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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1366  
Old 20 Nov 06, 10:43
Cap. Teancum's Avatar
Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
Distinguished Service Award ACG Ten Year Service Award ACG 5 Year Service Ribbon March Offensive 
Summer Campaign Most Decisive Battle Campaign, 2008 
 
Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1817 1st Seminole War begins in Florida

Today's book:

Florida's Seminole Wars 1817-1858 by Joe Knetsch

Book Description:

Among the most well known of Floridaís native peoples, the Seminole Indians frustrated troops of militia and volunteer soldiers for decades during the first half of the nineteenth century in the ongoing struggle to keep hold of their ancestral lands. While careers and reputations of American military and political leaders were made and destroyed in the mosquito-infested swamps of Floridaís interior, the Seminoles and their allies, including the Miccosukee tribe and many escaped slaves, managed to wage war on their own terms. The study of guerrilla warfare tactics employed by the Seminoles may have aided modern American forces fighting in Viet Nam, Cambodia, and other regions. Years before the first shots of the Civil War were fired, Florida witnessed a clash of wills and ways that prompted three wars unlike any others in Americaís history, although many of the same policies and mistakes were made in the Indian wars west of the Mississippi.

http://www.amazon.com/Floridas-Semin...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1367  
Old 21 Nov 06, 10:10
Cap. Teancum's Avatar
Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
Distinguished Service Award ACG Ten Year Service Award ACG 5 Year Service Ribbon March Offensive 
Summer Campaign Most Decisive Battle Campaign, 2008 
 
Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 21


By Admiral:

Born...

1729 Josiah Bartlett, U.S. physician/judge/signer, Declaration of Independence (No, not Martin Sheen)

1828 William McComb, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1918

1831 John Franklin Miller, Brig Gen, U.S., in 1886

1834 Joseph Jackson Bartlett, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1893

1840 Victoria, Empress of Germany/Queen of Prussia

1933 Henry Hartsfield, Jr., Astronaut, (STS-4, STS 41-D, STS 61A)

Died...

1580 Willem Van Hoorn, Baron of Heze, governor of Brussels, executed

1728 Fjodor M Graaf Apraksin, Russian General/Admiral, at about 57

1817 Richard B Garnett, Brig Gen, C.S.A., KIA during Picketts Charge, July 3, 1863

1910 Count Leo Tolstoy died in a Russian train station

1916 Franz Jozef I, Emperor of Austria & King of Hungary (1848-1916)

1992 Kaysone Phomvihane, PM of Laos (1975-91)

Event...

1492 Pinta under Martin A Pinzon separates from Columbus' fleet.

1521 Bicocca: Prospero Colonna's Italo-Spanish army crushes the French.

1759 Battle at Maxen: Prussian army surrenders to Austrians.

1806 Decree of Berlin: Emperor Napoleon I bans all trade with England..

1812 Artillery at Fort George and Fort Niagara (at the mouth of the Niagara River on Lake Ontario) exchange steady fire all day long. Both forts sustain damage, while the town of Niagara suffers from the Americans' use of hot shot.

1813 Stettin surrenders to allied armies.

1818 Russia's Czar Alexander I petitions for a Jewish state in Palestine.

1834 HMS Beagle anchors at Bay of San Carlos, Chile.

1836 Marines and Soldiers took action against the Seminole Indians at Wahoo Swamp, Florida.

1864 Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia.

1876 Skirmish between HM Stanley's expedition and natives.

1880 Henry M Stanley and Pierre de Brazza quarrel about possession of Congo.

1906 China prohibits opium trade.

1914 British army conquerors Bazra.

1917 M Gorki calls Lenin a blind fanatic/unthinking adventurer.

1918 Polish soldiers organize a pogrom against Jews of Galicia Poland.

1918 Two German ammunition trains explode in Hamont Belgium, 1,750 die.

1918 Numerous warships witness surrender & internment of the German High Seas fleet at Rosyth, Firth of Forth, Scotland, to British and American fleets.

1920 Mussolini's Blackshirts kill 11 in Bologna.

1938 Nazi forces occupy western Czechs and declared them German citizens.

1939 "Navicert" system is instituted by U.S. in an attempt to avoid incidents at sea. U.S. merchant ships are to obtain clearances for their cargoes (certificates of non-enemy origin for all items) prior to leaving port.

1939 U.S. freighter Express, detained by British authorities at Malta since 12 November, is released and allowed to proceed on her voyage after declaring the nature of her cargo.

1940 Nazi occupiers forbid building schools in Netherlands.

1940 Sixth and last group of ships involved in the destroyers-for-bases agreement--USS Bailey, USS Meade, USS Shubrick, USS Swasey, USS Claxton, USS Fairfax, USS Robinson, USS Ringgold, USS Sigourney and USS Tillman--arrives at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Turnover of the last ten ships is under the charge of Commander Destroyer Squadron 33 (Captain Schuyler F. Heim).

1940 Chargé d'Affaires ad interim H. Freeman Matthews meets with Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain concerning the French battleships FS Richelieu and FS Jean Bart; the French Admiral responds immediately: "Then why not leave those vessels at Dakar and Casablanca where they now are? I shall keep them there and if there should be any change in this plan I will give you previous notice." This information, received in Washington on the morning of 22 November, is communicated through channels by the President to the "Former Naval Person" (Churchill) on the 23rd.

1941 Office of the Chief of Naval Operations mistakenly informs Naval Air Station, New York, of the imminent delivery of infantile paralysis serum from Navy Medical Supply Depot, Brooklyn, for further transport to Norfolk by 1000 on the following day and thence to Bermuda. It is soon discovered, however, that no such serum exists in Brooklyn or anywhere east of Milwaukee. Urgent ensuing search locates the needed serum in Milwaukee, whence it is flown to Chicago, where American Air Lines holds a plane to make the necessary connection for the flight to New York.

1941 Lend-Lease is extended to Iceland.

1941 Destroyer USS Shaw and oiler Sabine are damaged in collision in Hawaiian Operating Area. This led to USS Shaws disasterous presence at Pearl Harbor 12/7/41

1942 Submarine USS Stingray torpedoes Japanese seaplane carrier San'yo Maru off Shortland Island, 06°32'S, 156°05'E.

1942 Survivors from U.S. freighter Pierce Butler, sunk by German submarine U-177 off the coast of South Africa the previous day, are rescued by British destroyer HMS Forward and transported to Durban, South Africa.

1942 U.S. freighter Alcoa Pathfinder is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-181 approximately six miles off the coast of Portuguese East Africa, 26°41'S, 33°08'E; five merchant seamen are lost. Survivors row ashore.

1942 Destroyer USS Somers intercepts German blockade runner Anneliese Essberger in the South Atlantic. The German ship is scuttled by her crew.

1942 Damaged U.S. tanker Brilliant sails from Musgrave harbor for St. John's.

1942 ALCAN Highway official opened.

1943 Submarine USS Steelhead damages Japanese aircraft transport Goshu Maru southeast of Ulithi, Carolines, 08°16'N, 141°53'E.

1943 RAAF Beaufort damages Japanese light cruiser IJN Kiso 53 miles from Cape St. George, 04°23'S, 153°11'E.

1943 Japanese cargo ship No.11 Chofoku Maru is sunk by mine while en route from Surabaya to Penang; cargo ship Rakuto Maru is damaged by mine off Padamarang Island.

1943 Destroyer USS Murphy is cut in two when she is accidentally rammed by U.S. tanker Bulkoil 265 miles east-southeast of Ambrose Lightship, New York. USS Murphy's forward section sinks.

1943 Aircraft (VC 13) from escort carrier USS Core damage German submarine U-271, north of the Azores.

1943 7 Belgian ministers in London sentence King Leopold III.

1943 German planes attack convoy MKS 28, strafing and torpedoing U.S. freighter Tivives about 15 miles off Cape Tenes; one of 48 merchant seamen and one of the 25-man Armed Guard perish in the ensuing abandonment as the ship sinks swiftly. Free French-manned corvette HMS LaMalouine rescues the survivors, who also include the six-man staff of the convoy commodore and one passenger.

1943 German troops succeed in destroying a bridge across the Sangro River, at Sant'Angelo, Italy, frustrating attempts by Canadians of the Carleton and York Regiment to breach German defenses.

1944 Two light cruisers and and nine destroyers of TF 92 bombard Japanese naval air installations on Matsuwa Island, Kurils.

1944 Submarine USS Flounder attacks Japanese convoy in the South China Sea, damaging army cargo ship Gyosan Maru, 10°36'N, 115°08'; later, submarine USS Guavina completes destruction of Gyosan Maru off Tizard's Reef, 10°22'N, 114°22'E.

1944 Submarine USS Scabbardfish sinks Japanese victualling stores ship Hokkai Maru 200 nautical miles south of Tokyo, 33°20'N, 142°00'E.

1944 Submarine USS Sealion attacks Japanese task force, and sinks battleship IJN Kongo and destroyer IJN Urakaze about 60 miles north-northwest of Formosa, 26°07'N, 121°36'E.

1944 Japanese oceanographic research vessel Kaiyo No.2 is sunk by U.S. aircraft in the Celebes Sea.

1944 USAAF B-24 sinks Japanese ship Shinsei Maru in Makassar Strait, 02°04'N, 119°12'E.

1944 Japanese cargo ship Fukurei Maru is sunk by marine casualty off west coast of Korea, 38°08'N, 124°34'E.

1955 Argentina asks Panama for return of ex-president Peron.

1965 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1969 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1974 Freedom of Information Act passed by Congress.

1979 Crowd at Islamabad, Pakistan attack U.S. embassy, 1 dies.

1981 400,000 demonstrate against cruise missiles in Amsterdam.

1986 Suriname army leader Desi Bouterse massacres Moiwana village.

1986 Central African Republic adopts constitution.

1995 Israel grants jailed U.S. spy Jason Pollard, citizenship.

By Cap. Teancum:

1861 - Confederate President Jefferson Davis names Judah Benjamin the secretary of war.

A Sephardic Jew from South Carolina, Judah Benjamin was an exception to the rule in the Protestant South. As a young man, he moved to New Orleans and lived in a largely Jewish community. He married the daughter of a wealthy Catholic couple, but the marriage was distant--Natalie Benjamin moved to Paris soon after the birth of their daughter and the couple spent little of their fifty-plus-year marriage together.

