of Poland (1034-58)

1499 Edward Plantagenet, Earl of Warwick, beheaded

1794 Major General Baron Friederich Wilhelm Ludorf Gerhard Augustin von Steuben, though Prussian he was U.S. inspector-general of Washingtons Continental Army, dies at 64. His influence & work courses throughout Americas military establishment to this day.

1947 Philippe Le Clerc, Liberator of Paris, in a plane crash (born this date, 1902)

1962 Queen Mother Wilhelmina, retired Queen of the Netherlands (1890-1948), at 82

1971 Wasfi Tal, Jordanian prime minister, assassinated by Black September

1984 Hans Speidel, German General/NATO-supreme commander (1957-64), at 87

Event...

587 Treaty of Andelot: King Guntram takes cousin Childebert II as heir

1340 Battle of Salado, last Moorish victory in Spain

1443 George Kastriotis [Skanderberg] proclaims Albania principality

1520 Ferdinand Magellan begins crossing Pacific Ocean

1569 Duke of Alva forces bishop Nicolaas van Nieuwland of Haarlem to resign

1696 A French force of 400 raiders, led by d'Iberville, defeats a detachment of 80 English militia outside of St. John's, Nfld. As the militia and settlers flee, the invaders march into town.

1710 Battle at Brihuega: English General Stanhope captured

1745 French troops attack Indians at Saratoga, NY

1757 England condemns ceasefire of Kloster-Seven

1775 2nd Continental Congress adopts first rules for regulation of the "Navy of the United Colonies."

1776 Washington and his troops cross Delaware River

1795 US pays $800,000 & a frigate as tribute to Algiers & Tunis

1812 US Marines participated in the "Battle of Red House" in Canada.

1813 Kosacks occupy Utrecht

1821 Panama declares independence from Spain

1854 Dutch army stops Chinese uprising in Borneo

1861 Confederate congress officially admits Missouri to Confederate Army

1862 Battle at Cane Hill, Arkansas (475 casualties)

1862 Battle of Holly Spring, MS

1864 Battle of New Creek/Rosser's Raid/Ft Kelly, WV

1864 3rd day of Battles at Waynesboro/Jones's Plantation, Georgia

1879 Battle at Lydenburg South Africa: Gen Wolseley beats Sekhukhenes Pedi-Zulu

1899 Battle of Mud river (Boer general. Cronje beats British general Methuen)

1904 Germany defeats Hottentots at Warmbadm, Southwest Africa

1912 Albania declares it's Indepenence from Turkey

1916 First German air attack on London

1918 Emperor Wilhelm of Prussia and Germany, abdicates

1929 Lt Cmdr Richard E Byrd makes 1st South Pole flight

1932 France and U.S.S.R. signs not-attack treaty

1934 Churchill tells Premier Baldwin not to underestimate German air power

1939 Nazi Governor-General of Poland, Hans Frank organizes Judenrat

1939 U.S. freighter Winston Salem is detained at Ramsgate, England, by British authorities

1939 The USSR revokes the Soviet-Finnish nonagression pact of 1939.

1941 German troops vacate Rostov

1941 CNO signals all forces "Hostile action is possible at any moment...."

1941 Carrier USS Enterprise sails for Wake Island in TF 8 to ferry USMC F4Fs (VMF 211) to the atoll. Occasioned by the "war warning" of the previous day, the deployment is part of eleventh-hour augmentation of defenses at outlying Pacific bases. Halsey approves "Battle Order No. 1" (28 November) that declares that USS Enterprise is operating "under war conditions." "Steady nerves and stout hearts," the carrier's captain concludes, "are needed now." Supporting PBY operations will be carried out from advanced bases at Wake and Midway.

1941 Seaplane tender USS Wright, arrives at Wake Island, with Marine Aircraft Group 21 people to establish an advance aviation base.

1941 U.S. passenger liner President Harrison, chartered for the purpose, sails from Shanghai, China, with the 1st Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment and regimental staff embarked, bound for the Philippines. "Stirring scenes of farewell," U.S. Consul Edwin F. Stanton reports to Secretary of State Hull, accompany the Marines' departure.

1941 During their storm-fraught passage to rendezvous with the river gunboats proceeding from Shanghai to Manila, submarine rescue vessel USS Pigeon experiences steering casualty; minesweeper USS Finch, which loses both anchors in the tempest, stands by to render assistance, and eventually, after three tries, manages to take the crippled ship in tow the following day.

1942 Cargo ship Alchiba is damaged by Japanese midget submarine Ha.10 (from submarine I-16) 3,000 yards northeast of Lunga Point, Guadalcanal.

1942 USAAF B-17s attack Japanese convoy en route from Munda, New Georgia, to Guadalcanal, and damage cargo vessel Chihaya Maru.

1942 Gunboat Erie, torpedoed by German submarine U-163 on 12 November, is moved into the inner harbor at Willemstad, Curacao, N.W.I., to prevent her from sinking and to facilitate salvage

1942 Aircraft escort vessel USS Chenango is damaged by heavy seas in the North Atlantic.

1942 U.S. freighter Alaskan is torpedoed, shelled and sunk by German submarine U-172 about 400 miles north of St. Paul's Rocks, 03°58'N, 26°19'W; six merchant seamen and one Armed Guard sailor are killed in the attack

1943 Teheran (EUREKA) Conference begins in Teheran, Iran, between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Premier Stalin.

1943 Submarine USS Bowfin sinks Japanese army cargo ship Sydney Maru and merchant cargo ship Tonan Maru off central Philippines, 12°45'N, 109°41'E, but is damaged by Japanese gunfire and is forced to terminate her patrol.

1943 Submarines USS Pargo and USS Snook attack Japanese transport convoy escorted by destroyer IJN Oite and auxiliary submarine chaser Choan Maru northwest of the Marianas. USS Snook sinks Yamafuku Maru, 18°21'N, 140°08'E.

1943 Submarines USS Raton sinks Japanese army cargo ships Hokko Maru and Yuri Maru, 01°40'N, 141°25'E.

1944 U.S. 121st Infantry regiment occupies Hurtgen

1944 Destroyers USS Saufley, USS Waller, USS Pringle, and USS Renshaw sink Japanese submarine I-46 in Leyte Gulf, 10°48'N, 124°35'E.

1944 Submarine USS Guavina attacks Japanese convoy, 12°54'N, 109°21'E, but while she achieves no success, she eludes counterattacks by submarine chaser Ch 43.

1944 USAAF B-24 (13th Air Force) sinks Japanese merchant tanker Atago Maru off Miri, Borneo, 04°29'N, 114°00'E.

1944 Allied - primarily Canadian - troops clear the Scheldt estuary, permitting ships to reach Antwerp

1951 Military coup under Col Adib el-Shishakli in Syria

1958 U.S. reports 1st full-range firing of an ICBM

1958 Chad, Congo and Mauritania become autonomous members of French Community

1960 Mauritania gains independence from France

1964 Mariner 4 launched; 1st probe to fly by Mars

1964 France performs underground nuclear test at Ecker Algeria

1966 Coup in Burundi

1967 The 1st pulsating radio source (pulsar) detected

1975 Democratic Republic East-Timor proclaimed

1986 Reagan administration exceeds SALT II arms limitations for 1st time

1994 Norway votes against joining European Union
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1382  
Old 28 Nov 06, 16:41
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1340 Battle of Salado, last Moorish victory in Spain

Today's book:

Reconquest And Crusade In Medieval Spain by Joseph F. O'Callaghan

Book Review:

Don't know much about this book, it's often quoten in collage. Some teachers say it's "a must".
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1383  
Old 29 Nov 06, 15:50
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 29


By Admiral:

Born...

1229 Duke Louis II the Strange (the Stern) of upper Bavaria

1330 Count Louis van Male of Flanders, Nevers, and Rethel

1815 Stephen Augustus Hurlbut, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1882

1833 Louis Douglass Watkins, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868

1834 Thomas Edward Greenfield Ransom, Brig Gen, U.S.

1856 Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg, German Chancellor/Premier Prussia, scorner of a "scrap of paper" in 1914.

1911 Klaus EJ Fuchs, German/British atomic physicist/spy

1949 Kenneth D Cameroon, USMC, Astronaut (STS 37, 56)

Died...

561 Chlotarius I, King of France (558-61), at about 61

1314 King Philippe IV the Fair (the Handsome) of France (1285-1314)

1378 Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor , German King/German Emperor

1382 Philip Van Artevelde, Flemish commander-in-chief, KIA

1530 Thomas Wolsey, Cardinal/adviser to England's King Henry VIII

1632 King Frederik V of Bohemia, at 36

1643 Claudio Monteverdi, veteran of the Turkish Wars, composer

1780 Empress Maria Theresia Hapsburg of Austria, at 63

1864 One-Eye, Cheyenne Chief

1954 Enrico Fermi, Italian/US nuclear physicist

1994 Muhammad Ali Araki, Ayatollah of Iran

Event...

799 Pope Leo III, aided by Charles the Great, returns to Rome

1382 French defeat Flemings in the Battle of Westrozebeke

1516 Treaty of Freiburg: French/Swiss "eternal" peace treaty

1581 Doornik surrenders to Duke of Parma

1745 Five hundred French raiders attack the English settlement at Saratoga, NY. The result is limited to plundering and burning and the taking of prisoners - 100 settlers in this case.

1745 Bonnie Prince Charlies army moves into Manchester and occupy Carlisle

1760 Rogers' Rangers capture Detroit from the French

1775 Capt John Manley & schooner Lee takes Br Nancy, with munitions.

1804: US Lt Presley O'Bannon and seven Marines landed in Alexandria, Egypt.

1812 Napoleon's Grand Army crosses the Berezina River in retreat from Russia

1842 The Somers Mutiny

1861 Skirmish at Sedalia/Black Walnut Creek

1863 Battle of Ft Sanders/Ft Loudon, Tn

1864 4th and last day of skirmishes at Waynesboro, Georgia

1864 Battle of Spring Hill, Tn

1864 Sand Creek Massacre: Colorado militia kills 150 peaceful Cheyenne Indians

1887 1887 US receives basing rights to Pearl Harbor, on Oahu, Hawaii

1890 The first Army-Navy football game, at West Point; Navy 24, Army 0

1899 First contingent of Canadian troops for the Boer War arrive at Cape Town to begin their service in South Africa. The men, some 1000 officers and men, have been at sea for a month, crammed into a single troopship, ironically named Sardinian.

1900 Lord Kitchener succeeds Lord Roberts up as supreme commander in South Africa

1916 US declares martial law in Dominican Republic

1918 Serbia annexes Montenegro

1929 Lt Cmdr Richard E Byrd sends "My calculations indicate that we have reached vicinity of South Pole" (He was wrong)

1932 France and the USSR sign a non-aggression pact

1939 USSR severs diplomatic relations with Finland

1939 Submarine S 38 is damaged by explosion of after storage battery, Olongapo, P.I.; four sailors suffer injuries.

1939 U.S. freighter Nishmaha is detained by French authorities at Marseilles; her cargo (cotton, paraffin and beef casings) is held pending the decision of the Contraband Committee in London.

1939 U.S. freighter Extavia is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities.

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee re-embarks from accompanying German tanker Altmark all British merchant marine officers from the six ships that the "pocket battleship" has sunk up to that point. The officers are to be taken back to Germany; the crewmen remain imprisoned on board Altmark.

1940 Destroyers USS Simpson and USS Broome, on Neutrality Patrol off Tampico, Mexico, trail German freighters Idarwald and Rhein as the latter ships make a bid for freedom.

1941 Passenger ship Lurline sends radio signal of sighting Jap war fleet.

1941 Navy beats Army, 14-6.

1941 River gunboats Luzon and Oahu, depart Shanghai for Manila. Oahu is the sistership of river gunboat Panay, which had been bombed and sunk by Japanese naval aircraft near Nanking, China, on 12 December 1937.

1941 TU 4.1.2, accompanied by salvage vessel Redwing and oiler Sapelo, assumes escort for convoy HX 162.

1941 TU 4.1.4 assumes escort duty for convoy ONS 39; the convoy will not be attacked by U-boats during its passage. ONS 39, however, will encounter considerable stormy weather that causes varying degrees of topside damage to destroyers USS Plunkett, USS Livermore, USS Decatur and USS Cole.

1942 USAAF B-17s damage Japanese destroyers IJN Shiratsuyu and IJN Makigumo in Vitiaz Strait off New Britain.

1942 Aircraft from Henderson Field sink Japanese cargo ships Azusa Maru and Kiku Maru, Wickham Anchorage, New Georgia.

1942 U.S. freighter Sawokla is sunk by torpedo and gunfire of German auxiliary cruiser Michel (Schiffe 28) at approximately 28°00'S, 54°00'E, about 400 miles southeast of Madagascar, while en route from Colombo, Ceylon, to Cape Town, South Africa; 16 of the 41-man crew are killed in the attack, as are four of the 13 Armed Guard sailors. Michel rescues 25 crewmen, five Armed Guard sailors and the five passengers

1942 Coffee rationing begins in the US.

1943 1st Marine Parachute Battalion is landed before dawn about six miles east of Cape Torokina from LCVPs and LCMs, covered by two LCI(G) and a motor torpedo boat; heavy Japanese opposition at daybreak, however, compels evacuation of the leathernecks. Destroyer USS Fullam aided by F4U, silences enemy artillery, mortar and sniper fire, and thus allows the successful extraction of the beleaguered marines.

