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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1351  
Old 13 Nov 06, 09:38
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November 13


By Admiral:

Born...

354 St. Augustine of Hippo, convert/Christian philosopher

1312 King Edward III of England (1327-77)

1504 Count Philip the Generous of Hesse

1809 John Adolph Bernard Dahlgren, naval officer, gun founder, U.S., d. 1870

1813 John Wolcott Phelps, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1885

1813 Prince Peter II Petrovic of Montenegro (1830-51)

1814 Joseph Hooker, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1879

Died...

1319 King Erik VI of Denmark (1286-1319)

1359 Ivan II, ruler of Moscow & Vladimir

1460 Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal, at 66

1942 Daniel J Callaghan, Rear Admiral, U.S.N, KIA at Guadalcanal, CMA

1942 Norman Scott, Rear Admiral, U.S.N., KIA at Guadalcanal, CMA

Event...

1002 English King Ethelred II launched massacre of Danish settlers.

1474 Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Hericourt, near Belfort.

1511 England signed on to the Saint League.

1553 English Lady Jane Grey/Bishop Cranmer accused of high treason.

1642 Battle at Turnham Green, London: King Charles I vs English Parliament.

1673 Prince Willem III/Raimundo Earl Montecuccoli conquered Bonn.

1715 Battle at Sheriffmuir: English army beat Scottish Earl of Mar. Pro-James Edward Stuart-rebellion surrendered.

1775 American troops enter Montreal to take official possession of the town. The citizens of Montreal had been left to their own defense as Governor Carleton had retired all troops to defend Quebec.

1776 Captain John Paul Jones in Alfred with brig Providence captures British transport Mellish, carrying winter uniforms later used by Washington's troops.

1781 English troops occupy Negapatam Ceylon

1830 Oliver Wendell Holmes published "Old Ironsides".

1851 1st meeting of anti-revolutionary "Netherlands and Orange"

1862 Battle of Holly Spring, MS.

1885 Serbian army occupied Bulgaria.

1916 British offensive at Ancre Belgium.

1918 Russia cancels Treaty of Brest-Litovsk.

1918 German veterans form the ultra-nationalist Stahlhelm (anti communist/Polish/French) in Magdenburg.

1921 US, France, Japan and British Empire sign a Pacific Treaty.

1926 Indonesian Communist Party (PKI) uprising in Bantam West Java.

1935 Anti-British riots in Egypt.

1939 The Seaforth Highlanders of Canada were inspected by General Andrew McNaughton and Brigadier George Pearkes. The ceremony was in preparation for the troops' departure across Canada to Halifax and thence Britain, most of whom were kitted in First World War vintage uniforms.

1939 British steamship Sirdhana, bound for Hong Kong, blunders into British minefield off Singapore; 10 U.S. citizens (a troupe of magicians) are among the survivors. There are no casualties.

1939 U.S. freighter Black Hawk is detained by British authorities at Ramsgate, England.

1940 Acting Secretary of State Sumner Welles, on the strength of a report that French battleships FS Richelieu (then at Dakar) and FS Jean Bart (then at Casablanca) were to be moved, perhaps to Toulon, France (within the German sphere of influence), requests the Chargé d'Affaires ad interim in Spain, H. Freeman Matthews, to let the appropriate French authorities know that the U.S. government would be prepared to contemplate purchase of both capital ships if the French government were willing to dispose of them with the agreement that they would not be used in the present war.

1941 British aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sank in Mediterranean.

1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal continued: TG 67.4, comprising two heavy cruisers, three light cruisers, and eight destroyers encounters Japanese Bombardment Force that includes two battleships, steaming to bombard Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, shortly after midnight on 12 November; a savage nocturnal naval action ensues. Abe's force inflicts heavy damage on TG 67.4 before it retires northward; Rear Admirals Callaghan and Norman Scott are killed on board their respective flagships, heavy cruiser USS San Francisco and USS Atlanta. Both Callaghan and Scott are awarded Medals of Honor (posthumously). On board USS San Francisco, Lieutenant Commanders Herbert E. Schonland and Bruce McCandless prove instrumental in saving their ship, and Boatswain's Mate First Class Reinhardt J. Keppler performs a succession of heroic acts in fighting fires and removing wounded during the thick of the battle. Those three men (Keppler posthumously) also earn the nation's highest award for bravery. TF 16, formed around carrier USS Enterprise, the last operational fleet carrier in the Pacific, nears the battle area and launches air search and attacks against the enemy.

1942 Light cruiser USS Atlanta, irreparably damaged by Japanese naval gunfire and torpedo as well as by friendly fire from heavy cruiser USS San Francisco, is scuttled by demolition charges three miles off Lunga Point; light cruiser USS Juneau, damaged by gunfire, is torpedoed and sunk by Japanese submarine I-26, 10°34'S, 161°44'E, as USS Juneau retires toward Espiritu Santo. Loss of life is heavy to include the 5 Sullivan brothers . Also sunk are destroyers USS Cushing and USS Monssen to gunfire, USS Laffey to gunfire and torpedo, and USS Barton to two torpedoes. Heavy cruiser USS Portland suffers torpedo damage; USS San Francisco, light cruiser USS Helena, and destroyer USS Aaron Ward are damaged by gunfire; friendly fire damages destroyer USS O'Bannon.