Benjamin practiced law and bought a sugar plantation near New Orleans. He became a representative in the Louisiana state legislature in 1842, and he was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1852. While there, he became a close friend of Jefferson Davis, who was then a Mississippi senator. Benjamin resigned during the secession crisis of 1860 and 1861, even before Louisiana officially left the Union. Davis selected Benjamin as the Confederacy's first attorney general, and he quickly became the president's most trusted advisor. After the Battle of First Bull Run, Secretary of War Leroy Walker resigned amid criticism that the Confederate army did not pursue the defeated Yankees. Davis appointed Benjamin to the position.

Although Benjamin had no military experience, his appointment allowed Davis to dominate Confederate military affairs. Placing his trusted friend in the position of secretary of war ensured that Davis would not be challenged on important military decisions. Benjamin efficiently managed the day-to-day work of the war department, but he began to quarrel with some of the top generals who resented taking orders from a non-military bureaucrat. Benjamin also drew unfair criticism because of his religion--many openly questioned his loyalty because of his Jewish faith.

When Roanoke Island fell to the Yankees in March 1862, criticism of Benjamin peaked. Many censured him for not sending men and supplies to the island's garrison. Furthermore, the war was going badly for the Confederates in the West. Davis recognized that the storm of complaints was crippling Benjamin's ability to perform his duty, so he appointed Benjamin secretary of state when Robert M. T. Hunter resigned that position. As the outlook for the Confederacy grew bleaker in 1863 and 1864, Benjamin floated the idea that the South could obtain foreign recognition only by promising emancipation. This radical concept fell on deaf ears until the last weeks of the war.

When the Confederacy finally collapsed, Benjamin fled with the rest of the Confederate government to Danville, Virginia. When President Lincoln was assassinated, it was discovered that Benjamin had ties to the Surratt family, which was implicated in the conspiracy. Fearing capture and prosecution, Benjamin fled the country. He settled in England and practiced law there, often visiting his wife and daughter in Paris. During the rest of his life, Benjamin rarely spoke of his service to the Confederacy. He died in Paris in 1884.

1894 - Japanese capture Port Arthur on the Liaotung Peninsula.

1914 - End of First Battle of Ypres.

1941 - On this day in 1941, Albert Speer, Adolf Hitler's chief architect and minister for armaments and war production, asks for 30,000 Soviet prisoners of war to use as slave laborers to begin a massive Berlin building program.

Speer was born March 19, 1905, in Mannheim, Germany. At the age of 22, he received his architectural license, having studied at three German technical schools. He became an ardent Nazi after hearing Hitler orate at a rally in late 1930, and joined the party in January 1931. Hitler, always impressed by academic credentials and any kind of artistic or technical talent, made Speer his personal architect. Among the projects with which the Fuhrer entrusted Speer was the design of the parade grounds for the Nuremberg Party Congress in 1934, which Leni Riefienstahl made famous in her famous propaganda film Triumph of the Will.

As minister of armaments and munitions, Speer's job description expanded to include not only armament production and transportation, but also the direction of raw material use and finally the conscription of slave labor, culled from concentration camps, for war material production. These slave laborers would come in handy for Hitler's "new" Berlin. Speer wanted to begin construction even as the war waged. Despite the drain on resources Hitler agreed. Speer beguiled the Fuhrer with models of a Great Hall for the Chancellery and a grand office for Goering.

But as the war turned against Nazi Germany, the rebuilding plans were scrapped. When the war was over, Hitler was dead, and Speer was tried as a war criminal at Nuremberg, the site of his grand parade, and sentenced to 20 years in Spandau prison in Berlin.

1967 - Gen. William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam, tells U.S. news reporters: "I am absolutely certain that whereas in 1965 the enemy was winning, today he is certainly losing."

Having been reassured by the general, most Americans were stunned when the communists launched a massive offensive during the Vietnamese Tet New Year holiday on January 30, 1968. During this offensive, communist forces struck 36 of 44 provincial capitals, 5 of 6 autonomous cities, 64 of 242 district capitals and about 50 hamlets. At one point during the initial attack on Saigon, communists troops actually penetrated the ground floor of the U.S. Embassy.

The fighting raged all over South Vietnam and lasted almost until the end of February. Overcoming the initial surprise of the attack, the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces recovered and ultimately inflicted a major military defeat on the communists. Nevertheless, Hanoi won a great psychological victory by launching such a widespread attack after Westmoreland assured the American people that the corner had been turned in South Vietnam. As a result of the unexpected Tet Offensive, many Americans came out forcefully against the war. Even CBS television anchorman Walter Cronkite, widely regarded as the most trusted man in American, publicly questioned U.S. policy in Vietnam.

1970 - A combined Air Force and Army team of 40 Americans--led by Army Colonel "Bull" Simons--conducts a raid on the Son Tay prison camp, 23 miles west of Hanoi, in an attempt to free between 70 and 100 Americans suspected of being held there.

Planning for the mission--code-named Operation Ivory Coast--began in June 1970. The plan called for Army Rangers to be flown to Son Tay by helicopter and crash-land inside the compound. The plan was for Rangers to pour out of the helicopter and neutralize any opposition while Rangers in other helicopters, landing outside the walls, would break in and complete the rescue operation.

At 11:30 p.m. on November 20, the raiding force departed Takhli Royal Thai Air Force Base in Thailand. As the force approached the camp, U.S. Air Force and Navy warplanes struck North Vietnamese troop installations and antiaircraft sites in the area. Part of the force initially landed at the wrong compound, but otherwise the mission came off without a hitch.

Unfortunately, the Rangers could not locate any prisoners in the huts. After a sharp firefight with the North Vietnamese troops in the area, the order was given to withdraw--27 minutes after the raid began, the force was in the air headed back to Thailand. The raid was accomplished in a superb manner and all Americans returned safely, but it was learned later that the prisoners had been moved elsewhere in July. Despite that disappointment, the raid was a tactical success and sent a message to the North Vietnamese that the United States was capable of inserting a combat force undetected only miles from their capital. Stunned by the raid, high Hanoi officials ordered all U.S. POWs moved to several central prison complexes. This was actually a welcome change-the move afforded the prisoners more contact with each other and boosted their morale.

1975 - A Senate committee issues a report charging that U.S. government officials were behind assassination plots against two foreign leaders and were heavily involved in at least three other plots. The shocking revelations suggested that the United States was willing to go to murderous levels in pursuing its Cold War policies.
The Senate Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, chaired by Senator Frank Church, alleged that U.S. officials instigated plots to assassinate Cuban leader Fidel Castro and Patrice Lumumba of the Congo. In addition, the U.S. officials "encouraged or were privy to" plots that led to the assassinations of Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, General Rene Schneider of Chile, and Rafael Trujillo of the Dominican Republic. The attempts against Castro failed, but the other four leaders were killed. There was also evidence suggesting U.S. involvement in a number of other assassination plots against foreign leaders.
The committee indicated that it had no specific evidence that an American president ever authorized an assassination. However, it went on to declare that "whether or not the President in fact knows about the assassination plots, and even if their subordinates failed in their duty of full disclosure, it still follows that the President should have known about the plots." The Central Intelligence Agency came in for special condemnation for its efforts to recruit Mafia hit men to kill Castro and mercenaries to assassinate Lumumba. In the report's conclusion, the committee declared that, "We condemn the use of assassination as a tool of foreign policy [and] find that assassination violates moral precepts fundamental to our way of life."
President Gerald Ford criticized the decision to release the report, claiming that it would do "grievous damage to our country" and would be used by "groups hostile to the United States in a manner designed to do maximum damage to the reputation and foreign policy of the United States."

1985 - Jonathan Jay Pollard, a civilian U.S. Navy intelligence analyst and Jewish American, is arrested on charges of illegally passing classified U.S. security information about Arab nations to Israel.

Pollard, an employee at the navy intelligence center in Suitland, Maryland, was eventually convicted and sentenced to life in prison under the recommendation of Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger. The Israeli government did not officially object to the sentencing and most of Israel regarded the incident as an unfortunate embarrassment. However, Israeli calls for Pollard's release mounted during the next decade, and top Israeli officials complained that Pollard received a far stiffer sentence than other individuals found in the past to have been passing information to "friendly" nations. In 1995, Israel awarded Pollard Israeli citizenship. He remains behind bars for his espionage.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1368  
Old 21 Nov 06, 10:14
Cap. Teancum's Avatar
Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
Distinguished Service Award ACG Ten Year Service Award ACG 5 Year Service Ribbon March Offensive 
Summer Campaign Most Decisive Battle Campaign, 2008 
 
Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1864 Battle at Griswoldville, Georgia.

Today's book:

Fields of Gray, Battle of Griswoldville, November 22, 1864 by Gary Livingston

Book Description:

The most in-depth and complete account of the heroic but vain fight of the Georgia troops made up of militia, state line, Athens and Augusta work battalions in their stand against Sherman's hardened veterans on their March to the Sea. In defense of family and homes the 4,000-5,000 Georgia troops under Brig. Gen. Phillips attacked the Union right wing at Griswoldville, Georgia November 22, 1864. The Georgia troops surged forward seven times against the entrenched Union lines. Statistics show more casualties than any other fight of the Civil War in proportion to the number of troops engaged. Weaving eyewitness accounts, journal entries, military communiques, newspaper accounts with his insightful narrative style, Livingston reconstructs the events leading up to that fateful day and the battle in a Georgia corn field. Livingston paints a vivid portrait and brings to life the intense and disastrous three hour battle.

http://www.amazon.com/Fields-Gray-Ba...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1369  
Old 22 Nov 06, 10:43
Cap. Teancum's Avatar
Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
Distinguished Service Award ACG Ten Year Service Award ACG 5 Year Service Ribbon March Offensive 
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 22


By Admiral:

Born...

1535 Count John the Old of Nassau

1643 Rene R Cavelier sieur de La Salle, French explorer

1805 Benjamin Hugur, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1877

1818 Samuel Gibbs French, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1910

1823 Nathan Kimball, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1898

1832 George Henry Chapman, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1882

1835 Frank Crawford Armstrong, Brig Gen, C.S.A.

1881 Enver Pasha, in Constantinople

1888 Lord Greystoke

1890 Charles de Gaulle, General, President of France

1930 Owen K Garriott, Astronaut (Skylab 3, STS-9)

1942 Guion S Bluford, Jr., USAF, Astronaut (STS 8, 61A, 39, 53)

1947 Alfredo Cristiani, president of El Salvador, 1989-94

Died...