1943 TG 74.2, HMAS Arunta and HMAS Warramunga shell Japanese positions on Gasmata in concert with 2 American destroyers.

1943 Destroyer USS Perkins is sunk in collision with Australian troop ship Duntroon off eastern New Guinea, 09°39'S, 150°04'E.

1943 Submarine USS Bonefish sinks Surabaya-bound Japanese army cargo ship Suez Maru off Kangean Island, north of Bali, 06°57'S, 115°42'E. Unbeknown to the submariners, Suez Maru has on board 546 British POWs. Minesweeper W.12 rescues survivors.

1943 Submarine USS Paddle attacks Japanese fleet tanker Nippon Maru 19 miles off Brown Island, 11°30'N, 162°15'E.

1943 Submarines USS Pargo and USS Snook continue attacks against Japanese transport convoy northwest of the Marianas; USS Pargo torpedoes and sinks Manju Maru, 18°36'N, 140°04'E; USS Snook torpedoes and sinks Shiganoura Maru, 18°38'N, 139°35'E. Destroyer IJN Oite and auxiliary submarine chasercounterattack to no avail.

1943 Submarine USS Snapper sinks Japanese transport Kenryu Maru off Hachijo Jima, 33°16'N, 139°35'E.

1943 Aircraft (VC 19) from escort carrier USS Bogue (from convoy UGS 24 or 27) sink German submarine U-86 about 385 miles east of Terceira, Azores, 39°33'N, 19°01'W; U-238 and U-764 survive the air attacks.

1944 Albania liberated from Nazi control

1944 In Leyte Gulf, kamikazes damage battleship USS Maryland, 10°41'N, 125°23'E, and destroyers USS Saufley, 10°50'N, 125°25'E, and USS Aulick, 10°35'N, 125°40'E.

1944 U.S. freighter William C.C. Claiborne, anchored off Leyte, is hit by what is most likely friendly fire that wounds 3 of the 28-man Armed Guard and 1 of the ship's 42-man merchant complement.

1944 Motor torpedo boats attack Japanese shipping in Ormoc Bay; PT-127 sinks Patrol Boat No.105 (ex-Philippine Arayat), 10°59'N, 124°33'E; PT-128 and PT-191 sink auxiliary minelayer Kusentai No.105.

1944 USAAF B-25s and P-47s (5th Air Force) attack Japanese shipping near Ormoc Bay sinking submarine chaser Ch 45, 10°25'N, 124°00'E. P-40s and P-47s (5th Air Force) sink army cargo ship Shinetsu Maru off Camotes Island, 10°47'N, 124°17'E, and cargo ship Shinsho Maru off Ormoc, 11°01'N, 124°36'E.

1944 Largest submarine kill: USS Archerfish sinks Japanese carrier IJN Shinano 160 nautical miles southeast of Cape Muroto, Japan, 32°00'N, 137°00'E.3, c. 70,000 tons.

1944 Submarine USS Scabbardfish sinks Japanese submarine I-365 off Honshu, 34°44'N, 141°01'E.

1944 Submarine USS Spadefish sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship No.6 Daiboshi Maru off the west coast of Korea, 37°17'N, 125°11'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Sturdy sinks two Japanese fishing vessels off Bawean Island, 06°20'S, 112°40'E.

1947 UN votes to partition Palestine between Jews and Arabs

1948: 9th Marines went to Shanghai to evacuate U. S. nationals.

1949 Nationalist Chinese retreat to Taiwan

1951 The first underground atomic explosion, Frenchman's Flat, Nevada

1951 Winston Churchill re-elected British Premier

1952 President-elect Eisenhower visits Korea to assess the war

1961 Mercury-Atlas 5 carries a chimp (Enos) to orbit

1963 US president Lyndon Baines Johnson sets up Warren Commission to investigate assassination of JFK.

1967 British troops withdraw from Aden and South Yemen

1971 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1978 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1979 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1982 U.S.S.R. performs underground nuclear test

1983 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1987 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1990 U.N. Security Council sets Jan 15th military deadline against Iraq in Kuwait

1994 Russian aircraft bomb Chechen capital of Grozney

By Cap. Teancum:

1950 - Three weeks after U.S. General Douglas MacArthur first reported Chinese communist troops in action in North Korea, U.S.-led U.N. troops begin a desperate retreat out of North Korea under heavy fire from the Chinese.

Near the end of World War II, the "Big Three" Allied powers--the United States, the Soviet Union, and Great Britain--agreed to divide Korea into two separate occupation zones and temporarily govern the nation. The country was split along the 38th parallel, with Soviet forces occupying the northern zone and Americans stationed in the south. By 1949, separate Korean governments had been established, and both the United States and the USSR withdrew the majority of their troops from the Korean Peninsula. The 38th parallel was heavily fortified on both sides, but the South Koreans were unprepared for the hordes of North Korean troops and Soviet-made tanks that suddenly rolled across the border on June 25, 1950.

Two days later, President Harry Truman announced that the United States would intervene in the Korean conflict to stem the spread of communism, and on June 28 the United Nations approved the use of force against communist North Korea. In the opening months of the war, the U.S.-led U.N. forces rapidly advanced against the North Koreans, but in October, Chinese communist troops entered the fray, throwing the Allies into retreat. By May 1951, the communists were pushed back to the 38th parallel, where the battle line remained for the rest of the war.

In 1953, an armistice was signed, ending the war and reestablishing the 1945 division of Korea that still exists today. Approximately 150,000 troops from South Korea, the United States, and participating U.N. nations were killed in the Korean War, and as many as one million South Korean civilians perished. An estimated 800,000 communist soldiers were killed, and more than 200,000 North Korean civilians died.

The original figure of American troops lost--54,246 killed--became controversial when the Pentagon acknowledged in 2000 that all U.S. troops killed around the world during the period of the Korean War were incorporated into that number. For example, any American soldier killed in a car accident anywhere in the world from June 1950 to July 1953 was considered a casualty of the Korean War. If these deaths are subtracted from the 54,246 total, leaving just the Americans who died (from whatever cause) in the Korean theater of operations, the total U.S. dead in the Korean War numbers 36,516.

1967 - Robert S. McNamara announces that he will resign as Secretary of Defense and will become president of the World Bank.

Formerly the president of Ford Motor Company, McNamara had served as Secretary of Defense under two presidents, John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson, from 1961 until 1968. He initially supported U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and encouraged President Johnson to escalate in 1964, but he later began privately to question U.S. policy and eventually advocated a negotiated settlement to the war. In the summer of 1967, he helped draft the San Antonio formula, a peace proposal offering to end the U.S. bombing of the north and asking North Vietnam to join in productive discussions. The North Vietnamese rejected the proposal in October.

Early in November, McNamara submitted a memorandum to Johnson recommending that the United States freeze its troop levels, cease the bombing of the north, and turn over responsibility for fighting the ground war to the South Vietnamese. Johnson rejected these recommendations outright. McNamara subsequently resigned; Johnson adviser Clark Clifford succeeded him.

1968 - The Viet Cong High Command orders an all-out attempt to smash the Phoenix program. Hanoi Radio broadcasted a National Liberation Front directive calling for a new offensive to "utterly destroy" Allied forces. The broadcast added that the new operation was particularly concerned with eliminating the "Phoenix Organization." The Phoenix program (or "Phuong Hoang" as it was called in Vietnamese) was a hamlet security initiative run by the Central Intelligence Agency that relied on centralized, computerized intelligence gathering aimed at identifying and eliminating the Viet Cong infrastructure--the upper echelon of the National Liberation Front political cadres and party members.

The program became one of the most controversial operations undertaken by U.S. personnel in South Vietnam. Critics charged that American-led South Vietnamese "hit teams" indiscriminately arrested and murdered many communist suspects on flimsy pretexts. Despite the criticism and media attention, the program was acknowledged by top-level U.S. government officials, as well as Viet Cong and North Vietnamese leaders after the war, to have been very effective in reducing the power of the local communist cadres in the South Vietnamese countryside.

1971 - The U.S. 23rd Division (Americal) ceases combat operations and begins its withdrawal from South Vietnam. The division had been activated in Vietnam on September 25, 1967, after which it assumed control of the 11th, 198th, and 199th Infantry Brigades (and associated support troops). Its headquarters was at Chu Lai in I Corps Tactical Zone and division troops conducted operations in Quang Nam, Quang Tri, and Quang Ngai Provinces.

In 1970, the division continued to fight in the Duc Pho, Chu Lai, and Tam Ky areas along the coast. When the division headquarters departed South Vietnam, the division colors were returned to Fort Lewis, Washington, where the Americal Division was officially inactivated. The only unit that remained in South Vietnam was the 199th Infantry Brigade, which continued to conduct operations as a separate brigade.

See below note about this date

By Boonierat:

I've noticed two minor errors in your timelines concerning the Americal, it controled the 196th Light Infantry Brigade, not the 199th (who operated in the Saigon area as a separate command) and it fought in the 3 southern-most provinces of I Corps, Quang Nam, Quang Tin, and Quang Ngai (and not Quang Tri, which is also a province of I Corps, but located further north and adjacent to the DMZ and North Vietnam).
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1384  
Old 29 Nov 06, 16:16
Cap. Teancum's Avatar
Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1842 The Somers Mutiny

Today's book:

The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy by Robert McKenna

From the Back Cover:

"One of those rare reference guides that is as much fun to read as it is useful."--Nathaniel Philbrick, author of In the Heart of the Sea

The Dictionary of Nautical Literacy is the first book to chart the culture of the sea--a comprehensive and entertaining reference for all those with an interest in things nautical. More than 3,500 entries describe the ideas, events, and individuals that have shaped our maritime language, geography, commerce, warfare, law, literature, art, film, and more. The Dictionary is a unique reference to browse, contemplate, peruse, and consult again and again.

"On every page this work offers fascinating testimony to the enduring importance of the sea to our culture."--Nathaniel Philbrick, National Book Award - winning author of In the Heart of the Sea

"From A-1 to Zumwalt this incredible volume covers the waterfront--and all the world's seas and oceans. . . . It is a truly remarkable feat of research and organization and is an invaluable resource for anyone with even a passing interest in nautical history."--Walter Cronkite

"A massive compendium of nautical knowledge and maritime minutiae that whets the appetite to learn more. It is loaded with facts and laced with wit and wry humor. This will be a useful resource for any maritime enthusiast--scholar or amateur."--J. Revell Carr, Director Emeritus, Mystic Seaport Museum, and author of All Brave Sailors

"A terrific book--full of information in turns basic, arcane, and playful, all presented here with an authority and humor that I'm sure will appeal to many sailors as well as to lovers of the sea and maritime art and writing. Any nautical book that includes Nelson, Travis McGee, 'close-hauled,' Belloc, USS VD, Helen of Troy, the Slot, and skipjacks wins a medal for sweep and imagination."--John Rousmaniere, author of After the Storm; Fastnet, Force 10; and The Annapolis Book of Seamanship

"A vital resource for anyone interested in the ships and people that stream across the pages of history. How did we ever get along without it?"--Peter Stanford, President Emeritus, National Maritime Historical Society

"The accuracy and variety of entries will delight nautical trivia buffs, and the book is a solid reference for the rest of us."--Offshore

"One of the most useful books to come across my desk. . . . [It's] also a fascinating read."--SAIL

"I never thought about reading Daniel Webster's dictionary from cover to cover, the way I did McKenna's Dictionary of Cultural Literacy. . . . Full of knowledge, wisdom, and entertaining factoids."--The Log
__________________
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  #1385  
Old 30 Nov 06, 17:15
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November 30


By Admiral:

Born...

1373 King Ferdinand I of Aragon and Sicily

1427 King Casimir IV of Poland (1447-92)

1466 Andrea Doria, Genoese Admiral and statesman

1699 King Christian VI of Denmark and Norway

1810 Oliver Fisher Winchester, gunsmith

1821 Gustavus Woodson Smith, Secretary War, Confederacy

1826 George Washington Deitzler, Brig Gen, U.S.

1828 Jedediah Hotchkiss, military engineer, C.S.A., d. 1899

1835 Samuel Clemens (Mark Twain), Confederate deserter.

1863 Andres Bonifacio, leader of 1896 Philippine revolt against Spain

1874 Sir Winston Churchill, British PM, 1940-45, 1951-55, Nobel 1953

1885 Albrecht Kesselring, German Field Marshal

Died...