1942 The Japanese, however, do not emerge from the brutal nocturnal slugfest unscathed: battleship IJN Hiei, damaged by gunfire from heavy cruisers USS Portland and USS San Francisco and destroyers USS Cushing, USS Laffey, and USS O'Bannon, is sunk by TBFs (VT 8) from carrier USS Enterprise and USMC SBDs (VMSB 142) and TBFs (VMSB 131) from Henderson Field. Destroyer IJN Akatsuki is sunk by USS San Francisco and USS Atlanta gunfire near Savo Island, 09°17'S, 159°56'E. Destroyer IJN Yudachi, damaged by gunfire, is sunk by USS Portland southeast of Savo Island, 09°14'S, 159°52'E. Japanese destroyers IJN Murasame, IJN Ikazuchi, and IJN Amatsukaze are damaged by gunfire; destroyer IJN Yukikaze is damaged by aircraft, off Guadalcanal. Destroyer IJN Michisio is also damaged by aircraft off Shortland Island, Solomons.

1942 On the night of 13 November, heavy cruisers IJN Suzuya and IJN Maya approach Guadalcanal to shell Henderson Field, intending to render it inoperable the following morning.

1942 Unarmed U.S. schooner Star of Scotland is shelled and sunk by German submarine U-159 while en route from Cape Town, South Africa, to Paranagua, Brazil, 26°30'S, 00°20'W; one sailor (of the 17-man crew) drowns when the ship is abandoned.

1942 U.S. freighter Excello, proceeding independently from Port Said, Egypt, to Cape Town, South Africa, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-181 at 32°23'S, 30°07'E; one Armed Guard sailor and one merchant seaman perish in the attack

1942 US Selective Service reduced the minimum draft age from 21 to 18.

1943 Carrier based aircraft begin daily bombings of Japanese positions in the Gilbert and Marshall Islands. B-24s from Funafuti and Canton bomb Tarawa and Makin.

1943 Japanese aircraft attack TF 39 off Empress Augusta Bay, Bougainville, Solomons; light cruiser USS Denver is damaged by aerial torpedo, 06°45'S, 154°15'E.

1943 British submarine HMS Taurus sinks Japanese submarine I-34 30 miles south of Panang, Malaya, 05°17'N, 100°05'E.

1943 Submarine IJN Narwhal lands men and supplies at Paluan Bay, Mindoro, P.I.

1943 Submarine IJN Scorpion damages Japanese oiler Shiretoko northwest of the Marianas, 18°22'N, 142°50'E.

1943 Submarine IJN Trigger sinks Japanese transport Nachizan Maru in East China Sea, 32°55'N, 124°57'E; although damaged by depth charges, she remains on patrol.

1944 Aircraft from three carrier task groups (TG 38.1, TG 38.3, and TG 38.4) of TF 38 pound Japanese shipping and port facilities at Manila and in central Luzon. At the former place, TF 38 planes sink light cruiser IJN Kiso, destroyers IJN Hatsuharu and IJN Okinami, and auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 116 14°35'N, 120°50'E; and army cargo ships Eiwa Maru, Kinka Maru, Kakogawa Maru, Sekiho Maru, and Teiyu Maru, as well as merchant cargo ships Taitoku Maru, Hatsu Maru, Seiwa Maru and Shinkoku Maru, 14°35'N, 120°55'E, and damage destroyer IJN Ushio. At Cavite, Navy carrier planes sink destroyers IJN Akebono and IJN Akishimo, fleet tanker Ondo, and guardboat Daito Maru, 14°29'N, 120°55'E. TF 38 planes also sink army cargo ship Heian Maru at Cabcaben, and auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 116 some 20 nautical miles west of Cavite, 14°30'N, 120°45'E.

1944 Minesweeper USS Ardent and frigate USS Rockford sink Japanese submarine I-12 (that had sunk freighter John A. Johnson on 29 October 1944) 100 miles west-southwest of Los Angeles, California, 31°55'N, 139°45'W.

1944 Submarine USS Seal sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Gassan Maru north-northwest of Etorofu, Kurils, 45°35'N, 148°14'E.

1944 TF 38 begins two days of air raids on Japanese on Luzon.

1955 Argentine Gen Pedro Aramburu succeeded E Lonardi as president.

1957 First firing of Regulus II bombardment missile.

1962 400 Marines (3/4) flew to Guam to assist with typhoon damage.

1968 Operation Daring Endeavor was commenced by the 7th Marine Regiment in Vietnam.

1970 Lt Gen Hafez al-Assad becomes PM of Syria following military coup.

1971 Mariner 9, 1st to orbit another planet. (Mars)

1978 NASA launched HEAO

1980 U.S. spacecraft Voyager I sent back 1st close-up pictures of Saturn.

1982 Vietnam War Memorial dedicated in Washington DC.

1986 US violated Iran arms boycott as per Ronald Reagan.

1997 U.N. pulls out arms inspection teams from Iraq.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1352  
Old 13 Nov 06, 09:43
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1474 Swiss defeat Charles the Bold at Hericourt, near Belfort.