950 King Lothar (Lotharius) of Italy (947-50)

1594 Martin Frobisher, English vice-admiral/explorer

1617 Sultan Ahmed I of Turkey (1603-17)

1718 Edward "Blackbeard" Teach, of 25 wounds in a battle with the Royal Navy off Virginia coast.

1803 Bernardus Bosch, Dutch vicar/patriot, at 57

1902 Friedrich A Krupp, cannon manufacturer, commits suicide

1963 Bikram Singh, Indies Lt-General (Kashmir)

1963 NKD Nanavati, Indies general-major (WW II),

1963 John F. Kennedy, American President, Naval officer - PT109

1980 Mae West, Kentucky Colonel and actress, at 87

1989 Rene Muawad, assassinated after being elected president of Lebanon

Event...

1221 Frederik II Hohenstaufen crowned Holy Roman Emperor

1497 Vasco da Gama (28), leaves Lisbon with four ships, bound for India

1542 Spain delegates "New Laws" against slavery in America

1699 Treaty of Preobrasjensku Denmark/Russia/Saksen/Poland divide Sweden

1714 King Karel XII leaves Turkish captivity to return to Sweden

1758 Fort Duquèsne (modern-day Pittsburgh, Ohio) is abandoned by the French at the approach of a large Anglo-American force.

1776 Marines raid Canso Harbor.

1798 Neapolitan Army invades the French puppet "Roman Republic"

1861 Battle of Ft. McRee, FL

1864 Union General O Howard orders plunderers, shot to death

1899 Battle at Willow Grange, Natal (British vs Boer army)

1905 British, Italian, Russ, French and Aust-Hung fleet attack Lesbos

1914 Ypres burns after German bombardment

1914 Director of Naval Aeronautics established. (US)

1918 King Albert I's triumphant procession through Brussels

1923 Coolidge pardons WW I German spy Lothar Witzke, sentenced to death

1924 England orders Egyptians out of Sudan


1926 Imperial Conference ends-giving autonomy inside British Commonwealth

1939 Auxiliary Bear departs Boston, Massachusetts, as part of the U.S. Antarctic Service [Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.)] to investigate and survey the land and sea areas of Antarctica.

1939 U.S. freighter Exmouth is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities

1940 500 students in Delft demonstrate against nazis

1941 British cruiser HMS Devonshire sinks German sub DKM Atlantis

1941 Naval Air Station, New York SNJ-2 delivers needed infantile paralysis serum to Norfolk. It ultimately arrives in Bermuda on time.

1941 NZ troops conquer Ft. Capuzzo Libya

1942 Gen-major Rodins 26th Pantser corp recaptures Ostrov

1942 Hitler orders Rommels African corps to fight to last man

1942 USAAF planes (14th Air Force) on shipping strike sink Vichy French ship Khai Dinh east of Haiphong harbor, French Indochina, 20°58'N, 106°40'E.

1942 Damaged U.S. tanker Brilliant arrives at St. John's, Newfoundland, completing a 300-mile voyage under the command of the ship's junior third officer.

1942 Survivors from U.S. freighter Alcoa Pathfinder, sunk the previous day by German submarine U-181, row ashore, reaching land about 12 miles north of Oro Point, whence they walk to lighthouse and to airfield. Entire 15-man Armed Guard unit survives, as do 55 of the 61-man crew and the solitary passenger.

1943 President Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Churchill, and Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek meet in Cairo, Egypt, for talks (SEXTANT Conference).

1943 Lebanon declares independence from French administration

1943 On Tarawa, Japanese "Banzai" charge after dark. (Tarawa was secured after 72 hours of bitter fighting.)

1943 On Makin, 27th Div advances slowly.

1943 Destroyer USS Frazier damaged when she intentionally rams Japanese submarine I-35; the enemy submersible is sunk by USS Frazier and destroyer USS Meade off Tarawa, 01°22'N, 172°47'E.

1943 Submarine USS Drum is damaged by depth charges north of New Guinea, 02°53'N, 141°36'E, and is forced to terminate her patrol.

1943 Submarine USS Seahorse sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Taish Maru, 33°41'N, 128°35'E.

1943 Submarine USS Tinosa sinks Japanese army cargo ships Kiso Maru and Yamato Maru off Palau, 07°09'N, 134°32'E; although damaged by depth charges, 07°09'N, 134°34'E, she remains on patrol.

1943 USAAF B-24 sinks Japanese cargo ship Kinyamasan Maru, 01°00'N, 149°20'E, that had escaped damage the previous day; destroyer IJN Asanagi continues on to Truk with survivors of Nichii Maru and Kinyamasan Maru.

1943 Japanese army repair ship Kashima Maru is sunk by mine, laid by USAAF B-24 on 16 November 1943 off Macao.

1943 U.S. tanker Elizabeth Kellogg, bound for Puerto Barrios, Guatemala, is torpedoed by German submarine U-516 at 11°10'N, 80°43'W, and abandoned

1943 A massive air strike against Berlin. Four major manufacturing plants and the city's government district are badly damaged while 180,000 civilians are left homeless.

1943 U.S. troops land on Abemada, Gilbert Island

1944 Duke of Cornwalls Light Infantry occupies Hoven at Geilenkirchen

1944 Aircraft from carrier group bomb Japanese air facilities on Yap, Carolines.

1944 Japanese planes raid U.S. air facility at Morotai, destroying 15 bombers and damaging 31.

1944 Submarine USS Besugo sinks Japanese landing ship T.151 off northern tip of Palawan, 11°22'N, 119°07'E.

1944 Submarine USS Guavina sinks Japanese army cargoship D_wa Maru near Tizard's Bank, northwest of Borneo, 10°23'N, 114°21'E.

1944 Submarine USS Scabbardfish damages Japanese escort vessel IJN Oki, 33°20'N, 142°00'E.

1944 Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 82 is sunk by aircraft off Balabac Island, P.I., 08°00'N, 117°00'E;

1944 USAAF planes damage cargo ship Enoshima Maru at Makassar.

1951 Members of the Royal 22nd Regiment dig in on the high ground atop Hill.355 in anticipation of an impending Chinese attack.

1955 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1960 French National Meeting decide to build own nuclear weapons.

1963 Lyndon Baines Johnson sworn in as 36th U.S. president following assasination of JFK.

1967 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1968 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1974 U.N. General Assembly recognizes Palestine right to sovereignty

1975 Juan Carlos proclaimed King of Spain

1981 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1990 Margaret Thatcher announces her resignation as British Prime Minister

1990 George Bush visits US troops in Saudi Arabia for Thanksgiving

1991 Colonel Gary Blair, CO, Marine Barracks GDE, Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, and Brig Gen George Walls Jr., CG/JTF, gave humanitarian needs for Haitian migrants during Operation "Gitmo."
__________________
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Today's event:

1943 Lebanon declares independence from French administration

Today's book:

Lebanon: A Shattered Country: Myths and Realities of the Wars in Lebanon by Elizabeth Picard

Book Review:

Like the country and conflict it chronicles, Picard's book is in many ways difficult to grasp and may seem, at the outset, hard to follow. However, a thorough reading reveals a remarkably subtle treatment of the civil war in Lebanon and its myriad causes and effects (the latter of which ramify the situation occuring today).

The "causes" underlying the war will never be settled and any claim will be controversial. Many scholars have taken this as an excuse to make safe claims (e.g. blaming the Palestinian refugee crisis out of hand) or simply lament the situation. Picard, on the other hand, probes the historical depth of "Lebanon" itself, leaving the reader wondering whether the word "state" can even be accurately applied to this troubled region. She argues that the civil war was both the result and the manifestation of Lebanon's factionalist "confessional" political system and outside forces, ranging from French colonialism to Nasserist pan-Arabism. Everyone -- rightfully -- receives a portion of the blame: her analysis stands in direct contrast to stereotypical Western analyses that blame the Palestinian resistance to stereotypical Arab ones that blame the Maronites and/or the Israelis. The fact is that every major player/group involved was incredibly multifaceted (and, sadly, quite duplicitous and ruthless), and that the scars of the civil war in Lebanon are not likely to heal easily.

In addition to her treatment of the war itself, Picard offers interesting discussions of several Lebanese political cultural phenomena. Many paradoxes come up over the course of her discussion that resonate today. For example, were Lebanon transformed to a majoritarian democracy in the vein of France, the Shia might dominate the country. On the other hand, maintaining a "pluralistic" (in the sense of "confessional") democracy strengthens factionalism -- and Lebanon's greatest enemy (or benefactor?): political clientelism.

Readers from novices to university professors will learn something from this excellent book. However, novices may have to take things a bit more slowly, especially as there is quite a barrage of place names and historical figures at the beginning. The theoretical component is not too challenging, but it is quite rigorous, and familiarity with comparative politics is helpful. Beyond that, one need only know that Picard herself does not fall into any of the traps set by writers like Said -- or writers like Nietzsche ("we need history..."). She makes a valiant effort to present every facet of the conflict, and if her explanations seem labyrinthine as a result, it is simply because the conflict itself is labyrinthine.

As far as that goes, she still might have made more of an effort to outline some clear theses. The book is littered with great ideas, and the chapters themselves are well-organized, but a primer in the introduction would have helped. As another minor complaint, the book could use more maps and diagrams, and a timeline or two, in face of the sheer breadth and depth of the conflict.

Finally, the negative review of this book by L. Akl is baseless: if anything, Picard goes out of her way to apportion blame to every faction! The vast majority of books on Lebanon are bland histories or traditionalist interpretations of the war that eschew thorough, unforgiving (for lack of a better term: just as Samir Geagea was the only militia leader punished for his actions, few involved in Lebanon's conflict were blamed accordingly) analysis. Picard does not make excuses from any participants, from the Druze to the Maronites to the Palestinians. As a result of this courageous effort, she will be lambasted by blind supporters of any given group involved, but will be admired by those desiring a truer, if somewhat difficult, picture of Lebanon and its civil war.


http://www.amazon.com/Lebanon-Shatte...e=UTF8&s=books
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November 23


By Admiral:

Born...