1016 King Edmund II Ironsides of the Saxons (1016), at 27

1526 Giovanni degli Bande Neri dies of wounds received on the 25th.

1528 Great Wierd, Dutch Gelderland army commander, beheaded

1646 John C Lichthart, Admiral (Cape Augustine)

1718 King Charles XII of Sweden, of wounds in battle

1864 Hiram Bronson Granbury, Confederate brig-gen, in battle at 33

1864 Patrick Ronayne Cleburne, Confederate brig-gen, in battle at 33

Event...

1648 English army captures King Charles I

1696 160 settlers and soldiers at King Williams Fort (St. John's, Nfld.) surrender to a besieging force of 400 French led by d'Iberville. The French capture 220 boats and over 100,00 pounds of codfish, making the expedition against Newfoundland financially and militarily successful.

1700 King Charles XII of Sweden defeats Russia at the Narva

1776 Capt Cook begins 3rd and last trip to Pacific (South Sea)

1782 Britain signs agreement recognizing U.S. independence

1803 Spain cedes claims to Louisiana Territory to France

1838 Mexico declares war on France

1840 Napoleon is entombed in the Invalides

1863 Confederate troops vacate Fort Esperanza, Texas

1864 Battle of Franklin, Tennessee

1864 Battle of Honey Hill, SC

1922 Adolph Hitler speaks to 50,000 national-socialists in Munich

1924 Last French/Belgian troops leave Ruhrgebied

1938 Fascist coup in Romania fails

1938 Germany bans Jews from practicing law

1939 USSR invades Finland

1939 USSR invades Finland, bombs Helsinki, which will receive not only American aid but British and French as well; the Finnish struggle (albeit against an initially inept Soviet invasion force) arouses the admiration of many.

1939 Destroyer USS Reuben James is damaged by grounding, Lobos Cay, Cuba.

1939 U.S. freighter Extavia, with cargo destined for Istanbul, Turkey, and the Piraeus, Greece, is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities.

1940 United States lends $50 million to China for currency stabilization and grants an additional $50 million credit for purchase of supplies.

1940 German freighter Helgoland, which has eluded the Neutrality Patrol, reaches St. Nazaire, France.

1941 Japanese Emperor Hirohito consults with Admirals Shimada and Nagano

1941 Japanese Foreign Minister Tojo rejects U.S. proposals for settling Far East crisis.

1941 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I 10 reconnoiters Suva Bay, Fiji.

1941 U.S. passenger liner President Madison arrives at Olongapo, P.I., and disembarks the 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment. President Madison will then proceed on to Singapore.

1941 River gunboats Luzon and Oahu rendezvous with submarine rescue vessel Pigeon and minesweeper USS Finch; they will remain in company until 3 December.

1941 Destroyer USS Decatur, in TU 4.1.4, escorting convoy ONS 39, carries out depth charge attack on suspicious contact, 59°24'N, 27°03'W.

1941 Army GHQ Maneuvers in North and South Carolina conclude.

1942 German auxiliary cruiser Michel (Schiffe 28) rescues four additional Armed Guard sailors who have survived the sinking of U.S. freighter Sawokla the previous day

1942 USAAF B-24s (India Air Task Force) bomb Japanese torpedo boat Kari off Port Blair, Andaman Island, in a strike that inaugurates attacks on the sea approaches to Burma.

1942 Battle of Tassafaronga: TF 67, comprising four heavy cruisers, one light cruiser, and six destroyersurprises Japanese destroyers off Tassafaronga Point, Guadalcanal. The enemy presses on to jettison supply containers to sustain Japanese troops on Guadalcanal, while torpedoes launched from destroyers IJN IJN Kagero, IJN Makinami, IJN Kuroshio, IJN Oyashio, IJN Kawakaze and IJN Naganami wreak havoc on Wright's ships, damaging heavy cruisers USS Pensacola, USS Northampton, USS New Orleans, and USS Minneapolis. Japanese destroyer IJN Takanami is damaged by cruiser and destroyer gunfire off Tassafaronga

1942 German auxiliary cruiser Thor is sunk by explosion of supply ship Uckermark, moored alongside, Yokohama, Japan. The blast also sinks German prize ship Leuthen and Japanese harbor craft in the vicinity.

1943 U.S. destroyers bombard Japanese positions on Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, Solomons.

1943 Submarine USS Gato sinks Japanese army transport Columbia Maru, 01°54'N, 143°26'E; and escapes counterattacks by escorting submarine chaser Ch 24.

1943 Submarine USS Skate attacks Japanese carrier IJN Zuiho, 09°10'N, 151°30'E, which, along with carrier IJN Un'yo and escort carrier IJN Chuyo and escort vessels is proceeding back to Japan from Truk. Although USS Skate claims one damaging hit, none of her four torpedoes strikes home.

1943 PBY sinks Palau-bound Japanese cargo ship Himalaya Maru six nautical miles south of New Hanover.

1943 Aircraft (VC 19) from escort carrier USS Bogue damage German submarine U-238 east of the Azores, 41°21'N, 18°19'W.

1944 Submarine USS Pipefish is damaged by aerial bombs in South China Sea off Hainan, 18°07'N, 111°35'E, but remains on patrol.

1944 Submarine USS Sunfish sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Dairen Maru off western Korea, 38°08'N, 124°35'E.

1944 Japanese bomber, evading a 12-plane combat air patrol, damages floating drydock ARD-17 with a near-miss, Kossol Roads, Palau.

1944 British submarine HMS Stratagem sinks Japanese cargo vessel Kumano Maru in Malacca Straits, 01°30'N, 103°00'E.

1944 Biggest and last British Battleship HMS Vanguard runs aground

1947 Arabs attack Jewish settlements the day after United Nations decree for Israel,

1948 Soviets set up a separate municipal government in East Berlin

1949 Chinese Communists captured Chungking

1950 US President Truman threatens China with atom bomb

1953 French parachutist under Col De Castries attacks Dien Bien Phu

1958 USS Dewey, the first guided missile destroyer, launched at Bath, Me

1960 French Senate condemns building own nuclear weapons

1966 Barbados gains independence from Britain

1967 People's Democratic Republic of Yemen declares independence from UK

1969 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1978 France performs nuclear test

1979 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1982 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test

1982 U.S. submarine USS Thomas Edison collides with U.S. Navy destroyer in So China Sea

1988 Soviets stop jamming Radio Liberty; 1st time in 38 yrs

1988 France performs nuclear test at Fangataufa Island

1990 US President George H W Bush proposes U.S. - Iraq meeting to avoid war

1994 Cruise ship Achille Lauro destroyed by fire at Somalia, 4 die

By Cap. Teancum:

1853 - Battle of Sinope. Russians destroyed Turkish fleet, slaughtering most of the crews.

1917 - German counter-offensive at Cambrai (to 7.12).

1941 - 8th Army links up with Tobruk garrison.

1965 - Following a visit to South Vietnam, Defense Secretary McNamara reports in a memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson that the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Cao Ky "is surviving, but not acquiring wide support or generating actions."

He said that Viet Cong recruiting successes coupled with a continuing heavy infiltration of North Vietnamese forces indicated that "the enemy can be expected to enlarge his present strength of 110 battalion equivalents to more than 150 battalion equivalents by the end of 1966." McNamara said that U.S. policymakers faced two options: to seek a compromise settlement and keep further military commitments to a minimum, or to continue to press for a military solution, which would require substantial bombing of North Vietnam.

In conclusion, McNamara warned that there was no guarantee of U.S. military success and that there was a real possibility of a strategic stalemate, saying that "U.S. killed in action can be expected to reach 1,000 a month." In essence, McNamara cautioned Johnson that sending additional troops was not likely to prevent the stalemate. In the end, however, Johnson chose to seek a military solution. By 1969, there were more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.

1966 - In Saigon, the South Vietnamese Constituent Assembly begins drawing up draft articles for a new constitution. On December 15, the Assembly approved the proposal for the future civil regime to be headed by a popularly elected president, and a proposal empowering the president, rather than the legislature, to appoint a premier. On December 21, the assembly approved the establishment of a legislature made up of a senate and a house of representatives.

1967 - Liberal Democratic Senator Eugene J. McCarthy from Minnesota, an advocate of a negotiated end to the war in Vietnam, declares that he intends to enter several Democratic Presidential primaries in 1968.

McCarthy believed that the majority of Americans were unhappy with President Lyndon B. Johnson's handling of the war, and he planned to challenge the president for the Democratic nomination. McCarthy conducted his campaign outside normal Democratic Party channels, relying on volunteers who conducted a grassroots campaign that emphasized the moral indefensibility of U.S. action in Vietnam and the need for a negotiated settlement of the war.

McCarthy shocked the political establishment when he almost defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey defeated McCarthy for the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Ultimately, Humphrey was defeated in the national election by Republican Richard M. Nixon.

1972 - White House Press Secretary Ron Zeigler announces to the press that the administration will make no more public statements concerning U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam since the level of U.S. presence had fallen to 27,000 men.

Defense Department sources said that there would not be a full withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam until a final truce agreement was signed, and that such an agreement would not affect the 54,000 U.S. servicemen in Thailand or the 60,000 aboard 7th Fleet ships off the Vietnamese coast. All U.S. forces were withdrawn from South Vietnam in March 1973 as part of the terms of the Paris Peace Accords, which were signed in January of that year.

1981 - Representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union open talks to reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. The talks lasted until December 17, but ended inconclusively.
SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979) reduced the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by the two superpowers, but left unresolved the issue of the growing number of non-strategic weapons-the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe. By 1976, the Soviets began to update their INF systems with better SS-20 missiles. America's NATO allies called for a U.S. response, and the United States threatened to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles by 1983 if no agreement could be reached with the Soviets concerning INFs.
However, by 1981, the situation changed. No-nuke forces were gaining strength in western Europe and there was a growing fear that President Ronald Reagan's heated Cold War rhetoric would lead to a nuclear showdown with Europe as the battlefield. The United States and U.S.S.R. agreed to open talks on INFs in November 1981.
Prior to the talks, President Reagan announced the so-called "zero option" as the basis for the U.S. position at the negotiations. In this plan, the United States would cancel deployment of its new missiles in western Europe if the Soviets dismantled their INFs in eastern Europe. The proposal was greeted with some skepticism, even by some U.S. allies, who believed that it was a public relations ploy that would be completely unacceptable to the Soviets. The Soviets responded with a detailed proposal that essentially eliminated all of the INFs from Europe, including French and British missiles that had not been covered in Reagan's zero option plan. Of course, such a plan would also leave west Europe subject to the Soviets' superior conventional forces. Neither proposal seemed particularly realistic, and despite efforts by some of the U.S. and Soviet negotiators, no compromise could be reached. An INF treaty would not be signed until December 1987, when President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev finally hammered out a plan acceptable to both sides.

1993 - During a White House ceremony attended by James S. Brady, President Bill Clinton signs the Brady handgun-control bill into law. The law requires a prospective handgun buyer to wait five business days while the authorities check on his or her background, during which time the sale is approved or prohibited based on an established set of criteria.

In 1981, James Brady, who served as press secretary for President Ronald Reagan, was shot in the head by John Hinckley, Jr., during an attempt on President Reagan's life outside a hotel in Washington, D.C. Reagan himself was shot in his left lung but recovered and returned to the White House within two weeks. Brady, the most seriously injured in the attack, was momentarily pronounced dead at the hospital but survived and began an impressive recovery from his debilitating brain injury.

During the 1980s, Brady became a leading proponent of gun-control legislation and in 1987 succeeded in getting a bill introduced into Congress. The Brady Bill, as it became known, was staunchly opposed by many congressmen, who, in reference to the Second Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, questioned the constitutionality of regulating the ownership of arms. In 1993, with the support of President Bill Clinton, an advocate of gun control, the Brady Bill became law.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
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  #1386  
Old 30 Nov 06, 17:19
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1864 Battle of Franklin, Tennessee

Today's book:

The Battle of Franklin, November 30, 1864: The bloodiest engagement of the War between the States by R. W Banks

Book Review:

Hard to find, sells for $150, if you have it keep it!!!
__________________
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  #1387  
Old 01 Dec 06, 10:02
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December 1


By Admiral:

Born...

1726 Oliver Wolcott, U.S. judge/signer, Declaration of Independence

1826 William Mahone, Maj Gen, C.S.A, d. 1895

1832 Archibald Gracie Jr, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA, 1864

1835 Micah Jenkins, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1864

1844 Alexandra, Danish Princess/Queen of Great Britain/Ireland

1923 Stansfield Turner, CIA director

1932 Robert T Herres, USAF/Astronaut

1951 Alexander Panayotov Aleksandrov, Bulgaria, Cosmonaut, Soyuz TM-5

Died...