912 Otto I the Great, King of the Germans, Holy Roman Emperor (962-73)

1221 King Alfonso X the Wise of Castile & Leon (1252-84)

1690 Ernst J earl van Biron, Russian Duke of Koerland/Regent of Ivan VI

1740 Edward Rutledge, Signer Declaration of Independence, 1800

1804 Franklin Pierce, Brig Gen, U.S., and President (1853-1857)

1809 Horatio Phillips Van Cleve, Brig Gen, U.S.,

1815 William Dennison, Postmaster/General, Union, died in 1882

1819 Benjamin Mayberry Prentiss, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1901

1859 William "Billy the Kid" Boney, in New York

1878 Ernest J King, Fleet Admiral/Commander in Chief U.S. Fleet/Chief of Naval Operations, WW II

1932 Michael Knight, Air Chief Marshall/British leader, NATO

1935 Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov, born in Moscow, Russia, Cosmonaut, (Soyuz 7, 11)

Died...

1249 Ajjoeb, sultan of Egypt

1457 King Ladislaus V the Posthumus of Hungary and Bohemia, at 17

1616 Richard Haklyut, Historian of the voyages of the English

1872 Ten Bears, (Parra-Wa-Samen), U.S. poet/Comanche Chief

1890 King Willem III of the Netherlands (1849-1890)

1902 Walter Reed, US military bacteriologist

1920 Mohammed ibn Addoellah, the "Mad Mullah" of Somalia

1974 Cornelius Ryan, war correspondent, historian ("A Bridge too Far"), at 54

1976 Andre Malraux, resistance fighter, author ("The Conquerors"), at 75

Event...

1577 Water Geuzen under Capt Slope enter Amsterdam

1765 People of Frederick County Md refuse to pay England's Stamp tax

1812 A mixed force of 20 British regulars and 70 Canadian militiamen attack the American outpost at French Mills, N.Y. (east of Cornwall, Ont.). They capture 44 men, 4 boats, and 57 stand of arms.

1832 French capture Antwerp, during Belgian War for Independence

1837 British troops engage patriote rebels at St. Denis, Quebec. After exchanging fire for five hours, the British, short of ammunition, are compelled to retreat. The unexpected victory galvanizes patriote ranks.

1861 Combat at Ft Pickens, Fla

1863 Battle of Chattanooga & Orchard Knob, TN begins

1864 Battle at Ball's Ferry, Georgia

1892 Battle of Lomani Congo: Belgian unit beats Arabs, 1000-3000 killed

1899 Battle at Belmont, Cape colony: General Methuen beats Farmers

1909 Wright Brothers form million dollar corp to manufacture airplanes

1915 British 6th Indian Div defeated by Turks at Ctesiphon, after two day battle

1923 Germany's Stresemann government falls to SPD

1923 German army commander Gen Von Seeckt bans NSDAP and KPD

1939 U.S. freighter Express, released from her detention at Malta on 21 November by British authorities, continues on her voyage to Greece, Turkey, and Rumania.

1939 U.S. Consul at Gibraltar William E. Chapman declines to consent to execute agreement wherein the master of freighter Nishmaha (detained since 11 November) will agree to proceed via Barcelona, Spain, to Marseilles to unload cargo deemed contraband by the Gibraltar Contraband Control board. Secretary of State Hull subsequently (27 November) approves Consul Chapman's action with respect to U.S. merchantmen which left the U.S. with cargoes prior to the Neutrality Act of 4 November.

1940 Rumania joins the Axis, signs Driemogendheden pact

1940 President Franklin D. Roosevelt appoints Admiral William D. Leahy as U.S. Ambassador to Vichy France to try to prevent the French fleet and naval bases from falling into German hands.

1940 Commander in Chief, Asiatic Fleet (Admiral Thomas C. Hart) shifts his flag from heavy cruiser USS Augusta to sistership USS Houston at Manila, P.I. USS Augusta departs this day to proceed to the United States via waters north of the Hawaiian chain to investigate reports of Japanese tankers operating in the region.

1941 German troops conquer Klin, NW of Moscow

1941 U.S. occupies Surinam, Dutch Guiana, pursuant to agreement with the Netherlands government to protect bauxite mines.

1941 TU 4.1.6 assumes escort duty for convoy HX 161; the convoy will not be attacked by U-boats during its passage

1942 Aircraft escort vessels USS Sangamon and USS Chenango are damaged by heavy seas in the North Atlantic.

1942 Russian 21st Army recaptures Kalatsj at Don

1942 U.S. tanker Caddo, en route from Baytown, Texas, to Iceland, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-518 at 42°25'N, 48°27'E, and abandoned, with the 58 men on board (42-man merchant complement and 17-man Armed Guard) taking to three lifeboats. U-518 briefly interrogates survivors, taking ship's master and another officer as prisoners, and departs after the German offer of cigarettes is refused.

1942 Coast Guard Woman's Auxiliary (SPARS) authorized

1942 Japanese bomb Port Darwin, Australia

1942 Poon Lim begins 133 days adrift when his ship is torpedoed

1943 Betio, Tarawa Atoll, and Makin are declared secured.

1943 Cruiser and destroyer force bombards Buka-Bonis area, Bougainville, Solomons.

1943 Motor torpedo boat PT-322, damaged by grounding, eastern New Guinea, 06°09'S, 147°36'E, is scuttled by U.S. forces.

1943 Submarine USS Blackfish sinks Japanese transport Yamato Maru between New Guinea and Palau, 02°28'N, 140°06'E.

1943 Submarine USS Capelin sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kizan Maru, 01°50'N, 127°55'E.

1943 Submarine USS Gudgeon attacks Takao-bound Japanese convoy, sinking Japanese escort vessel IJN Wakamiya and army transport Nekka Maru, East China Sea, 28°38'N, 122°00'E, and damaging fleet tankers Ichiyo Maru and Goyo Maru.

1944 USAAF B-29s based in the Marianas raid Tokyo, Japan, for the first time.

1944 Motor torpedo boats are relieved of patrol duty in the northern Solomons. Infantry landing craft gunboats [LCI(G)] and motor gunboats [PGM] will operate in their stead.

1944 Submarine chaser PC-1124 and infantry landing craft LCI-976 are damaged by dive bombers off Leyte, 10°50'N, 125°25'E.

1944 USAAF P-40s and P-47s (13th Air Force) attack one of the groups of ships involved in the 5th phase of the TA Operation, sinking submarine chaser Ch 46 and landing ships T.111, T.141 and T.160 in Cataingan Bay, Masbate Island, 11°35'N, 124°10'E.

1944 Japanese weather observation ship Tenkai No.3 is damaged by aircraft off Balabac, P.I.

1944 Seventh Army under Gen Patch capture Strassburg

1945 Meat & butter rationing ends in US

1945 V Amphibious Corps relieved 5thMarDiv in Japan.

1946 French Navy fires on Haiphong, Vietnam, 6,000 die

1950 Thanksgiving (US) was celebrated in Korea with a temperature of 20 degrees below zero.

1951 Canadians of the Royal 22nd Regiment hold their ground atop Hill 355, repelling four Chinese attacks until American reinforcements arrive to secure their flanks.

1955 Britain transfer Cocos (Keeling) Is in Indian Ocean to Australia

1965 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1971 China People's Republic seated in United Nations Security Council

1974 60 Ethiopia government officials executed

1976 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1976 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1977 European weather satellite Meteosat 1 launched from Cape Canaveral

1983 USSR leaves weapon disarmament talks

1984 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1985 Retired CIA analyst Larry Wu-tai Chin, arrested of spying for China

1985 Egyptian commandos storm hijacked EgyptAir jet in Malta, 58 die

1988 France performs nuclear test

By Cap. Teancum:

1499 - Perkin Warbeck, who invaded England in 1497 claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV, is hanged for allegedly trying to escape from the Tower of London.

Believed to be a native of Tournai in Belgium, Warbeck went to Ireland in 1491 and claimed he was Richard, duke of York, the second son of Edward IV. Richard and his elder brother were presumed murdered in the Tower of London by their uncle, King Richard III, in 1483. Warbeck found support from the enemies of King Henry VII, the first Tudor king of England, and in 1497 landed at Cornwall and raised an army of 6,000 men. Faced with King Henry's larger army, he fled but was captured and imprisoned. In November 1499, he was executed.

Warbeck's story was written by the Tudors--history's victors--and it might never be known whether he was actually Richard of York or just a Flemish impostor.

1819 - Union General Benjamin Prentiss is born in Belleville, Virginia. Prentiss served in a variety of capacities during the war but is best known for defending Arkansas during the Vicksburg campaign.

Prentiss was raised in Missouri but moved to Quincy, Illinois, at age 22. He joined the Illinois militia, and he was active when tensions arose between the Mormon and Illinois residents of the area after the Mormon prophet, Joseph Smith, was lynched by a mob.

When the Mexican War began, Prentiss raised a company of volunteers and served under General Zachary Taylor at Buena Vista. Upon his return to Illinois, he practiced law until the outbreak of the Civil War. He remained active in the militia and rose to the rank of colonel.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Prentiss was placed in charge of Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In August 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general and charged with protecting the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad across northern Missouri. His brigade was sent to join General Ulysses S. Grant's Army of the Tennessee, and he was elevated to divisional commander. Prentiss fought at Shiloh and was caught in the infamous Hornet's Nest. He and part of his force were captured, and Prentiss spent six months in a Confederate prison. He was exchanged in October 1862 and served on the court-martial of General Fitz-John Porter, who was tried on charges of insubordination during the Battle of Second Bull Run, when he refused to conduct an attack ordered by his commander, John Pope. Porter was found guilty and cashiered from the army, but he said that Prentiss was "supposed unprejudiced, and acted so."

After the Porter case closed, Prentiss commanded the District of Eastern Arkansas at Helena. He sent raids into the interior of the state and recruited escaped slaves into military service. On July 4, 1863, Prentiss's command held off an attack by General Sterling Price, who was trying, belatedly, to rescue the Confederate force inside of nearby Vicksburg, Mississippi. That garrison had already surrendered, but Prentiss emerged as the victor in the Battle of Helena. Despite this success, Prentiss found himself without a command when the Union reorganized the theater after the fall of Vicksburg.

Prentiss requested a leave from the army, citing ill health and family concerns, as his wife had died in 1860 and he had young children. Prentiss spent the rest of his life as a land agent and postmaster in Missouri until he died in 1901.

1940 - On this day in 1940, Romania signs the Tripartite Pact, officially allying itself with Germany, Italy, and Japan.

As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany's, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania's king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later because of a failing economy and installed Romania's Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch's death and peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany-only to be invaded by its "ally" as part of Hitler's strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

King Carol abdicated on September 6, 1940, leaving the country in the control of fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. Signing the Tripartite Pact was now inevitable. Originally formulated in Berlin on September 27, the pact formally recognized an alliance between Germany, Italy, and Japan, termed the "Axis." As more European nations became subject to fascist domination and invasion, they too were drawn into the pact, albeit as unequal partners (Hungary was made an Axis "power" on November 20). Now it was Romania's turn.

While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans' raping its resources as part of the Nazi war effort. Besides taking control of Romania's oil wells and installations, Hitler would help himself to Romania's food crops, causing a food shortage for native Romanians.

1970 - Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird discloses the November 21 U.S. raid on the North Vietnamese prison camp at Son Tay. On November 21, a combined Air Force and Army team of 40 Americans--led by Army Colonel "Bull" Simons--conducted a raid on the Son Tay prison camp, 23 miles west of Hanoi, in an attempt to free between 70 and 100 American suspected of being held there. The raid was conducted almost flawlessly, but no prisoners of war were found in the camp. They had been moved earlier to other locations.

Laird revealed that approximately one hour after the raid took place, U.S. aircraft (200 fighter bombers and 100 support aircraft) inflicted the most severe bombing raids in two years on North Vietnam as retaliation for the shooting down of U.S. reconnaissance aircraft. Hanoi Radio reported that "wave after wave" of U.S. bombers attacked North Vietnam and said that the planes struck at targets ranging from Haiphong to Hoa Binh province, southeast of Hanoi.

1972 - Secret peace talks resume in Paris between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the North Vietnamese representative, but almost immediately reach an impasse.

The sticking points were the implementation of the international supervisory force and Saigon's insistence on the withdrawal of all North Vietnamese troops from South Vietnam. When the talks became hopelessly deadlocked, President Nixon ordered what became known as the "Christmas bombing" to force the North Vietnamese back to the negotiating table.

Nixon halted the bombing when the communists agreed to return to Paris; a peace agreement was signed in January 1973. Because the United States was in such a hurry to end American participation in the war, the insistence on the withdrawal of North Vietnamese troops from South Vietnam ceased to be an issue. More than 100,000 communist troops were left in the south when the cease-fire went into effect. This played a major role in the fall of South Vietnam to the communists in April 1975.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1372  
Old 23 Nov 06, 16:29
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Today's event:

1899 Battle at Belmont, Cape colony: General Methuen beats Farmers

Today's book:

The Boer War 1899-1902 by Gregory Fremont-Barnes

Book Description:

Victorious in its previous campaigns in Africa against native armies, Britain now confronted an altogether different foe. The Boers proved to be formidable opponents, masterfully compensating for inferior numbers with grim determination, resourcefulness and strong religious faith. Their mobility, expert use of cover, and knowledge of the terrain, in which they employed powerful long-range magazine rifles, gave them initial advantages. By contrast the British suffered from inadequate transport, insufficient mounted troops and poor intelligence. Despite marshalling the immense resources of their empire, the British were to be severely tested in a war which one general described as the graveyard of many a soldiers reputation.

http://www.amazon.com/Boer-War-1899-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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Old 24 Nov 06, 10:42
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November 24


By Admiral:

Born...

1642 Anne Hilarion de Cotentin, earl of Tourville/Knight/Admiral/Marshal

1655 King Charles XI of Sweden (1660-97)

1784 Zachary Taylor, Maj Gen, U.S., and President (Mar 5, 1849-July 9, 1850)

1806 Omar Pasha, [Michael Lats], Croatian Governor/Viceroy of Bosnia/Iraq

1815 James Hewward Trapier, N Gen Confederate Army, d. 1865

1829 William Passmore Carlin, Brig Gen, U.S., and diarist, d. 1903

1853 Bat Masterson, American Explorer, Buffalo hunter for the US Army, Marshall (Constabulary)

1873 L Martov, [Yuly O Tsederbaum], Russian revolutionary

1921 John V. Lindsay, sometime naval officer, Mayor of NY (1965-1973)

Died...

1504 Queen Isabella of Castile (1474-1504), at 53

1863 Claudius Charles Wilson, Confederate brig-gen, dies in battle at 32

1885 Alfonso XII, King of Spain (1875-85), at 27

1929 Georges Clemenceau, Premier of France (1906-09, 1917-20), at 88

1943 Dorie Miller, when CVE Lipscombe Bay goes down.

1962 James J Kilroy, tank inspector (KILROY WAS HERE), at 60

1963 Lee Harvey Oswald, assassin of JFK, shot dead by Jack Ruby

1992 Henri J de Koster, Dutch Min of Defense (1971-73), at 78

Event...

1542 Battle at Solway Moss: English beat Scottish King James

1587 Battle at Auneau: Henri de Guise wins

1601 Earl Mauritius ceases siege of De Bosch due to strict monarchy

1643 Battle at Tuttlingen: Beiers army under Gen Mercy beats France

1655 English Lord Protector Cromwell bans Anglicans

1688 General strategist John Churchill meets Willem III

1775 Marines of Washington's fleet board British brig in Boston Bay.

1835 Texas Rangers, mounted police force authorized by Texas Prov Government

1852 Commodore Matthew Perry sails from Norfolk, VA, to negotiate a treaty with Japan for friendship and commerce.

1861 Skirmish at Lancaster, Mo

1863 Battles of Chattanooga, Columbia, & Lookout Mt begins in Tennessee

1871 National Rifle Association organized in New York City

1874 Joseph F Glidden receives a patent for barbed wire

1914 Benito Mussolini leaves Italy's socialist party

1918 Bela Khun forms Hungarian Communist Party

1918 Canadian troops are at Namur, Belgium almost half way to their posting on the Rhine river. The soldiers are given warm welcomes as they march through each village, although in some areas the general mistrust of any soldiers keeps people indoors.

1922 Italian parliament gives Mussolini dictatorial powers "for one year"

1924 1st Dutch airplane (Fokker's F-7) reaches Batavia (Java)

1935 King George II returns to Greece after 12 years

1941 Indian infantry attacks German tanks at Sidi Omar

1941 U.S. troops land on Suriname to protect bauxite mine

1941 Destroyer USS DuPont in North Atlantic with TU 4.1.6, escorting convoy HX 161, is damaged in collision with merchant ship Thorshovdi.

1941 British light cruiser HMS Dunedin is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-124 north of Pernambuco, Brazil, at approximately 03°00'S, 26°00'W

1942 Fieldmarshal Erich von Manstein arrives in Starobelsk

1942 The 1stMAW established the South Pacific Combat Air Transport(SCAT).

1942 Japanese forces land at Munda Point, New Georgia, Solomons.

1942 Submarine USS Snapper is damaged by aerial bombs and depth charges off northern Solomons, 07°58'S, 156°12'E, but remains on patrol.

1942 USAAF B-17s and B-25s and RAAF Beaufighters sink Japanese destroyer IJN Hayashio in Huon Gulf between Lae and Finschafen, New Guinea, 07°00'S, 147°30'E, and damage torpedo boats IJN Otori and IJN Hiyodori east of Lae.

1942 USAAF B-17s also damage Japanese seaplane carrier Sanuki Maru in Shortland Harbor, Solomons.

1942 Transport Thomas Stone is damaged by horizontal bomber off North Africa, 36°48'N, 03°10'E.

1943 Escort carrier USS Liscome Bay is sunk by Japanese submarine I-175, Gilberts, 02°34'N, 172°30'E. I-175 does not escape unscathed, however, for she undergoes six hours of counterattacks by USS Liscome Bay's escorts; of the 34 depth charges counted, six explode close enough to damage I-175 so that she cannot "go deep."

1943 In successive separate attacks, USAAF B-24s and Navy PBYs damage Japanese light cruiser IJN Yubari, 04°20'S, 150°00'E, and 03°41'S, 150°15'E, respectively, as she attempts to transport soldiers and supplies to Garove. Damage to the ship prompts cancellation of her mission.

1943 USAAF B-25s damage Japanese lighthouse tender Heicho Maru, Amoy, China.

1943 Survivors of U.S. tanker Elizabeth Kellogg, torpedoed by German submarine U-516 on 22 November 1943, are rescued by submarine chaser SC-1017 and Army tanker Y 10. Eight of the tanker's 36-man merchant complement and two of the 12-man Armed Guard perish with the ship.

1943 USAAF aircraft bomb Toulon harbor, sinking light cruiser DMB Jeanne de Vienne, destroyer DMB Aigle and sloop SG.21 (ex-second class sloop DMB Chamois).

1943 U.S. freighter Melville E. Stone is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-516 about 100 miles northwest of Cristobal, Canal Zone, 10°29'N, 80°20'W; 12 of the 42-man merchant complement lose their lives, as do two of the 23-man Armed Guard and one of the 23 embarked passengers. Submarine chasers SC-662 and SC-1023 rescue survivors.

1944 111 USAAF B-29s based on Saipan in the Marianas raid Tokyo, Japan, for the first time.

1944 Motor torpedo boats are relieved of patrol duty in the northern Solomons. Infantry landing craft gunboats [LCI(G)] and motor gunboats [PGM] will operate in their stead.

1944 Submarine chaser PC-1124 and infantry landing craft LCI-976 are damaged by dive bombers off Leyte, 10°50'N, 125°25'E.

1944 USAAF P-40s and P-47s (13th Air Force) attack one of the groups of ships involved in the 5th phase of the TA Operation, sinking submarine chaser Ch 46 and landing ships T.111, T.141 and T.160 in Cataingan Bay, Masbate Island, 11°35'N, 124°10'E.

1944 Japanese weather observation ship Tenkai No.3 is damaged by aircraft off Balabac, P.I

1950 U.N. troops begin an assault intending to end Korean War by Christmas

1950 U.S. infantry division conquerors Chonju, Korea

1954 France sends 20,000 soldiers to Algeria

1962 Last of Dutch militia leave New-Guinea

1964 USS Princeton completes 7-days of humanitarian relief to South Vietnam which suffered damage from typhoon and floods.

1964 Rebellion ends in Zaire

1965 Gen. Joseph Mobutu seizes power in the Congo

1969 HS-4 from USS Hornet recovers Apollo 12's all-Navy crew of astronauts, Commanders Richard Gordon, Charles Conrad, and Alan Bean, after moon landing by Conrad and Bean.

1969 Lt William L Calley, charged with massacre of over 100 civilians in My Lai Vietnam in March 1968, ordered to stand trial by court martial

1972 U.S.S.R. performs underground nuclear test

1974 Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev signs SALT-2-treaty

1977 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1978 The Canadian Armed Forces begin Operation Magnet, a two week plan designed to process and transport Vietnamese refugees to Canada.