1135 King Henry I Beauclerc of England, First King that could read

1374 King Magnus Eriksson of Norway & Sweden

1515 Gonzalo Fernandez de Cordoba, [el Gran Capitan], Spanish General, at 62

1802 Oliver Wolcott, Signer of Declaration of Independence, on his 76th birthday

1825 Aleksandr I P Romanov, czar of Russia (1801-25), at 47

1842 Midshipman Philip Spencer, hanged, the Somers Mutiny

1842 Boatswain Samuel Cromwell, hanged, the Somers Mutiny

1842 Seaman Elisha Small, hanged, the Somers Mutiny.

1934 Sergei Kirov, Politburo member, assassinated, probably by Stalin's orders

1973 David Ben-Gurion, founding father of Israel, in Tel Aviv at 87

1987 Donn Fulton Eisele, Col USAF/Astronaut, of a heart attack at 57

Event...

1145 Pope Eugene III calls for a Second Crusade

1566 Spanish King Philip II names Fernando Alvarez, Duke of Alva

1626 Pasha Muhammad ibn Farukh tyrannical Governor of Jerusalem, driven out

1640 Portugal regains independence after 60 years of Spanish rule

1708 Great Alliance occupies Brussels

1742 Tsarina Elisabeth orders expulsion of all Jews from Russia

1775 This is the final day for enlistment in the Quebec militia, as per Governor Carleton's orders. If you are not signed on by this date, you are to be treated as a rebel and are considered a spy for the American forces besieging the citadel.

1804 Emperor Napoleon marries Josephine of Martinique

1821 Santo Domingo proclaims independence from Spain

1822 Dom Pedro I crowned Emperor of Brazil

1822 Battle of Monrovia: Americo-Liberians defeat local tribes

1842 The Somers Mutiny: Midshipman Philip Spencer, Boatswain Samuel Cromwell and Seaman Elisha Small.hanged

1864 Raid at Stoneman: Knoxville, Tennessee to Saltville, VA

1864 Skirmish at Millen Brutal, Georgia

1887 Sino-Portuguese treaty recognizes Portugal's control of Macao

1896 Armored cruiser Brooklyn commissioned

1917 British capture Ramalah, Palestine

1918 Serbian-Croatian-Slovene kingdom of Yugoslavia proclaimed in Belgrade

1918 Yugoslavia declares independence; monarchy established

1918 Iceland becomes independent state under Danish crown

1921 In first flight of airship filled with helium, Blimp C-7 piloted by LCDR Ralph F. Wood left Norfolk, VA, for Washington, DC.

1925 Treaty of Locarno signed

1933 Rudolf Hess & Earnest Rohm become ministers in Hitler's government

1937 Japan recognizes Franco's Nationalists as the government of Spain

1939 SS-Fuhrer Himmler begins deportation of Polish Jews

1939 Submarine Division 14 arrives on the Asiatic Station, the first modern reinforcements received by the Asiatic Fleet in many years. Submarines comprising the division are USS Pickerel (flag), USS Porpoise, USS Perch, USS Pike, USS Tarpon and USS Permit.

1940 HMCS Saguenay is struck by a torpedo while escorting a convoy. As the crippled ship approaches port, it then falls victim to a German acoustic mine. Although the Saguenay is repaired, twenty-one of her crew will perish from these encounters.

1940 Headquarters for Alaskan units of Coast Guard is established at Ketchikan.

1941 Civil Air Patrol (CAP) organized

1941 Subs USS Argonaut & USS Trout take station off Midway, USS Triton & USS Tambor off Wake.

1941 Patrol Wing 9 is established at Quonset Point, Rhode Island.

1941 Japanese emperor Hirohito signs declaration of war.

1941 British cruiser HMS Devonshire sinks German sub DKM Python

1941 German submarine U-575 encounters and tracks unarmed U.S. tanker Astral, the latter en route from Aruba, N.W.I., to Lisbon, Portugal, with a cargo of 78,200 barrels of gasoline and kerosene. After seeing that Astral is unarmed and bears prominent neutrality markings, however, the U-boat's commanding officer, Kapitanleutnant Gunther Heydemann, allows the American ship to pass unmolested. Subsequently, another submarine in the vicinity, U-43, encounters Astral and attacks her, but her torpedoes miss their mark.

1941 TU 4.1.2, accompanied by salvage vessel Redwing and oiler Sapelo , while escorting convoy HX 162, encounters heavy weather that scatters 35 merchantmen. Destroyers USS Charles F. Hughes, USS Madison, USS Lansdale, USS Wilkes and USS Sturtevant all suffer storm damage of varying degrees.

1941 Destroyer USS Livermore, escorting convoy ONS 39, is dispatched to investigate darkened merchantman steaming on opposite course. USS Livermore trails her and after determining her to be Panamanian freighter Ramapo, en route to join convoy SC 56, allows her to continue her voyage after being warned not to radio a report of contact with a convoy.

1941 President orders a "defensive information patrol" of "three small ships" established off the coast of French Indochina; he specifically designates yacht Isabel as one of the trio of vessels. Schooner Lanikai is acquired and commissioned, but the start of the war results in her planned mission being cancelled. The third vessel, schooner Molly Moore, is selected for the mission but is never taken over. Lanikai's civilian career had seen her used as a "prop" in the filming of motion picture "Hurricane" that starred Dorothy Lamour and Jon Hall.

1941 U.S. passenger liner President Harrison arrives at Olongapo, P.I., with the remaining elements of the 4th Marine Regiment withdrawn from Shanghai. President Harrison soon sails to bring out the last Marines from China.

1941 As river gunboats Luzon and Oahu, submarine rescue vessel USS Pigeon and minesweeper USS Finch proceed toward Manila, they become the object of curiosity by Japanese forces in the vicinity; first a floatplane circles the formation, then seven Japanese warships of various types.

1942 As a result of damage received in the Battle of Tassafaronga, heavy cruiser USS Northampton sinks at 09°12'S, 159°50'E; Japanese destroyer IJN Takanami goes down about 10 miles south-southwest of Savo Island, 09°18'S, 159°56'E.

1942 Japanese destroyer IJN Isonami is damaged by planes (USAAF B-25s, B-26s, A-20s, and P-400s are all involved in raids on Buna) off Buna, New Guinea.

1942 Fleet Air Wing 15 is established at Norfolk, Virginia, for service at Port Lyautey, French Morocco.

1942 Survivors (16) from unarmed U.S. schooner Star of Scotland, shelled and sunk by German submarine U-159 on 13 November, reach Angola after an open-boat voyage of 1,040 miles.

1942 Papua: LtGen Eichelberger is put in command of the Buna-Gona operation

1942 Papua: Australians capture Gona Village.

1942 Gasoline rationing begins in the US

1943 US Naval Air Ferry Command is established.

1943 Submarine USS Bonefish sinks Japanese transport Nichiryo Maru in Celebes Sea, 01°02'N, 120°52'E.

1943 Submarine USS Pargo sinks Japanese transport Shoko Maru north of Ulithi, 14°24'N, 140°40'E.

1943 Submarine USS Peto sinks Truk-bound Japanese transport Konei Maru, 01°16'N, 146°45'E, and escapes countermeasures by torpedo boat Otori.

1943 USAAF B-25s bomb Taikoo dockyard, Hong Kong, damaging Japanese transport Teiren Maru (ex-Vichy French Gouverneur General A. Varenne). Subsequently, the ship is written off as a total loss.

1943 USAAF B-24s pound Japanese installations at Wewak; among the heavy damage inflicted, small cargo vessel No.16 Yoshitomo Maru is sunk.

1943 5th Marine Div begins organizing at Camp Pendleton, California.

1943 FDR, Churchill, & Stalin agree to Operation Overload

1944 Naval Operating Base, Kwajalein, is established.

1944 U.S. freighter Arizpa is damaged by mine in the Schelde River, 51°23'N, 03°18'W, but proceeds to Antwerp, her destination, under her own power. There are no casualties among her 41-man merchant complement or the 28-man Armed Guard.

1948 Arabic Congress names Abdullah of Trans Jordan, King of Palestine

1955 Rosa Parks arrested for refusing to move to the back of bus

1959 12 nations sign treaty for scientific peaceful use of Antarctica

1959 US Bureau of Ordnance (BUORD) merges with Bureau of Aeronautics (BUAER) to form the Bureau of Naval Weapons (BUWEPS).

1960 USMC Enlisted Rank and Pay Structure Board revised the rank structure, incorporating lance corporals, E8s and E9s. The prefix "acting" was abolished by General David M. Shoup, 22d Commandant of the Marine Corps.

1965 Operation "CAM NHE," Vietnam.

1969 U.S. government holds its 1st draft lottery since WW II

1973 Australia grants self-government to Papua New Guinea

1976 Bangladesh General Ziaur Rahman declares himself president

1976 Angola admitted to UN

1978 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1984 France performs nuclear test

1989 East Germany drops communist monopoly from its constitution

1991 Ukrainian people vote for independence

By Cap. Teancum:

1964 - In two crucial meetings (on this day and two days later) at the White House, President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers agree, after some debate, to a two-phase bombing plan for North Vietnam.

Phase I would involve air strikes by Air Force and Navy jets against infiltration routes and facilities in the Laotian panhandle. Phase II would extend the air strikes to a larger selection of targets in North Vietnam. The more "hawkish" advisers--particularly the Joint Chiefs of Staff--preferred a more immediate and intensive series of raids against many targets in North Vietnam, while "dovish" advisers questioned whether bombing was going to have any effect on Hanoi's support of the war. Johnson agreed with the Joint Chiefs on the necessity of bombing, but wanted to take a more gradual and measured approach. When he agreed to the bombing plan, President Johnson made it clear that South Vietnamese leaders would be expected to cooperate and pull their government and people together if they hoped to receive additional aid from the United States. Johnson was concerned that the continuing political instability in Saigon would have a detrimental effect on the South Vietnamese government's ability to pursue the fight against the communist Viet Cong.

1971 - In Cambodia, communist fighters renew their assaults on government positions, forcing the retreat of Cambodian government forces from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray, six miles northeast of Phnom Penh.

Premier Lon Nol and his troops had been locked in a desperate battle with the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies for control of Cambodia since 1970, when Nol had taken over the government from Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The communist forces had just launched a major offensive and the government troops were reeling under the new attacks.

By December 2, the North Vietnamese overran Cambodian forces trying to protect Route 6, one of the key road links between Phnom Penh and the interior. The communists gained control of a 30-mile stretch of Route 6, cutting off thousands of refugees and nearly 10,000 government troops in the northern Kompong Thmar area.

On December 6, Hanoi radio reported that the Cambodian government had lost 12,000 fighting men in the past week's action. The next day, communist gunners renewed their shelling of Phnom Penh, firing three rockets into the capital and eight rockets into the international airport. As the rockets fell, the Communists troops attacked government positions all around the city and by December 11, Lon Nol's forces were in imminent danger of being encircled by the Khmer Rouge, as the communists tried to isolate Phnom Penh from the rest of the country and outside support. With most of the government forces tied down and fighting for their lives, the North Vietnamese were free to use their sanctuaries and resupply routes in Cambodia to begin building up for a major offensive they were planning in South Vietnam for the spring of 1972.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1388  
Old 01 Dec 06, 11:24
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1918 Serbian-Croatian-Slovene kingdom of Yugoslavia proclaimed in Belgrade

Today's book:

Explaining Yugoslavia by John B. Allcock

Book Review:

Out of the now almost countless array of books published over the last decade and meant to `explain' what happened in Yugoslavia, John Allcock's "Explaining Yugoslavia" is among the best. In fact, readers need go no farther if they're looking for a one-volume analysis of the former Yugoslavia and some of the underlying reasons for the country's violent and bloody collapse. Allcock, a sociologist, analyzes historical, cultural, political, social/societal, economic and other factors and skillfully ties them together to provide a comprehensive picture of the peoples of the former Yugoslavia and reasonable answers to the question of why their common state fell apart. Allcock essentially sees the root cause for the failure of Yugoslavia in the country's economy, but this is hardly economic reductionism - he stresses the importance of the interplay of numerous other factors. If this book is not the definitive `explanation of Yugoslavia' (something that will likely never be achieved), it is a large and important step in that direction.

http://www.amazon.com/Explaining-Yug...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1389  
Old 02 Dec 06, 05:13
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December 2


By Admiral:

Born...

1802 Melancthon Smith Wade, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868

1821 Rufus Barringer, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1895

1825 Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1831-89)

1837 Charles Garrison Harker, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1864

1896 Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi K Zuhkov

1924 Alexander Haig, Jr

Died...

1463 Albrecht VI, Archduke of Habsburg

1515 Gonzalo de Córdoba Spanish general/strategist/viceroy of Naples

1859 John Brown, U.S. abolitionist (Harpers Ferry raid), hanged at 59

1864 Archibald Gracie Jr, Confederate brig-general, in battle at 31

1923 Capt. Arthur MacArthur III, U.S.N. (elder brother of Douglas), of appendicitis

1944 Filippo T. Marinetti, Futurist, who loved war, in bed at 67.

1967 Francis Spellman, Vicar General of the Armed Forces, at 78

1972 Friedrich Christian Christiansen, German Luftwaffe General

Event...