1979 U.S. admits troops in Vietnam were exposed to the toxic Agent Orange

1981 1st air-launched cruise missile tested

1983 PLO exchanges 6 Israeli prisoners for 4,500 Palestinians and Lebanese

1985 Egyptian commandos storm captured Boeing in Malta, 60 killed

1987 Li Peng succeeds premier Zhao Ziyang in China PR

1989 Communist Party resigns in Czechoslovakia
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1374  
Old 24 Nov 06, 10:48
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1643 Battle at Tuttlingen: Beiers army under Gen Mercy beats France

Today's book:

Richelieu's Army: War, Government and Society in France, 1624-1642 by David Parrott

Book Description:

It is assumed widely that "war made the state" in seventeenth-century France. Yet this study challenges the traditional interpretations of the role of the army as an instrument of the emerging absolutist state, and shows how the expansion of the French war effort contributed to weakening Richelieu's hold on France and heightened levels of political and social tension. This is the first detailed account of the French army during this formative period of European history. It also contributes more generally to the "military revolution" debate among early modern historians.

http://www.amazon.com/Richelieus-Arm...230685-5147252
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1375  
Old 25 Nov 06, 06:42
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 25


By Admiral:

Born...

1721 Willem Crul, Admiral, West-Indies

1823 Joseph Alexander Cooper, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1910

1825 Edward Augustus Wild, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1891

1881 Angelo Roncalli, Sergeant of Infantry, Pope John XXIII (1958-63)

1895 Anastas I Mikoyan, Stalin's henchman

1895 Ludvik Svoboda, Czech general/politician

1915 Augusto Pinochet, Dictator of Chile (1973-1990)

1940 Richard Furrer, Astronaut, STS 22

Died...

1120 William, English crown prince/son of Henry I, drowns at 17

1120 Countess of Perche, bastard daughter of English King Henry I, drowns

1760 King George II, at 77

1885 King Alfonso XII of Spain (1874-85), at 27

1957 William Veazie Pratt (CNO, 1930-1933), b. 1869.

1970 Yukio Mishima, Japanese ultra-nationalist author, by harakiri.

Event...

1357 Charles IV issues letter of protection to the Jews of Strasbourg, Alsace

1405 Padua surrenders to the Venetians after a long siege

1500 Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captures Columbus

1659 Michiel de Ruyter conquerors Danish city Nyborg

1744 Austrian forces pillage and kill Jews of Prague

1758 Britain capture Ft Duquesne (Pittsburgh) from French

1760 King George III ascends throne

1775 Congress begins issuing Letters of Marque and Reprisal. (Naval Privateering)

1783 Evacuation Day: British leave New York, their last military base in the US

1790 Veteran Corps of Artillery formed in NYC

1837 British troops attack patriote forces outside St. Charles, Quebec. After two hours of indecisive fighting, the British launch a bayonette attack and dislodge the patriotes from their defenses, who retire in good order.

1855 American interests in Uruguay protected by seagoing Marines.

1863 Battle of Missionary Ridge, Tennessee

1864 Confederate plot to burn NYC fails

1865 Chilean Navy captures the Spanish schooner SNS Covadonga

1867 Alfred Nobel patents dynamite

1876 Crazy Woman Fork: Army disperses a Sioux-Cheyenne encampment

1897 Spain grants Puerto Rico autonomy

1899 Battle at Graspan, Cape colony: General Methuen beats Farmers

1912 Socialist International rejects that world war is coming

1922 Japanese crown prince Hirohito appointed Prince-Regent

1933 1st Soviet liquid fuel rocket attains altitude of 261' (80m)

1936 Germany & Japan sign anti-Comintern pact

1939 Destroyer USS Yarnall drifts aground in Lynnhaven Roads; refloated that same day, she enters the Norfolk Navy Yard for repairs on 26 November. USS Yarnall had only been in commission since 4 October 1939.

1940 Heavy cruiser USS Louisville departs Santos, Brazil, for Rio Grande du Sol, continuing her goodwill cruise in Latin American waters.

1941 Japanese troop transports en route to Malaya are sighted off Formosa.

1941 Submarines USS Triton and USS Tambor arrive off Wake Island on simulated war patrols.

1941 German Jews in Netherlands declared stateless (lose of nationality)

1942 USAAF B-25s and P-40s damage Japanese merchant cargo ship Ryokusei Maru at Canton, China.

1942 Japanese submarine I-17 lands 11 tons of supplies at Kamimbo Bay, Guadalcanal. Submarine missions to supply the beleaguered Japanese garrison on Guadalcanal will continue through the end of November.

1942 Transport Thomas Stone (AP-59), damaged by grounding, North African area, is left beached and abandoned, 36°49'N, 03°07'E.

1943 Battle of Cape St. George is fought during the early hours as the five ships of Destroyer Squadron 23 (Captain Arleigh A. Burke) intercept five Japanese destroyers off Cape St. George, New Ireland. USS Charles Ausburne, USS Claxton, and USS Dyson sink IJN Onami with torpedoes and IJN Yugiri with gunfire; the same three U.S. ships, joined by USS Spence and USS Converse sink IJN Makinami with torpedoes and gunfire and damage IJN Uzuki. DESRON 23 suffers no damage.

1943 Destroyer USS Radford sinks Japanese submarine I-19 north of Gilberts, 03°10'N, 171°55'E.

1943 Submarine USS Albacore sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kenzan Maru, 00°46'N, 144°50'E.

1943 Submarine USS Searaven sinks Japanese fleet tanker Toa Maru north of Ponape, 08°22'N, 158°00'W.

1943 USAAF B-24s bomb Japanese installations at Taroa, damaging guardboat Takeura Maru.

1943 Japanese submarine RO 100 is sunk by mine two miles west of Omai Island, outside north channel to Buin.

1943 Advanced Amphibious Base, Salcombe, Devonshire, England, is established.

1943 PB4Y (VB 107) sinks the Indian Ocean-bound German submarine U-849, South Atlantic, 06°30'S, 05°40'W.

1943 Destroyer escort USS Harveson is damaged when she is accidentally rammed by Canadian fishing vessel O.K. Service off Bermuda, British West Indies.

1943 British SS Ronha sunk in the Mediterranean, c. 1000 US troops die.

1944 TG 38.2 and TG 38.3 aircraft bomb Japanese shipping off central Luzon. Planes from carrier USS Ticonderoga sink heavy cruiser IJN Kumano in Dasol Bay, 15°45'N, 119°48'E. F6Fs, SB2Cs and TBMs from carriers USS Ticonderoga and USS Essex, along with F6Fs and TBMs from small carrier USS Langley attack convoy about 15 miles southwest of Santa Cruz, on the west coast of Luzon, and sink coast defense ship USS Yasojima, 15°45'N, 119°45'E, and landing ships T.112, T.142, and T.161, 15°40'N, 119°45'E. Planes from carrier USS Intrepid sink fast transports T.6 and T.10, and damage fast transport T.9 and escort destroyer IJN Take, at Balanacan Harbor, Marinduque Island, 13°25'N, 121°55'E. Planes from USS Essex and USS Langley sink army cargo ship No.6 Manei Maru and damage cargo ship Kasagisan Maru in San Fernando harbor, 16°37'N, 120°19'E.

1944 Kamikazes breach the fleet's fighter defenses, however, and press home determined attacks, damaging carriers USS Essex, USS Intrepid and USS Hancock, 15°47'N, 124°14'E, and small carrier USS Cabot, 15°42'N, 123°09'E. Small carrier USS Independence is damaged by crash of own aircraft into island structure, 15°58'N,125°14'E

1944 Japanese merchant tanker Ceram Maru is damaged by aircraft in Manila Bay.

1944 Motor torpedo boat PT-363 is sunk by shore battery off Cape Gorango, Halmahera Island, 00°55'N, 127°50'E.

1944 Submarine USS Atule sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Santos Maru off Sabtang Island, Luzon, 20°12'N, 121°51'E. Although USS Atule claims destruction of the escorting submarine chaser Ch 33, the latter survives the attack.

1944 Submarine USS Cavalla sinks Japanese destroyer IJN Shimotsuki, west of Borneo, 02°28'N, 107°20'E.

1944 Submarine USS Haddo damages Japanese escort destroyer IJN Shimushu, 14°00'N, 119°25'E.

1944 Submarine USS Hardhead attacks Japanese convoy about 60 miles west of Manila, and sinks Coast Defense Vessel No.38 off Bataan peninsula, 14°33'N, 119°51'E.

1944 Submarine USS Mingo attacks Japanese convoy SIMA-05, sinks army transport Manila Maru about 90 miles northwest of Miri, Sarawak, 05°30'N, 113°24'E, and survives a depth-charging by escort vessel IJN Kurahashi.

1944 Submarine USS Pomfret sinks Japanese Patrol Boat No.38 and transport Shoho Maru, Luzon Strait, 20°18'N, 121°34'E.

1944 USAAF B-24s (14th Air Force), on night reconnaissance flight over the South China Sea, attack Japanese shipping south of Hainan Island, bombing and strafing Hida Maru and escorting minesweepers W.17 and W.18, 16°44'N, 108°24'E, damaging both minecraft. Hida Maru takes the crippled W.18 in tow.

1944 Chinese aircraft attack Japanese river gunboats on the Yangtze near Anking, China, sinking IJN Fushimi and damaging IJN Sumida.

1944 HMCS Shawinigan is sunk by an acoustic torpedo from U-1228. The ship breaks up almost immediately and sinks with all hands. Poor weather will prevent the start of an air search, and it will not be for another day that bodies and debris begin to be recovered.