1744 The garrison at Louisbourg is in winter quarters but there is little rest for the 560 troops who are kept busy reinforcing the fortress's defences in expectation of a British attack in the spring.

1773 Poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge enlists in a militia light dragoon company

1775 Congress orders first officers commissions printed.

1777 British Gen Howe plots attack on Washington's army for Dec 4

1790 Austrian army occupies Brussels

1800 Hohenlinden: Moeau's French ambush the Austrians, crushing them.

1804 Napoleon crowns himself Emperor of the French

1805 Napoleon defeats Russians & Austrians at Austerlitz

1812 The monotony of winter quarters is beginning to affect the garrison at Ft. George (Niagara-on-the-Lake, Ont.). To make matters worse, general orders are issued to the troops to conserve firewood as there is a scarcity of fuel in the area.

1815 Fourth Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Nov 10)

1823 President James Monroe declares his "Monroe Doctrine"

1840 William H Harrison elected president of US

1848 Franz Josef I becomes Emperor of Austria & King of Hungary

1852 Second French Empire established, under (Louis) Napoleon III

1864 Skirmish at Rocky Creek Church, Georgia

1908 US Rear Admiral William S. Cowles submits report, prepared by LT George C. Sweet, recommending purchase of aircraft suitable for operating from naval ships on scouting and observation mission to Secretary of the Navy.

1908 Pu Yi (Hsuan-T'ung) became China's Last Emperor at age 3

1914 Austrian army captures Belgrade, Serbia, after several tries

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops British freighter Doric Star; the warship then torpedoes, shells, and sinks the merchantman at 19°15'S, 05°05'E.

1941 US Naval Intelligence ceases bugging Japanese consul

1941 British declare a state of emergency in Malaya

1941 IJN First Air Fleet at 43 N, 158 30' E, c. 3,200 miles NW of Pearl Harbor

1941 Hawaii Recon aircraft ordered to search 400 miles, NW to S only.

1941 Roosevelt asks Japan to clarify its intents with regard to Fr Indochina

1941 HMS Prince of Wales & HMS Repulse ("Force Z") arrive at Singapore

1941 U.S. freighter Dunboyne receives first naval Armed Guard crew. By the end of World War II, the U.S. Navy will arm some 6,236 merchantmen; approximately 144,970 officers and enlisted men will defend these merchant vessels in every theater of war.

1941 German submarine U-43 again attacks unarmed U.S. tanker Astral and this time torpedoes and sinks her at 35°40'N, 24°00'W. There are no survivors from the 37-man merchant crew.

1941 Weather encountered by convoy ONS 39, being escorted by TU 4.1.4 worsens to the extent that the watch on board destroyer USS Plunkett cannot be relieved because officers and men cannot safely traverse the weather decks.

1941 TU 4.1.5 clears Reykjavik, Iceland, to rendezvous with convoy ON 41, which due to poor weather will be 48 hours late to the MOMP. Over the ensuing period at sea, TU 4.1.5 battles "consistently severe" weather conditions that will cause varying degrees of damage to all of the ships in the task unit. Although ships of the unit carry out attacks (see 5, 9 and 11 December), there will be no U-boat attacks on the merchantmen under their protection.

1941 TU 4.1.6, escorting convoy HX 161, encounters heavy weather; destroyer USS Bernadou suffers storm damage; destroyers USS Roe and USS Lea each lose a man overboard. Neither sailor is recovered.

1941 Submarine USS Trout arrives off Midway Island on simulated war patrol

1942 Naval Operating Base and Naval Air Facility, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, are established.

1942 Carlson's Raiders neared the end of an epic 26 day patrol on Guadalcanal.

1942 U.S. steam1971 Soviet Mars 3 is 1st to soft land on Marsship Coamo is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-604 off Bermuda; some survivors from the 186 men on board manage to escape on rafts.

1942 Papua: Despite Allied air power, Japanese reinforcements land near Buna

1942 Papua: Japanese at Buna beat off another American attack.

1942 Papua: Eichelberger relieves cdrs of 32nd Div and several subordinate units.

1942 Italian blockade runner Orseolo arrives at Kobe from Bordeaux.

1942 Enrico Fermi achieves the first sustained nuclear chain reaction, in Chicago

1943 Submarine USS Narwhal lands ammunition and stores, and evacuates certain people from Mindanao.

1943 USAAF B-24 damages Japanese cargo ship Shinyu Maru off New Hanover.

19b43 RAAF Beaufighters damage Japanese paddle steamer Assam in Irrawaddy River.

1943 Japanese cargo vessel Koki Maru is sunk by mine, laid by USAAF B-24 on 16 November, off Macao.

1943 Tank landing craft LCT-242 is sunk by circling torpedo off Naples, Italy.

1943 1st RSHA transport out of Vienna reaches Birkenau camp

1943 German planes bomb Allied shipping at Bari, Italy, sinking and damaging a number of U.S. freighters moored there. John M. Schofield and Akigawa Maru are damaged by flying fragments (the latter also by a dud bomb); the former suffers no casualties among the 44-man merchant complement, 28-man Armed Guard and an indeterminate number of British Army stevedores on board to work cargo while the latter has only one merchant seaman wounded from among her 41-man civilian and 28-man Armed Guard complement. Samuel J. Tilden is hit by two bombs and catches fire; 17 of the 209 embarked troops perish as the soldiers abandon ship. The 41-man merchant crew and the 28-man Armed Guard remain at their posts to battle the blaze that eventually burns out of control and forces her crew off the ship. Ten of the ship's civilian complement die in the conflagration John L. Motley, carrying a cargo of ammunition, is hit by at least three bombs; direct hits and near-misses set nearby John Bascom afire; four of 44 merchant seamen perish as do 10 of 28 Armed Guard sailors. The survivors, in addition to one passenger, abandon ship as the flames burn out of control. Her mooring lines burnt through, John Bascom drifts near the burning John L. Motley, which explodes, killing all on board (42 of the 46-man merchant complement and 22 of the 29-man Armed Guard) (the only survivors are on shore at the time of the attack and thus escape the fate of their shipmates). Debris from John L. Motley damages gasoline tanker Aroostook (AOG-14), 41°06'N, 16°52'E, and sets fire to Lyman Abbott. John Harvey, moored originally between John L. Motley and Joseph Wheeler, is showered by burning debris, and catches fire herself, drifting into the harbor where she explodes, showering debris on the unfortunate. Tragically, John Harvey's cargo includes mustard gas which subsequently kills and injures many of the local inhabitants, in addition to harming many among the 42 merchant seamen and 29 Armed Guards on board Lyman Abbott. Consequently, 2 of the ship's civilian crew and one Armed Guard sailor, in addition to the ship's sole passenger, succumb to shrapnel wounds or mustard gas burns. Joseph Wheeler is hit by one bomb that touches off her ammunition cargo and the ship disintegrates, killing all on board: 15 of 41 merchant seamen and 13 of the 28-man Armed Guard, in addition to the single passenger, perish in the cataclysmic blast. Fifteen Armed Guard sailors and 26 merchant sailors escape the fate of their shipmates only because they were away from the ship, on shore, when she explodes.

1944 General De Gaulle arrives in Moscow

1944 German troops seize Betuwse dikes

1944 US 95th Infantry division occupies bridge at Saar

1944 Four destroyers (DesDiv 44) bombard Japanese positions at Palompon and northern Ormoc Bay, Leyte. Another group of three destroyers (DesDiv 120) enters Ormoc Bay at night and battles enemy aircraft, destroyers, and shore batteries.

1944 Submarine USS Gunnel lands supplies and evacuates Allied aviators from Palawan, P.I.

1944 Submarine USS Sea Devil attacks Japanese convoy MI-29 in the East China Sea, sinking merchant tanker Akigawa Maru and passenger/cargo ship Hawaii Maru about 80 miles south-southwest of Kyushu, 30°24'N, 128°17'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Sturdy sinks Japanese Communication Ship No.142 in Makassar Strait, 04°05'S, 119°32'E.

1944 USAAF B-24s sink Japanese gunboat Bantan Maru and damage auxiliary minesweeper Cha 105 and cargo ship Sh_ka Maru 140 miles nautical miles from Makassar, 03°30'S, 117°30'E.

1944 USAAF P-40s attack Japanese shipping off Palompon, P.I., sinking motor sailship Kosei Maru.

1944 Chaing Kai-shek again rejects proposals to arm Communist against Japan.

1961 Fidel Castro declares he's a Marxist, and will lead Cuba to Communism

1963 1st Dutch rocket launched/reaches height of 10 km

1965 USS Enterprise and USS Bainbridge become first nuclear-powered task unit used in combat operations with launch of air strikes near Bien Hoa, Vietnam

1971 Soviet Mars 3 is 1st to soft land on Mars

1971 Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujeira, Sharjah, & Umm-ak-Qiwain form the United Arab Emirates

1975 Laos falls to communist forces; King Sisavang Vatthana resigns, Lao People's Democratic Republic founded

1979 Crowds attack U.S. embassy at Tripoli Libya

1979 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1981 Spain requests membership in NATO

1984 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1987 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1988 STS-27 Atlantis launched (Secret military mission)

1990 1st parlimentary election in newly reunified Germany

1991 Muslim Shiites release American held in Lebanon hostage Joseph Cicippio

By Cap. Teancum:

1878 - Battle of Peiwar Kotal. 3,200 British soldiers defeated 18,000 Afghans losing only 20 killed and 78 wounded.

1962 - Following a trip to Vietnam at President John F. Kennedy's request, Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Montana) becomes the first U.S. official to refuse to make an optimistic public comment on the progress of the war. Originally a supporter of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, Mansfield changed his opinion of the situation after his visit. He claimed that the $2 billion the United States had poured into Vietnam during the previous seven years had accomplished nothing. He placed blame squarely on the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. He suggested that Americans, despite being motivated by a sincere desire to stop the spread of communism, had simply taken the place formerly occupied by the French colonial power in the minds of many Vietnamese. Mansfield's change of opinion surprised and irritated President Kennedy.

1963 - The military junta, which took control of the South Vietnamese government following the November coup that resulted in the death of President Ngo Dinh Diem, orders a temporary halt to the strategic hamlet program.

This program had been initiated in March 1962 by Diem to gather the peasants residing in areas threatened by guerrilla attack into centralized locations. These locations were to be turned into defensive fortified hamlets. The strategic hamlet program was extremely unpopular because the farmers were forcibly removed from their land and the physical security of the new hamlets was inadequate. In addition, the program was a drain on the assets of the Saigon government.

The junta leaders hoped to win the support of the people by relaxing the rules governing the strategic hamlets. Under the new edict, peasants were not to be coerced into moving into or contributing to the financial upkeep of the hamlets. This tactic did not have any real impact, because the program had already fallen into such disrepair--the senior U.S. representative in Long An Province reported that three-quarters of the strategic hamlets in that area had already been destroyed by the Viet Cong, the peasants, or a combination of both. Ultimately, the South Vietnamese government completely abandoned the program in 1964.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1390  
Old 02 Dec 06, 05:22
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Today's event:

1823 President James Monroe declares his "Monroe Doctrine"

Today's book:

Teaching American Diplomacy: The Monroe Doctrine by Linda Bongiono, Nicholas Psarakis, Karen Volker

Book Review:

A very helpfull tool for all of those that teach, either in school or just your own kids at home.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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  #1391  
Old 03 Dec 06, 13:17
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December 3


By Admiral:

Born...

1368 King Charles VI "the Well-Beloved" of France (1380-1422)

1806 Henry Alexander Wise, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1876

1809 Thomas Alfred Davies, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1899

1822 Charles Adam Heckman, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1896

1826 George Brinton McClellan, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1885

1829 Green Berry Raum, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1909

1902 Mitsuo Fuchida, who would signal "Tora! Tora! Tora!" in confirmation that surprise had been achieved by the Japanese at Pearl Harbor.

1934 Viktor Vassilyevich Gorbatko, U.S.S.R., Cosmonaut, Soyuz 7, 24, 37/36

Died...

1137 Lotharius III, Holy Roman - German Emperor (1133-37), at 67

1463 Louis Chalon, Prince of Orange

1469 Piero de' Medici, ruler of Florence, at about 53

1533 Vasili III, great prince of Moscow (1505-33), at 54

1839 King Frederik VI of Denmark (1808-39) & Norway (1803-14)

1892 William Bonaparte, grandson of Lucien, grandnephew of Napoleon

1893 Allan Wilson, British/Rhodesian Major, in battle

Event...

1621 Galileo perfects telescope

1685 Charles II bars Jews from settling in Stockholm, Sweden

1775 LT John Paul Jones raises the Grand Union flag on Alfred. First American flag raised over American naval vessel.

1861 Skirmish at Salem, Mo

1863 Longstreet abandons his siege of Knoxville, TN

1864 Skirmish at Thomas' Station, Georgia

1893 Ndebeles destroy Rhodesia

1903 Panglima Polim surrenders to Capt Colijn at Atjeh

1912 Turkey, Serbia, Montenegro, Greece and Bulgaria sign weapons pact

1914 The Canadian Expeditionary Force, in training on Salisbury Plain in southern England, is battered by rain and gale-force winds. The men are quartered in bell tents and have little to protect them from the elements except for greatcoats and soaked canvas.

1914 Netherlands army shoots up geïnterneerde Belgian soldiers: 8 killed

1915 British 6th Indian Division falls back on Kut-el-Amara, Iraq

1920 Turkey and Armenia agree to peace treaty

1932 Gen Kurt von Schleicher becomes chancellor of Germany

1934 Italian colonial Tripoli and Cyrenaica annexed to Libya

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops British freighter Tairoa; the warship then sinks the merchantman at 21°30'S, 03°00'E. Ironically, the same day Commodore Commanding South Atlantic Station, Commodore Henry H. Harwood, orders his three cruisers to concentrate off the River Plate estuary on 12 December

1940 President Roosevelt embarks in heavy cruiser USS Tuscaloosa at Miami, Florida, to inspect base sites acquired from the British under the destroyers-for-bases agreement. During the cruise, he will broach the lend-lease concept that he will implement upon his return to Washington

1941 Unarmed U.S. freighter Sagadahoc is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-124 in South Atlantic, 21°50'S, 07°50'W. One man of the 37-man crew is lost.

1941 Destroyer USS Mayo, in TU 4.1.5 en route to MOMP and convoy ON 41, encounters two British ships, HMS Tenacity and merchantman Meademere, burning navigation lights south of Iceland; when they fail to answer challenge, USS Mayo illuminates them with starshells, at which point they turn off lights and answer challenge promptly.

1941 Yacht Isabel sails for coast of French Indochina, deployed in accordance with President Roosevelt's "defensive information patrol" order.

1941 Submarine USS Argonaut arrives off Midway Island on simulated war patrol.

1941 First Air Fleet refuels at 45 N, 170 E, c. 2,400 miles NW, Pearl Harbor

1942 SBDs and TBFs from Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, attack a Japanese Reinforcement Unit, ten ships strong, en route to Guadalcanal and damage destroyer IJN Makinami. The Japanese throw some 1,500 supply canisters overboard for their troops on Guadalcanal, but only 310 reach the intended recipients.

1942 Gale sweeps area in which U.S. steamship Coamo has been torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-604 off Bermuda; the survivors who managed to reach safety on rafts most likely perish on this and/or subsequent days. No survivors from the 133-man crew, the 37 Armed Guard sailors or the 16 Army passengers are ever found.

1942 Munda: U.S. aerial recon finds Japanese building an air strip

1943 Second Cairo Conference begins, attended by President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek.

1943 Battle of Monte Cassino, Italy begins

1943 Submarine USS Guardfish is damaged in collision with unidentified tanker.

1943 Submarine USS Tinosa sinks Palau-bound Japanese fleet tanker Azuma Maru northwest of Sonserol, 06°34'N, 131°35'E.

1943 USAAF B-24s bomb Japanese fishing boats off Garove, sinking No.13 Sansei Maru.

1943 USAAF B-25s sink Japanese paddle steamer Assam, immobilized the day before by RAAF Beaufighters in Irrawaddy River.

1b943 Abandoned U.S. freighter Samuel J. Tilden, damaged in the German air raid on Bari, Italy, the night before, is scuttled by two torpedoes from British warships.

1943 U.S. tanker Touchet is torpedoed twice (the second torpedo is a dud) by German submarine U-193 at 25°15'N, 86°15'W, and abandoned by most of the 50-man merchant complement and 30-man Armed Guard. The latter's commander and nine men, however, stay with the ship, manning the 5-inch gun aft. U-193's third torpedo finishes off the tanker, though, and she sinks, taking nine of the ten Armed Guards who manage to reach a raft (they are swept off as the ship goes under), as well as the detachment commander, down with her.

1943 Naval Air Facility, Sao Luiz, Brazil is established

1944: Marine air assets of the 1st and 2nd Marine Aircraft Wings arrived in the Philippines to support Army forces. .

1944 Mussert puts Seyss-Inquart plan for small Nazi-Europe

1944 US 5th Armour division occupies Brandenburg Hurtgenwald

1944 Destroyer engagement in Ormoc Bay that began late the previous night continues. Destroyer USS Cooper is sunk, possibly by torpedo from escort destroyer IJN Kuwa, 10°54'N, 124°36'E, but not before Cooper, along with USS Allen M. Sumner and USS Moale, sinks IJN Kuwa and damages her sistership IJN Take, 10°50'N, 124°35'E. "Black Cat" PBY-5A picks up USS Cooper's survivors that night and the next day. One PBY carries 56 in addition to its 8-man crew. USS Allen M. Sumner is damaged by horizontal bomber, and USS Moale is damaged (possibly by IJN Kuwa) in Ormoc Bay, 10°54'N, 124°36'E.

1944 Hospital ship USS Hope, fully illuminated in accordance with the dictates of the Geneva Convention, is attacked by Japanese torpedo planes but not damaged, 125 miles east of Mindanao.

1944 Submarines USS Pampanito, attack Japanese convoy in South China Sea off coast of French Indochina, in a heavy seas and poor visibility. USS Pipefish probably torpedoes and sinks Coast Defense Vessel No.64, 18°36'N, 111°54'E; USS Pampanito torpedoes army cargo ship Seishin Maru, 18°20'N, 111°52'E, and USS Sea Cat or USS Searaven torpedoes tanker Harima Maru.

1944 U.S. Navy land-based aircraft sink Japanese merchant tanker No.13 Nanshin Maru off Balikpapan, 01°22'S, 117°03'E; and merchant tanker No.18 Nanshin Maru off Borneo, 05°55'N, 117°03'E.

1944 U.S. freighter Francis Asbury is mined in the Schelde River, 51°22'N, 03°53'W; of her 41-man merchant complement and 28-man Armed Guard, 9 of the former and 6 of the latter are killed, one merchant sailor and one Armed Guard die later of their injuries. Forty-six from both groups are injured. Francis Asbury drifts aground off Ostend, Belgium, where she is sunk by gunfire as a menace to navigation.

1944 Tank landing ship LST-141 is damaged when she runs aground at Bizerte, Tunisia.

1944 China: Japanese Eleventh Army runs out of supplies, offensive slows down.

1956 England & France pull troops out of Egypt

1961 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1965 U.S.S.R. launches Luna 8; crashes on Moon

1966 US performs underground nuclear test at Hattiesburg Miss

1967 Ex-president Sukarno under house arrest in Indonesia

1970 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1973 Pioneer 10 passes Jupiter (1st fly-by of an outer planet) [Dec 4-GMT]

1975 Laos falls to communist forces; Lao People's Democratic Rep proclaimed

1981 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1983 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1992 U.N. Security Council votes unanimous for U.S. led forces to enter Somalia

By Cap. Teancum:

1912 - Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and Montenegro sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the first Balkan War. During the two-month conflict, a military coalition between Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Montenegro--known as the Balkan League--expelled Turkey from all the Ottoman Empire's former European possessions, with the exception of Constantinople (now Istanbul). In January 1913, a coup d'etat in Turkey led to a resumption of fighting, but the Balkan League was again victorious.

In 1913, the Second Balkan War began after Serbia and Greece demanded that Bulgaria cede to them portions of Macedonia. Serbia and Greece formed an alliance against Bulgaria, and Macedonia was partitioned between the victors. Nationalist tension persisted in the Balkans, and Serbia was particularly bitter about being forced to give up some of its conquests by the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

On June 28, 1914, hostility between Serbia and Austria-Hungary over Austria's possession of Bosnia-Herzegovina reached a breaking point when Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip assassinated Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Austria-Hungary blamed the Serbian government for the attack and hoped to use the incident as justification for settling the problem of Serbian nationalism once and for all. However, as Russia supported Serbia, an Austro-Hungarian declaration of war was delayed until its leaders received assurances from German leader Kaiser Wilhelm that Germany would support their cause in the event of a Russian intervention.

On July 28, Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia, and the tenuous peace between Europe's great powers collapsed. Within a week, Russia, Belgium, France, Great Britain, and Serbia had lined up against Austria-Hungary and Germany, and World War I had begun.

1962 - Roger Hilsman, director of the State Department Bureau of Intelligence and Research, sends a memorandum to Secretary of State Dean Rusk pointing out that the communist Viet Cong fighters are obviously prepared for a long struggle.

While government control of the countryside had improved slightly, the Viet Cong had expanded considerably in size and influence, both through its own efforts and because of its attraction to "increasingly frustrated non-communist, anti-Diem elements." According to Hilsman, successfully eradicating the Viet Cong would take several years of greater effort by both the United States and the South Vietnamese government of President Ngo Dinh Diem. Real success, he noted, depended upon Diem gaining the support of the South Vietnamese people through social and military measures, which he had so far failed to implement. Hilsman felt that a noncommunist coup against Diem "could occur at any time," and would seriously disrupt or reverse counterinsurgency momentum. As it turned out, Hilsman was eventually proven correct. On November 1, 1963, dissident South Vietnamese generals led a coup resulting in the murder of Diem. His death marked the end of civilian authority and political stability in South Vietnam. The succession of military juntas, coups, and attempted coups in 1964 and early 1965 weakened the government severely and disrupted the momentum of the counterinsurgency effort against the Viet Cong.

1965 - In a confidential memorandum to Defense Secretary Robert McNamara, Assistant Secretary of Defense John McNaughton outlines the terms that should precede any permanent bombing halt. He said that North Vietnam must not only cease infiltration efforts, but also take steps to withdraw troops currently operating in South Vietnam. In addition, the Viet Cong should agree to terminate terror and sabotage activities and allow Saigon to exercise "governmental functions over substantially all of South Vietnam." McNaughton did not believe that these conditions would soon be obtained, however, as they amounted to "capitulation by a communist force that is far from beaten."

1989 - Meeting off the coast of Malta, President George Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev issue statements strongly suggesting that the long-standing animosities at the core of the Cold War might be coming to an end. Commentators in both the United States and Russia went farther and declared that the Cold War was over.

The talks were part of the first-ever summit held between the two leaders. Bush and his advisers were cautiously optimistic about the summit, eager to follow up on the steps toward arms control taken by the preceding Reagan administration. Gorbachev was quite vocal about his desire for better relations with the United States so that he could pursue his domestic reform agenda and was more effusive in his declarations that the talks marked an important first step toward ending the Cold War. The Russian leader stated, "The characteristics of the Cold War should be abandoned." He went on to suggest that, "The arms race, mistrust, psychological and ideological struggle, all those should be things of the past." Bush was somewhat more restrained in his statement: "With reform underway in the Soviet Union, we stand at the threshold of a brand-new era of U.S.-Soviet relations. It is within our grasp to contribute each in our own way to overcoming the division of Europe and ending the military confrontation there."

Despite the positive spin of the rhetoric, though, little of substance was accomplished during the summit. Both sides agreed to work toward a treaty dealing with long-range nuclear weapons and conventional arms in 1990. Gorbachev and Bush also agreed that another summit would take place in June 1990, in Washington, D.C.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1392  
Old 03 Dec 06, 13:23
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
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Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1932 Gen Kurt von Schleicher becomes chancellor of Germany

Today's book:

Germany, 1870-1945: Politics, State Formation, and War by Peter Pulzer

Book Description:

Germany, 1870-1945: Politics, State Formation, and War deals with the three attempts to build a German nation-state between 1871 and 1945, and the reasons for their failure. Haunted by the spectre of the abortive liberal-national revolution of 1848-49, German politicians sought a series of solutions, none of which found a constitutional consensus, and two of which ended in military disaster. Pulzer looks at the two solutions imposed from above, those of Bismarck and Hitler, and the stalled revolution from below, that of the Weimar Republic. He examines the external influences on Germany's political development, such as the European state system and the Versailles treaty of 1919, but the main focus is on the tension between democratic and authoritarian forces, the series of unsatisfactory constitutional compromises, the main institutions of government, and the emergence and influence of parties and interest groups.

http://www.amazon.com/Germany-1870-1...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
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  #1393  
Old 04 Dec 06, 10:04
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December 4


By Admiral:

Born...

1443 Pope Julius II (1503-13), warrior, patron of Michelangelo & Rafaelo

1812 Elias Smith Dennis, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1894

1818 William Wing "Old Blizzards" Loring, Maj Gen, C.S.A.

1865 Edith Louisa Cavell, England, nurse and martyr, WW I

1881 Erwin von Witzleben, German Field Marshal and anti-Nazi conspirator, d. 1945

1892 Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, El Caudillo (1936-75) Spanish General/Dictator

1912 Pappy Boyington, Aviator, Black Sheep

1928 Russell L Rogers, USAF/Astronaut, X-20

1948 Roberta Lynn Bondar, Ontario, Astronaut, STS 42

1952 Ronald Michael Sega, PhD/Astronaut, STS 60, 76

Died...