1947 Future Queen Elizabeth marries Prince Philip in Westminster Abbey

1947 New Zealand acedes to Statute of Westminster, becomes a dominion

1948 Ft. Funston's 16-inch coastal guns (naval rifles) removed

1950 U.N. gives Eritrea to Ethiopia

1951 Commemoration of Dutch resistance fighter Hannie Schaft forbidden

1958 The Marine Corps grade structure was revised to make room for additional ranks (E8/E9).

1958 Senegal becomes an autonomous state in French Community

1961 Commissioning of USS Enterprise, the first nuclear powered aircraft carrier, at Newport News, VA.

1965 Congo military coup under Gen Mobutu, President Kasavubu overthrown

1973 Bloodless military coup ousts Greek President George Papadopoulos

1973 3 Palestinians hijack KLM B747 above Iraq, to Dubai

1975 Portuguese leftist officers occupy 4 airbases

1975 Netherlands grants Suriname independence

1976 Viking 1 radio signal from Mars help prove general theory of relativity

1979 Israel returns Alma oilfields in Gulf of Suez to Egypt

1980 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1980 Upper-Volta military coup under Col Saye Zerbo, president Lamizana flees

1981 Failed coup by South African mercenaries in Seychelles

1983 Syria & Saudi Arabia announce cease-fire in PLO civil war in Tripoli

1986 Iran-Contra affair erupts, President Reagan reveals secret arm deal

By Cap. Teancum:

1941 - On this day in 1941, Adm. Harold R. Stark, U.S. chief of naval operations, tells Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, that both President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull think a Japanese surprise attack is a distinct possibility.

"We are likely to be attacked next Monday, for the Japs are notorious for attacking without warning," Roosevelt had informed his Cabinet. "We must all prepare for trouble, possibly soon," he telegraphed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

Kimmel's command was specifically at the mid-Pacific base at Oahu, which comprised, in part, Pearl Harbor. At the time he received the "warning" from Stark, he was negotiating with Army Lt. Gen. Walter C. Short, commander of all U.S. forces at Pearl Harbor, about sending U.S. warships out from Pearl Harbor in order to reinforce Wake and Midway Islands, which, along with the Philippines, were possible Japanese targets. But the Army had no antiaircraft artillery to spare.

War worries had struck because of an intercepted Japanese diplomatic message, which gave November 25 as a deadline of sorts. If Japanese diplomacy had failed to convince the Americans to revoke the economic sanctions against Japan, "things will automatically begin to happen," the message related. Those "things" were becoming obvious, in the form of Japanese troop movements off Formosa (Taiwan) apparently toward Malaya. In fact, they were headed for Pearl Harbor, as was the Japanese First Air Fleet.

Despite the fact that so many in positions of command anticipated a Japanese attack, especially given the failure of diplomacy (Japan refused U.S. demands to withdraw from both the Axis pact and occupied territories in China and Indochina), no one expected Hawaii as the target.

1967 - In the weekly magazine Ave Maria, which hit newstands on this day, the Very Reverend Edward Swanstrom, auxiliary Roman Catholic Bishop of New York and head of Catholic Relief Services, wrote that the overseas relief agency of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States provided funds for sending medical supplies and hospital equipment to North Vietnam.

1969 - Communist forces step up attacks against U.S. troops shielding Allied installations near the Cambodian border. Ten Americans were killed and 70 wounded. U.S. troops reported killing 115 enemy soldiers. North Vietnamese troops destroyed more than a dozen tanks and tons of ammunition near the Cambodian border.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1376  
Old 25 Nov 06, 06:52
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1500 Governor De Bobadilla of Santo Domingo captures Columbus

Today's book:

Colonial Latin America by Mark A. Burkholder, Lyman L. Johnson

Book Description:

This highly acclaimed book provides a concise study of the history of the Iberian colonies in the New World from their preconquest background to the wars of independence in the early nineteenth century. It has long been the standard text for undergraduate courses covering the history of colonial Latin America. The new edition contains significant revisions, including several photographs, maps, end of chapter chronologies, and increased social/cultural commentary.

http://www.amazon.com/Colonial-Latin...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1377  
Old 26 Nov 06, 09:27
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 26


By Admiral:

Born...

1816 William Henry Talkbot Walker, Maj Gen, C.S.A.

1827 Alfred Moore Scales, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1892

1894 Norbert Wiener, U.S., mathematician/discovered cybernetics

1902 Gerrit Jan van der Veen, [Wolffensperger], Dutch resistance fighter

1937 Boris Yegorov, Cosmonaut (Voskhod 1)

1938 Jeremy Boorda, USN, Admiral

Died...

1126 Emir Al-Borsoki of Aleppo and Mosul, assassinated

1504 Queen Isabella I of Castilla and Aragon (1474-1504), at 53

1651 Henry Ireton, English General/parliament leader (Marston Moor), dies at 40

1865 Spanish Adm. Juan Manuel Pareja, suicide, having lost to the Chileans

1926 John M Browning, gunsmith

1928 Reinhard Scheer, German Admiral (WW I), at 65

1943 Edward H "Butch" O'Hare, USN, aviator, dies in battle, namesake of Chicagos internatonal. airport

1970 Benjamin O. Davis, Sr., the first black American General, at 93

1993 Imad Aqal, Palestinian Izz-Danish al-Qassem-leader, shot to death

Event...

1580 French Huguenots and Roman Catholics sign peace treaty

1648 Peace of Westphalia

1688 Duke of Savoye signs on to League of Augsburg

1688 French King Louis XIV declares war on Netherlands

1688 King James II escapes back to London

1703 Royal Navy loses 15 warships in massive storm off Bristol, England

1741 French and Beiers army occupies Prague

1778 USN Captain Cook discovers Maui (Sandwich Islands [now Hawaii])

1793 French Revolutionary calendar replaces the Gregorian Calendar

1835 The Grass Fight: Texians defeat Mexicans outside San Antonio

1835 HMS Beagle leaves Tahiti for NZ

1837 It is the day after the Battle of St. Charles. Pigs have escaped from their pens nearby and have begun feeding on rebel corpses. The animals are ordered shot so that the three dozen bodies littering the field can be prepared for a mass burial.

1847 LT William Lynch in USS Supply sails from New York to Haifa for an expedition to the River Jordan and the Dead Sea. His group charted the Jordan River from the Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea and compiled reports of the flora and fauna of the area.

1861 Skirmish at Little Blue, Mo

1861 West Virginia created as a result of dispute over slavery with Virginia

1862 Lincoln meets Harriet Beecher Stowe -- "So you are the little lady who started this big war."

1863 Abortive Mine Run Campaign, VA (ends Dec 2)

1864 Confederate troops vacate Sandersville Georgia

1864 Skirmish at Sylvan Brutal/Waynesboro, Georgia

1914 Battleship HMS Bulwark explodes at Sheerness Harbor England, 788 die

1916 Greece declares war on Germany

1918 14th and 15th Marines formed at Quantico, Virginia.

1924 Mongolian People's Republic proclaimed

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee and German tanker Altmark rendezvous in South Atlantic.

1939 4 Soviet soldiers killed on Finnish-Russian border

1940 Nazis force 500,000 Warsaw Jews to live in walled ghetto

1940 Sixth and last group of ships involved in the destroyers-for-bases agreement are turned over to Royal Navy crews at Halifax, Nova Scotia. USS Bailey becomes HMS Reading, USS Meade becomes HMS Ramsey, USS Shubrick becomes HMS Ripley, USS Swasey becomes HMS Rockingham, USS Claxton becomes HMS Salisbury, USS Fairfax becomes HMS Richmond, USS Robinson becomes HMS Newmarket, USS Ringgold becomes HMS Newark, USS Sigourney becomes HMS Newport and USS Tillman becomes HMS Wells

1941 Lebanon gains independence from France

1941 The Toronto Scottish Regiment adds a unique claim to its history when it is awarded the destruction of a German plane. The Scottish are stationed in Portslade, Sussex, when they manage to shoot down the enemy aircraft.

1941 British troops conquer Belhamed, Sidi Rezegh and El Duda

1941 Japanese carrier task force under Vice Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, formed around six fleet aircraft carriers, IJN Kaga, IJN Akagi, IJN Soryu, IJN Hiryu, IJN Zuikaku, IJN Shokaku, sails from remote Hittokappu Bay in the Kuriles, its departure shrouded in secrecy. Its mission; Should talks between United States and Japan fail to resolve the diplomatic impasse over Far Eastern and Pacific questions, it is to attack the U.S. Pacific Fleet wherever it is found in Hawaiian waters.

1941 Tug Sonoma (AT-12) sails from Wake Island with Pan American Airways barges PAB No. 2 and PAB No. 4 in tow, bound for Honolulu.

1941 US Secretary of State Cordell Hull submits final proposal to Japanese envoys for readjustment of U.S.-Japanese relations.

1942 USAAF B-26s damage Japanese merchant cargo ship Cheribon Maru off Attu, Aleutians.

1942 "Casablanca" premiers at the Hollywood Theatre, NYC

1943 First Cairo (SEXTANT) Conference between President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek ends.

1943 PV-1 (VP 138) attacks what is most likely Japanese submarine I-177, which is engaged in rescuing survivors of the Battle of Cape St. George. I-177 rescues some 200 Japanese sailors in the aftermath of the battle.

1943 USAAF B-25s sink Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Genchi Maru off Canton, China, 21°33'N, 112°00'E.

1943 Submarine USS Bowfin sinks Japanese army tanker Ogurasan Maru and merchant cargo ship Tainan Maru, 13°00'N, 109°30'E.

1943 Submarine USS Raton damages Japanese ammunition ship Onoe Maru, 00°40'N, 148°20'E; submarine chaser Ch 40 counterattacks but is damaged by the explosion of her own depth charges.

1943 Submarine USS Ray carries out unsuccessful attacks on Japanese cargo vessel Sumiyoshi Maru, 02°32'N, 148°56'E, but sinks Japanese transport Nikkai Maru southwest of Truk, 04°12'N, 148°20'E.

1943 Submarine USS Tinosa sinks Japanese army cargo ship Shini Maru, and damages army cargo ship Taiyu Maru, 07°08'N, 134°48'E.

1943 Naval Air Facilities are established at Amapa, Aratu, and Belem, Brazil; Naval Air Facilities (Lighter than Air) are established at Fernando Noronha, Fortaleza, and Ipitanga, Brazil.

1944 Himmler orders destruction of Auschwitz & Birkenau crematoriums.

1944 1st allied marines move onto Antwerp harbor

1944 Submarine USS Raton sinks Japanese ammunition ship Onoe Maru north of Bismarck Archipelago, 00°40'N, 148°20'E.

1944 U.S. freighter Howell Lykes is bombed by Japanese planes, San Pedro Bay, Leyte, and damaged by near-misses; while there are no casualties among the 41-man Armed Guard and 58 Army passengers, two of the ship's 79-man merchant complement are wounded in the attack.

1944 Japanese minesweeper W.18 sinks as the result of damage inflicted by USAAF B-24s (14th Air Force) the previous night, 16°52'N, 108°38'E.