771 Karloman II, French King of Burgundy, at about 20

1137 Lotharius III of Supplinburg, Emperor (1125, 33-37), at 67

1371 Stefanus X Uros V, King of Serbia (1355-71)

1642 Armand-Jean Duplessis (Cardinal) Richelieu, Bishop of Lueon, dies at about 57

1890 Willem III, Dutch King, buried

1980 Francisco Sa Carneiro, PM of Portugal (1980), in air crash

1995 Itzhak Rabin, PM of Israel (1968-73), assassinated

Event...

771 Karel, the Great, becomes King of all France

1110 Syria harbor city Saida (Sidon) surrenders to Crusaders

1197 Crusaders wound Rabbi Elezar ben Judah

1259 Treaty of Paris: English King Henry III and French King Louis IX

1354 Byzantine Emperor John VI Catacuzenos abdicates, becomes a monk

1489 Battle of Baza-Spanish army captures Baza from Moors

1534 Turkish sultan Suleiman occupies Baghdad

1644 1st European peace congress opens in Munster

1688 General strategist John Churchill joins with Willem III

1691 Emperor Leopold I takes control of Transsylvania

1783 Gen George Washington bids officers farewell at Fraunce's Tavern, New York City

1816 James Monroe elected 5th President of USA

1832 French army begins bombing citadel of Antwerp

1835 Texians capture San Antonio after a siege that began on Nov 1.

1838 Two hundred Republican raiders, supporters of William Lyon Mackenzie's rebellion, land outside of Windsor, Ont., at 2 a.m. They are soon met by local militia and British regulars who outflank them and capture the lot.

1844 James K Polk elected 11th President of USA

1851 President Louis Napolean Boaparte forces crush a coup d'etat in France

1861 Skirmish at Anandale, Mo

1861 Skirmish at Dunksburg, Mo

1862 Units of the I Corps, Army of Northern Virginia, have a snowball fight

1864 Battle of Waynesborough, GA

1864 Romanian Jews are forbidden to practice law

1899 Presidential son Webb Hayes earns a Medal of Honor in the Philippines

1905 British government of Balfour resigns

1908 Haiti's President-General Alexis Nord flees from military coup

1915 F F Fletcher is 1st Admiral to receive Congressional Medal of Honor

1918 President Woodrow Wilson sails in USS George Washington for Versailles Peace Conference in France. He was the first Cheif Exectutive to travel outside the US while in office

1940 Admiral William D. Leahy, USN (Retired) tenders his resignation as Governor of Puerto Rico effective the following day

1941 Nazi ordinances places Jews of Poland outside protection of courts

1941 Carrier USS Enterprise flys-off reinforcements for Wake Island

1941 River gunboats Luzon (PR-7) and Oahu (PR-6) (Rear Admiral William A. Glassford, Commander Yangtze Patrol, in Luzon), followed later by submarine rescue vessel Pigeon (ASR-6) and minesweeper Finch (AM-9), reach Manila.

1941 River gunboat Mindanao sails from Hong Kong, British Crown Colony, for Manila. She is the last U.S. Navy ship to depart Chinese waters prior to war. Luzon Stevedoring Company tug Ranger follows subsequently, carrying spare parts and 800 3-inch shells for Mindanao's main battery (previously stored ashore at Hong Kong). Only two U.S. naval vessels remain in Chinese waters: river gunboat Wake (ex-Guam) at Shanghai to maintain communications until a radio station is established at the Consulate General with Navy equipment, and river gunboat Tutuila at Chungking, where she furnishes essential services to the U.S. Embassy. Wake had received her new name on 23 January 1941 to clear the name Guam for a new large cruiser.

1941 Carrier USS Enterprise ferries USMC F4Fs (VMF 211) to Wake Island; TF 8 then shapes a course to return to Pearl Harbor. TF 8 is slated to reach Pearl on 6 December. Heavy weather on 5-6 December, however, will result in a delay in fueling the force's destroyers and push back the time of arrival in Pearl from the afternoon of the 6th to the morning of the 7th. That same day, a routine scouting flight from the carrier sights Honolulu-bound tug Sonoma (AT-12) with Pan American Airways barges PAB No. 2 and PAB No. 4 in tow. Sonoma, armed with only two .30-caliber machine guns, will eventually reach Honolulu on 15 December 1941, with her tows.

1941 Japanese naval land attack plane (Chitose Kokutai) reconnoiters Wake Island undetected.

1941 TU 4.1.5 reaches MOMP to escort convoy ON 41 which has been delayed by bad weather.

1941 TU 4.1.6 encounters "mountainous" seas as it continues to escort convoy HX 161; destroyer USS Roe suffers two sailors hurt when torpedo breaks loose atop her after deckhouse.

1941 Navy Department orders Guam to destroy all codes and secret documents.

1942 Guadalcanal: Carlson's Raiders end 30-day raid behind Japanese lines

1942 USAAF B-24s (9th Air Force) conduct first American bombing raid on Italy, targeting the port of Naples. Light cruiser DMB Muzio Attendolo is sunk; light cruisers DMB Raimondo Monteccucoli and DMB Eugenio di Savoia and four destroyers are damaged.

1943 2nd conference of Cairo: FDR, Churchill and Turkish President Inonu

1943 TF 50 attacks Japanese installations on Kwajalein and Wotje Atolls, Marshalls. Planes from USS Lexington and small carrier USS Independence sink collier Asakaze Maru, cargo ship Tateyama Maru, auxiliary submarine chaser No.7 Takunan Maru, and guardboat No.5 Mikuni Maru and damage light cruisers IJN Nagara and IJN Isuzu, stores ship IJN Kinezaki, auxiliary vessel Fujikawa Maru, and transports Eiko Maru, Kenbu Maru, and No.18 Mikage Maru.

1943 During Japanese retaliatory air strikes, three U.S. ships suffer damage: carrier USS Lexington by aerial torpedo, 13°30'N, 171°25'E; light cruiser USS Mobile when one of her 5-inch mounts accidentally fires into one of her own 40-millimeter mounts, 12°47'N, 170°57'E; and destroyer USS Taylor by friendly fire from light cruiser USS Oakland, 10°00'N, 170°00'E.

1943 Submarine USS Apogon sinks Japanese gunboat Daido Maru northeast of Ponape, 08°22'N, 159°02'E.

1943 Submarine USS Gunnel sinks Japanese transport Hiyoshi Maru northeast of Haha Jima, 29°436'N, 145°54'E, and eludes counterattacks by destroyer IJN Inazuma.

1943 Submarine USS Sailfish torpedoes and sinks Yokosuka-bound Japanese escort carrier IJN Chuyo, damages IJN Ryuho, southeast of Honshu, 32°27'N, 143°49'E. Unbeknown to USS Sailfish, IJN Chuyo is carrying survivors from sistership USS Sculpin.

1943 Japanese seaplane carrier Sanuki Maru is damaged by mine, Pomelaa, as she sails for Singapore.

1943 Aircraft from USS Lexington and USS Independence attack Kwajalein Atoll, sinking four Japanese ships and damaging five others, while only three U.S. ships suffered damage.

1944 Germans destroy Rhine dikes, Betuwe flooded

1944 Tanks from the 5th Canadian Armoured Division roar into Ravenna and capture the city. Some 800 local partisans gather the help the Allies clear the area.

1944 Destroyer USS Drayton is damaged by horizontal bomber off Leyte, 10°00'N, 125°00'E.

1944 Submarine USS Flasher attacks Japanese convoy about 275 miles southwest of Manila, sinking destroyer IJN Kishinami, 12°54'N, 116°27'E, and damages merchant tanker Hakko Maru. Flasher eludes efforts of the escorting IJN Yurijima and Coast Defense Vessel No.17; Hakko Maru is later scuttled, 13°12'N, 116°35'E, most likely by IJN Yurijima and/or Coast Defense Vessel No.17. USS Flasher is the only U.S. submarine to sink over 100,000 tons of enemy shipping in World War II.

1948 SS Kiangya hits mine in Whangpoo River China, sinks, 2,750 die

1962 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1965 Launch of Gemini 7 piloted by CDR James A. Lovell, USN. This flight consisted of 206 orbits at an altitude of 327 km and lasted 13 days and 18 hours. Borman/Lovell recovered by HS-11 helicopters from USS Wasp

1973 Pioneer 10 reaches Jupiter

1977 Jean-Bedel Bokassa becomes Emperor of the Central African Empire (1977-1979)

1978 Pioneer Venus 1 goes into orbit around Venus

1978 Dutch War criminal Pieter Menten freed

1983 Aircraft from USS John F. Kennedy and USS Independence launch strike against Syrian anti-aircraft positions in Lebanon that fired on U.S. aircraft. Two U.S. Navy planes shot down.

1988 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Novaya Zemlya U.S.S.R.

1990 Iraq announces it will release all 3,300 Soviet hostages

1992 US Troops land in Somalia on behalf of UN

1996 NASA's 1st Mars rover launched from Cape Canaveral

By Cap. Teancum:

1966 - A Viet Cong unit penetrates the 13-mile defense perimeter around Saigon's Tan Son Nhut airport and shells the field for over four hours. South Vietnamese and U.S. security guards finally drove off the attackers, killing 18 of them in the process. One U.S. RF-101 reconnaissance jet was badly damaged in the attack. The guerrillas returned that same night and resumed the attack, but security guards again repelled them, killing 11 more Viet Cong during the second battle.

1967 - Elements of the U.S. mobile riverine force and 400 South Vietnamese in armored personnel carriers engage communist forces in the Mekong Delta. During the battle, 235 of the 300-member Viet Cong battalion were killed.

The mobile riverine force was an Army-Navy task force made up of the U.S. 9th Infantry Division (primarily the 2nd Brigade and associated support troops) and the U.S. Navy's Task Force 117. This force was often combined with units from the South Vietnamese 7th and 21st Infantry Divisions and the South Vietnamese Marine Corps. The mobile riverine concept called for Army troops to operate with Navy gunboats and troop carrier boats in the Mekong Delta. This gave the force the capability to travel 150 miles in 24 hours and launch combat operations with its 5,000-man force within 30 minutes after anchoring. The mobile riverine force was activated in June 1967. It conducted operations throughout the Delta until the responsibility for this mission was transferred to the South Vietnamese forces in April 1971, as part of the "Vietnamization" program.

1991 - Journalist Terry Anderson, the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon, is freed by his Islamic Holy War captors after being held for 2,454 days.

Before his abduction, Anderson was the chief Middle East correspondent for the Associated Press. He lived in Beirut and covered Lebanon's extended civil war. On March 16, 1985, Islamic militants kidnapped Anderson on a Beirut street and took him to the southern suburbs of war-torn Beirut, where other Western hostages were held in scattered dungeons under ruined buildings. Although his seven-year ordeal was the longest of the 92 foreigners abducted during Lebanon's civil war, he was saved the fate of 11 hostages who died or were believed murdered. A total of 17 Americans were held; three were slain. Anderson spent most of his captivity blindfolded and bound and was finally released as the 16-year-long Lebanese civil war came to an end.

I saved for last a spooky tale. Not exactly a military nature event, but I thought I had to share it.

1872 - The mystery of the Mary Celeste

The Dei Gratia, a small British brig under Captain David Morehouse, spots the Mary Celeste, an American vessel, sailing erratically but at full sail near the Azores Islands in the Atlantic Ocean. The ship was seaworthy, its stores and supplies were untouched, but not a soul was onboard.

On November 7, the brigantine Mary Celeste sailed from New York harbor for Genoa, Italy, carrying Captain Benjamin S. Briggs, his wife and two-year-old daughter, a crew of eight, and a cargo of some 1,700 barrels of crude alcohol. After the Dei Gratia sighted the vessel on December 4, Captain Morehouse and his men boarded the ship to find it abandoned, with its sails slightly damaged, several feet of water in the hold, and the lifeboat and navigational instruments missing. However, the ship was in good order, the cargo intact, and reserves of food and water remained on board.

The last entry in the captain's log shows that the Mary Celeste had been nine days and 500 miles away from where the ship was found by the Dei Gratia. Apparently, the Mary Celeste had been drifting toward Genoa on her intended course for 11 days with no one at the wheel to guide her. Captain Briggs, his family, and the crew of the vessel were never found, and the reason for the abandonment of the Mary Celeste has never been determined.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1394  
Old 04 Dec 06, 10:11
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1783 Gen George Washington bids officers farewell at Fraunce's Tavern, New York City

Today's book:

George Washington's Indispensable Men: The 32 Aides-De-Camp Who Helped Win American Independence by Arthur S. Lefkowitz

Book Description:

While history has immortalized George Washington, it has largely forgotten those who helped to propel him to such greatness--the 32 men who served as his aides-de-camp. "George Washington's Indispensable Men" asserts that Washington relied heavily on these men for help in formulating policy and strategy. His aides were definitely not just "pen men," but real, behind-the-scenes advisors that potentially affected some of his greatest decisions.

http://www.amazon.com/George-Washing...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1395  
Old 05 Dec 06, 10:13
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
December 5


By Admiral:

Born...

1826 John Benjamin Sanborn, Bvt Major Gen Union volunteers

1839 George Armstrong Custer, d. 1876

1861 Armando Diaz, Italian marshal/ supreme commander in WW I

1901 Werner Heisenberg, German physicist/discovered uncertainty, Nobel 32

1902 Strom Thurmond, Senator, oldest man to jump with the 101st Airborne, D-Day

1927 Bhumibol Adulyadej, King Rama IX of Thailand (1950- ), jazzman

1949 Bruce E Melnick, Cmdr USCG/Astronaut, STS 41, STS

Died...

1355 Duke Jan III of Brabant and Limburg

1560 King Francis II of France (1559-60), at 16

1891 Emperor Pedro II of Brazil (1831-89)

1992 Sergei Aleksandrovich Yemelyanov, Russian Cosmonaut, at 41

Event...

1349 Jews are massacred at Nuremberg in Black Death riots

1492 Columbus discovers Hispanola (Haiti)

1496 Jews are expelled from Portugal by order of King Manuel I

1560 Charles IX ascends the throne of France

1757 Battle at Leuthen: Prussian army beats Austrians

1792 George Washington re-elected president of US

1804 Thomas Jefferson re-elected president of US

1832 Andrew Jackson re-elected president of US

1837 "Battle of Younge Street." A group of "revolutionaries" are marching down Yonge Street in Toronto and are met by Loyalist volunteers who begin firing at them. When some of the rebels kneel to fire their weapons, the men at the back believe they have been shot and flee in panic, prompting the collapse of the entire rebel column. It is an auspicious beginning to William Lyon Mackenzie's rebellion in Upper Canada.

1861 Hiram Gatling is granted a patent for his clever device - the Gatling gun

1862 Battle of Coffeeville, MS

1936 Armenian SSR, Azerbaijan SSR, Georgian SSR, Kazakh SSR and Kirghiz SSR becomes constituent republics of Soviet Union

1939 U.S. freighter Exochorda is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities, who maintain that the 45 tons of tin plate among the vessel's cargo is contraband. The latter maintain that the cargo must be taken to Marseilles and unloaded there; the manager of the shipping firm (Export Lines) maintains that the ship cannot proceed to a belligerent port without violating the Neutrality Act. Until the impasse is resolved, the merchantman remains at Gibraltar. Freighter Exmouth, detained at Gibraltar since 22 November, is released.

1939 U.S. freighter Yaka is detained at the Downs by British authorities

1940 Admiral Leahy takes oath of office as Ambassador to Vichy France.

1941 Russian counter-offensive in Moscow drives out nazi army

1941 Additional Japanese invasion forces sail from Camrahn Bay and Saigon. Japan assures the U.S. that her troop movements in French Indochina are only precautionary.

1941 Carrier USS Lexington in TF 12 sails for Midway to ferry USMC SB2Us (VMSB 231) to that atoll. Like USS Enterprise's deployment to Wake, USS Lexington's to Midway is in response to the "War Warning" of 27 November.

1941 TU 4.1.3 assumes escort duty for convoy HX 163 in North Atlantic.

1941 Destroyer USS Babbitt, in TU 4.1.5 escorting convoy ON 41, depth-charges suspected submarine contact without result.

1941 Japanese First Air Fleet at 45 North 178 West, c. 1200 miles NW of Pearl Harbor

1942 Allies maneuver to increase pressure on the Japanese at Buna-Gona

1942 VCS Detachment RINGBOLT is established at Tanambogo, B.S.I., composed of planes from heavy cruisers USS Pensacola, USS Northampton, USS New Orleans, USS Minneapolis, and light cruiser USS Honolulu. Operations of the new unit commence immediately, taking precedence over setting up camp. Two SOCs patrol this night with PT boats. Lack of equipment and communication difficulties handicap operations that are carried out on moonless nights in rain squalls. Only facilities provided being a flashlight on the beach to guide returning plane through reef passage after landing.

1942 U.S. freighter John Lykes rescues 19 survivors from freighter Jeremiah Wadsworth, sunk by German submarine U-178 on 27 November; an unidentified Allied ship rescues 20 more of Jeremiah Wadsworth's men the same day.

1943 Drop-tanks introduced, P-47s & P-51s can now escort bombers over Germany

1943 Major Japanese air raid on port facilities at Calcutta, India.

1943 Destroyers bombard Choiseul Bay area, Choiseul Island, Solomons.
Submarine USS Narwhal sinks Japanese cargo ship Himeno Maru (ex-U.S. Dos Hermanos) off Camiquin Island, 09°09'N, 124°29'E.

1943 Japanese planes bomb Calcutta, India; U.S. freighter William Whipple is straddled and holed with fragments. There are no casualties among the 42-man merchant crew, but one man of the 28-man Armed Guard is injured.

1943 Norwegian freighter Lillemor rescues 43 survivors from tanker Touchet, torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-193 on 3 December 1943; shortly thereafter, destroyer escort USS Falgout picks up 11 more men from the lost ship

1944 Naval Base, Tinian, is established.

1944 Submarine IJN Hake lands supplies on Panay, P.I.

1944 Tank landing ship LST-23 and medium landing ship LSM-20 are damaged by Japanese planes 70 miles northwest of Caiut Point, Leyte, 10°12'N, 125°19'E. Kamikazes damage destroyers USS Drayton, 10°10'N, 125°20'E, and USS Mugford, 10°15'N, 125°20'E.

1944 Japanese planes attack convoy bound for Leyte, torpedoing U.S. freighter Antoine Saugraine at 09°42'N, 127°05'E; falling astern of the convoy, the freighter again comes under attack, is torpedoed a second time, and is abandoned. Frigates USS San Pedro and USS Coronado, and Army tug LT 454 rescue the 42-manmerchant complement, 26-man Armed Guard and 376 Army troop passengers between them. A kamikaze crashes freighter Marcus Daly in San Pedro Bay, Leyte, 09°34'N, 127°30'E; 1 of the 27-man Armed Guard is killed, as are 2 of the 40-man merchant complement and 62 of the 1,200 embarked Army troops; 49 men are wounded. Nearby, Armed Guard gunfire from freighter John Evans deflects a kamikaze from his suicidal course toward that ship, but the plane grazes the ship, glancing off the topmast and the stack before splashing close aboard. Bomb fragments cause some topside damage and wound four men (two of the 43-man merchant complement and 2 of the 26-man Armed Guard).

1944 Japanese escort destroyer IJN Ikuna is damaged by aircraft off Formosa.

1944 Tank landing craft LCT-152, under tow of tank landing ship LST-141, is damaged in a gale off Palermo, Sicily. Auxiliary tug ATA-172 brings LCT-152 into port.

1944 German troops confiscate all the silver coins in Utrecht

1950 UN forces abandon Pyongyang under heavy Chinese pressure

1969 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1977 Egypt breaks dipl relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and S Yemen

1981 France performs nuclear test

1982 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1985 Great Britain performs nuclear test

1993 Astronauts begin repair of Hubble telescope in space

By Cap. Teancum:

1964 - The first Medal of Honor awarded to a U.S. serviceman for action in Vietnam is presented to Capt. Roger Donlon of Saugerties, New York, for his heroic action earlier in the year.

Captain Donlon and his Special Forces team were manning Camp Nam Dong, a mountain outpost near the borders of Laos and North Vietnam. Just before two o'clock in the morning on July 6, 1964, hordes of Viet Cong attacked the camp. He was shot in the stomach, but Donlon stuffed a handkerchief into the wound, cinched up his belt, and kept fighting. He was wounded three more times, but he continued fighting--manning a mortar, throwing grenades at the enemy, and refusing medical attention.

The battle ended in early morning; 154 Viet Cong were killed during the battle. Two Americans died and seven were wounded. Over 50 South Vietnamese soldiers and Nung mercenaries were also killed during the action. Once the battle was over, Donlon allowed himself to be evacuated to a hospital in Saigon. He spent over a month there before rejoining the surviving members of his Special Forces team; they completed their six-month tour in Vietnam in November and flew home together. In a White House ceremony, with Donlon's nine surviving team members watching, President Lyndon B. Johnson presented him with the Medal of Honor for "conspicuous gallantry, extraordinary heroism and intrepidity at the risk of his own life above and beyond the call of duty." Donlon, justifiably proud of his team, told the president, "The medal belongs to them, too."

1970 - A North Vietnamese newspaper declares that the country will not be intimidated by U.S. bombing threats. Earlier in the week, U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird had warned that the U.S. would initiate new bombing raids on North Vietnam if the communists continued to fire on unarmed reconnaissance aircraft flying over their air space. Responding to Laird's threats, North Vietnamese officials declared that any U.S. reconnaissance planes that flew over North Vietnam would be fired upon. This declaration implied that North Vietnam would not be forced into concessions, and was prepared to continue the war regardless of the cost.

1978 - In an effort to prop up an unpopular pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union signs a "friendship treaty" with the Afghan government agreeing to provide economic and military assistance. The treaty moved the Russians another step closer to their disastrous involvement in the Afghan civil war between the Soviet-supported communist government and the Muslim rebels, the Mujahideen, which officially began in 1979.

The Soviet Union always considered the bordering nation of Afghanistan of interest to its national security. Since the 1950s, the Soviet Union worked diligently to establish close relations with its neighbor by providing economic aid and military assistance. In the 1970s matters took a dramatic turn in Afghanistan, and in April 1978, members of the Afghan Communist Party overthrew and murdered President Sardar Mohammed Daoud. Nur Mohammed Taraki, head of the Communist Party, took over and immediately declared one-party rule in Afghanistan. The regime was extremely unpopular with many Afghans so the Soviets sought to bolster it with the December 1978 treaty. The treaty established a 20-year period of "friendship and cooperation" between the Soviet Union and Afghanistan. In addition to increased economic assistance, the Soviet Union promised continued cooperation in the military field. Soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev declared that the treaty marked a "qualitatively new character" of relations between the two nations.

The treaty, however, did not help Afghanistan. Taraki was overthrown and killed by members of the Afghan Communist Party who were dissatisfied with his rule in September 1979. In December, Soviet troops moved into Afghanistan and established a regime more amenable to Russian desires. Thus began what many pundits referred to as "Russia's Vietnam," as the Soviets poured endless amounts of money, weapons, and manpower into a seemingly endless civil war. Mikhail Gorbachev finally began the withdrawal of Russian troops nearly 10 years later.

Yet another spooky tale, this starts to look like Halloween all over again, sorry.

1945 - At 2:10 p.m., five U.S. Navy Avenger torpedo-bombers comprising Flight 19 take off from the Ft. Lauderdale Naval Air Station in Florida on a routine three-hour training mission. Flight 19 was scheduled to take them due east for 120 miles, north for 73 miles, and then back over a final 120-mile leg that would return them to the naval base. They never returned.

Two hours after the flight began, the leader of the squadron, who had been flying in the area for more than six months, reported that his compass and back-up compass had failed and that his position was unknown. The other planes experienced similar instrument malfunctions. Radio facilities on land were contacted to find the location of the lost squadron, but none were successful. After two more hours of confused messages from the fliers, a distorted radio transmission from the squadron leader was heard at 6:20 p.m., apparently calling for his men to prepare to ditch their aircraft simultaneously because of lack of fuel.

By this time, several land radar stations finally determined that Flight 19 was somewhere north of the Bahamas and east of the Florida coast, and at 7:27 p.m. a search and rescue Mariner aircraft took off with a 13-man crew. Three minutes later, the Mariner aircraft radioed to its home base that its mission was underway. The Mariner was never heard from again. Later, there was a report from a tanker cruising off the coast of Florida of a visible explosion seen at 7:50 p.m.

The disappearance of the 14 men of Flight 19 and the 13 men of the Mariner led to one of the largest air and seas searches to that date, and hundreds of ships and aircraft combed thousands of square miles of the Atlantic Ocean, the Gulf of Mexico, and remote locations within the interior of Florida. No trace of the bodies or aircraft was ever found.

Although naval officials maintained that the remains of the six aircraft and 27 men were not found because stormy weather destroyed the evidence, the story of the "Lost Squadron" helped cement the legend of the Bermuda Triangle, an area of the Atlantic Ocean where ships and aircraft are said to disappear without a trace. The Bermuda Triangle is said to stretch from the southern U.S. coast across to Bermuda and down to the Atlantic coast of Cuba and Santo Domingo.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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