1944 Chinese planes damage Japanese river gunboats Hira and Hozu in the Yangtze River near Anking.

1949 India adopts a constitution as a British Commonwealth Republic

1950 China enters Korean conflict, sends troops across Yalu River

1955 Emergency crisis proclaimed in Cyprus

1963 Explorer 18 launched

1965 France launches 1st satellite, 92 lb (42 kg) A1-capsule (Asterix)

1975 France performs nuclear test at Fangataufa Island

1975 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1985 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island

1988 Pioneer 6's closest approach to Earth since 1965 launch (1.87 M km)

1990 Mikhail Gorbachev tells Iraq to get out of Kuwait

By Cap. Teancum:

1781 - Dutch possession of St Eustacius, West Indies, is captured by British Navy.

1812 - Napoleon's troops flee over the Beresina (to 28.11).

1885 - Battle of Pirot. See-saw battle swirling about the village of Pirot. Two days later, Franz Joseph of Austria intervened forcing an armistice in the Serbian-Bulgarian War.

1918 - Last German troops leave Belgium.

1968 - While returning to base from another mission, Air Force 1st Lt. James P. Fleming and four other Bell UH-1F helicopter pilots get an urgent message from an Army Special Forces team pinned down by enemy fire.

Although several of the other helicopters had to leave the area because of low fuel, Lieutenant Fleming and another pilot pressed on with the rescue effort. The first attempt failed because of intense ground fire, but refusing to abandon the Army green berets, Fleming managed to land and pick up the team. When he safely arrived at his base near Duc Co, it was discovered that his aircraft was nearly out of fuel. Lieutenant Fleming was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1378  
Old 26 Nov 06, 09:35
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1835 The Grass Fight: Texians defeat Mexicans outside San Antonio

Today's book:

Border Wars of Texas by James T. Deshields

Book Description:

In 1912 author James T. DeShields dedicated his Border Wars of Texas to "The Sons and Daughters of Those Noble Pioneer Fathers and Mothers who . . . battled so bravely for supremacy and . . . made possible all the glorious blessings that have followed," and herein are the accounts of the early battles of those advancing pioneers as they relentingly encroached across the borders of the territories which the Indians believed to be theirs.
DeShields' work, which used Texas' earliest historical sources such as John Henry Brown, John W. Wilbarger, and Henderson King Yoakum, is made invaluable by his extensive use of other primary source material such as his numerous turn-of-the-century interviews and correspondence with early Texas Rangers and frontiersmen who were yet living. Many of his accounts are found nowhere else in publications of Texas history and thus provide fresh insights into the history of Texas' wars against the Indians.

Despite his view of Texas history as one in which the ultimate victory of the dauntless Anglo pioneer over the savage Indian was both predetermined and inevitable, DeShields' work retains a humanistic viewpoint, supporting Houston's conciliatory Indian policies of total destruction or expulsion. Regardless of DeShields' personal sympathies, the conflicts between the pioneer and Indian warring factions were bloody and savage, and DeShields superbly documents the savagery.


http://www.amazon.com/Border-Wars-Te...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1379  
Old 27 Nov 06, 17:06
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Join Date: Jul 2005
Location: Valadares - V. N. Gaia
Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 27


By Admiral:

Born...

1808 Hugh Weedon Mercer, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1877

1907 L Sprague de Camp, naval officer, author, d. 2000

1930 James M Taylor, USAF/Astronaut

1942 Jimi Hendrix rock guitarist (Jimi Hendrix Experience-Purple Haze) Airborne!

1952 James D Wetherbee, USN, Astronaut (STS 32, 52)

Died...

8 -BC- Horace, veteran of Pharsalus, poet & satirist

511 Clovis, the first King of France

1382 Philip Van Artevelde, Flemish commander-in-chief, dies in battle at 42

1868 Black Kettle, [Motavato], Cheyenne Chief, at battle of Washita

Event...

1095 In France, Pope Urban II solemnly proclaimed the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont. Urban's twin purpose was to relieve the pressure by the Seljuk Turks on the Eastern Roman Empire, and to secure free access to Jerusalem for Christian pilgrims.

1237 Battle of Cortenuova: Emperor Frederik II defeats the Lombard League

1382 Battle of Westrozebeke (French army beats Flemings-1,000s die)

1798 Neapolitan Army occupies Rome, as the French fall back

1813 Military headquarters at Montreal approves a plan to entice American deserters to Canada. A notice is to be published for distribution amongst the enemy that if they leave their post in this "unnatural war," the arrears they are owed by the American Army will be paid to them in Canada. The plan soons proves unsuccessful.

1815 Cracow (Poland) declared a free republic

1817 U.S. soldiers attack Florida Indian village, beginning Seminole War

1863 Battle of Payne's Farm, VA

1863 Battle at Fort Esperanza Texas

1864 2nd day of Battles at Waynesboro, Georgia

1868 Battle of the Washita: Custer defeats the Cheyenne

1895 Alfred Nobel establishes Nobel Prize

1901 Army War College established in Washington

1912 Spanish protectorate in Morocco forms

1919 Peace of Neuilly-sur-Seine: Allies & Bulgaria

1925 German Parliament ratifies treaty of Locarno

1926 Italian and Albania sign peace treaty

1932 Poland and U.S.S.R. signs non-attack treaty

1939 U.S. freighter Effingham is detained at Ramsgate, England, by British authorities; Freighter Azalea City is detained at London. Freighter Excambion, detained at Gibraltar by the British since 20 November, is released.

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee refuels from German tanker Altmark in South Atlantic

1940 Nazis signs Technical Hague court Delft

1940 Battle of Cape Spartivento: two U.S. Naval Observers, Lieutenant Commander A. Dayton Clark in British battlecruiser HMS Renown, and Lieutenant Commander Frederick P. Hartman in light cruiser HMS Southampton, witness the action that takes place between British and Italian forces off the coast of Sardinia

1941 British 13th Army corp reaches Tobruk

1941 Patrol boat HMAS Parramatta is sunk by an unknown agent off Australia

1941 U.S.S.R. begins a counter offensive, causes Germany to retreat

1941 Admiral Harold R. Stark, Chief of Naval Operations, sends "war warning" message to commanders of the Pacific and Asiatic Fleets. General George C. Marshall, Army Chief of Staff, sends a similar message to his Hawaiian and Philippine Department commanders.

1941 U.S. passenger liner President Madison, chartered for the purpose, sails from Shanghai, China, with the 2d Battalion, 4th Marine Regiment embarked, bound for the Philippines.

1941 Destroyer USS Babbitt, with TU 4.1.5, escorting convoy HX 160, depth charges a sound contact.

1941 U.S. freighter Nishmaha rescues 72 survivors (five of whom succumb to their wounds) from British light cruiser HMS Dunedin, sunk by German submarine U-124 on 24 November. Nishmaha transports the survivors to Trinidad.

1942 Tito appoints Anti fascist Liberation board in Yugoslavia

1942 USAAF B-26s sink Japanese army cargo ship Kachosan Maru off Attu.

1942 French Fleet at Toulon is scuttled to prevent it from falling into German hands. French naval vessels immobilized in this manner include 3 battleships, 4 heavy cruisers, 3 light cruisers, an aircraft depot ship, 30 destroyers, 3 torpedo boats, 16 submarines and 11 gunboats and auxiliaries.

1942 U.S. freighter Jeremiah Wadsworth is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-178 approximately 270 miles south of Cape Agulhas, South Africa, 39°25'S, 22°23'E; there are no casualties among the 43-man merchant crew and the 14-man Armed Guard.

1943 Submarine USS Bowfin sinks Vichy French cargo ship Van Vollenhoven off coast of French Indochina, 13°13'N, 109°27'E.

1943 Submarine USS Seahorse sinks Japanese fleet tanker San Ramon Maru in East China Sea, 33°36'N, 128°57'E.

1943 USAAF B-24s sink Japanese army hospital ship Buenos Aires Maru in Steffen Strait, 02°40'S, 149°20'E.

1943 USAAF B-25s attack Japanese convoy, sinking transport Hakone Maru and damaging torpedo boat IJN Tomodzuru, 25°20'N, 120°00'E.

1943 Teheran Conference: Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin talk strategy.

1944 U.S. 121st Infantry regiment opens assault on Hurtgen

1944 Destroyers bombard Japanese positions at Ormoc Bay, Leyte; firing continues on 28 November. In Leyte Gulf, kamikazes sink submarine chaser SC-744, 10°44'N, 125°07'E, and damage battleship USS Colorado and light cruisers USS St. Louis and USS Montpelier, 10°50'N, 125°25'E.

1944 Japanese planes also strike airfields and aircraft on the ground at Saipan in a surprise mid-day raid, destroying three USAAF B-29s and a P-47, and damaging three B-29s, a B-24 and a P-47.

1944 Organized Japanese resistance on Peleliu ends.

1944 Japanese merchant cargo ship Kinko Maru is sunk by aircraft, Yangtze River.

1944 B-29s from India hit Bangkok.

1944 B-29s from the Marianas hit Tokyo

1945 Dutch resistance fighter Hannie Schaft re-buried in presence of Queen Wilhelmina

1945 General George C Marshall named special US envoy to China

1950 Chinese Communists launched an attack, surrounding American forces at Chosin Reservoir, Korea.

1951 Cease-fire and demarcation zone accord signed in Panmunjon Korea

1951 First successful surface-to-air missile test, White Sands, NM

1958 USSR abrogates Allied war-time agreements on control of Germany

1961 US Navy reports first use of its cyclotron at Harvard University to treat a human brain tumor. After three treatments, the tumor of the 2-year old patient shrank by eighty percent.

1962 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1965 1st French satellite launched, France becomes 3rd nation in space

1965 15,000 demonstrate against war in Vietnam in Wash DC

1970 Pope Paul VI wounded in chest during a visit to the Philippines

1971 Soviet Mars 2 becomes 1st spacecraft to crash land on Mars

1980 Soyuz T-3 carries 3 cosmonauts to Salyut 6 space station, launched

1985 Republic of Ireland gains consultative role in Northern Ireland.

1989 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.
__________________
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Today's event:

1940 Battle of Cape Spartivento

Today's book:

The Palgrave Concise Historical Atlas of the Second World War by Martin Folly

Book Review:

For students following Second World War courses this atlas will be invaluable for placing themes in their wider context and for quickly ascertaining the essence of particular military phases of the war. Its clear language and lively tone are complemented by its admirably deft reflection of the results of recent research.

http://www.amazon.com/Palgrave-Conci...230685-5147252
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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