Today's book:

The Swiss at War 1300-1500 by Douglas Miller, Gerry Embleton (Illustrator)

Book Description:

During the 14th and 15th centuries military tactics in Europe underwent a period of sustained transformation of which the outcome was the rejuvenation of the footsoldier as the major tactical unit. One nation alone stands principally responsible for this development the Swiss Confederation. For centuries the mounted knights had 'ridden roughshod over the populations of Europe'. It was in the Swiss halberdier and later the pikeman that the mounted men-at-arms were to meet their match. This absorbing text by Douglas Miller provides an account of rise of the Swiss army to its tactical zenith, beginning with the classic encounter at Morgarten.

http://www.amazon.com/Swiss-War-1300...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1353  
Old 14 Nov 06, 13:33
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 14



By Admiral:

Born...

1765 Robert Fulton, inventor, first commercial steamboat.

1814 Michael Kelly Lawler, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1882

1822 William Harrow, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1872

1827 Isaac Wistar, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1905

1828 James Birdseye MacPherson, Maj Gen, U.S., KIA 1864

1842 Walter Williams claimed to be last survivor of Civil War (d 1959)

1909 Joseph R McCarthy, "Tail Gunner Joe," Anti-Communist looney

1933 Fred W Haise Jr, Astronaut (Apollo 13 STS T-1, T-3, T-5)

1935 Hussein ibn Talal I, King of Jordan

1948 Charles, the Prince of Wales

1954 Condolezza Rice, US Secretary of State

Died...

565 Justinian, Roman Emperor, at 82

1263 Alexander Nevski, Russian ruler (1252-63), at 43

1673 King Michael Wisniowieki of Poland

1687 Nell Gwyn, Charles I's "Protestant *****"

1915 Booker T Washington, educator/organizer, at 59.

1942 The Sullivan Brothers

1969 Bruno Hochmuth, Cdr, 3rd Marine Division, first general KIA in Vietnam

1990 Malcolm Muggeridge, WW II spy for Britain, dies at 87

Event...

565 Justin II becomes Byzantine Emperor.

1380 King Charles VI of France crowned at age 12.

1524 Pizarro began 1st great expedition, near Colombia.

1698 Spanish King Carlos appointed grandson Prince Jozef Ferdinand as heir

1755 French engineers are surveying the site for a new fort at Carillon (south end of Lake Champlain). Work in the thick bush is difficult, but within two weeks, seven foot palisades ring the encampment and two stone bastions are completed.

1792 Capt George Vancouver was 1st Englishman to enter San Francisco Bay

1846 US Naval forces captured Tampico, Mexico.

1863 Bedford Forrest is assigned to command of West Tennessee.

1863 Skirmish at Danville, Mississippi.

1881 Charles J Guiteau went on trial for President Garfield's assassination.

1906 TR is the 1st president to visit a foreign country, Panama.

1908 Albert Einstein made public his quantum theory of light.

1910 1st airplane flight from deck of a ship, Norfolk, Va.

1918 Republic of Czechoslovakia created with T.G. Masaryk as President

1919 Red Army captured Omsk, Siberia.

1935 The Philippine Commonwealth is established.

1935 Nazis deprive German Jews of their citizenship.

1940 Luftwaffe nearly destroys Coventry.

1941 Governor-General Wouters of Dutch Antilles refused Jews refugees.

1941 Marines are ordered withdrawn from Shanghai, Peiping, and Tientsin, China.

1941 Destroyer USS Benson and USS Niblack, screening convoy ON 34, depth charge sound contacts.

1941 Destroyer USS Edison, en route to MOMP in TU 4.1.1 to screen convoy ON 35, attacks a sound contact southwest of Iceland at 62°53'N, 24°30'W.

1942 Last Vichy-French troops in Algeria surrendered.

1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal continues as bombardment of Henderson Field by heavy cruisers IJN Suzuya and IJN Maya fails to achieve the desired effect, prompting the postponement of the landing of troops from the 11 transports poised to proceed down the "Slot" toward Guadalcanal.

1942 Japanese heavy cruisers IJN Chokai and IJN Kinugasa, light cruiser IJN Isuzu and two destroyers and heavy cruisers IJN Maya and IJN Suzuya, light cruiser IJN Tenryu and four destroyers, come under attack by planes from carrier USS Enterprise and from Henderson Field: IJN Kinugasa is sunk by USMC SBDs , 15 nautical miles northwest of Rendova Island, 08°45'S, 157°00'E. IJN Maya (crashed by a crippled VB 10 SBD) and IJN Isuzu are damaged south of New Georgia Island;IJN Chokai, IJN Tenryu, and destroyer IJN Ayanami are also damaged.

1942 That afternoon, USMC and Navy land-based SBDs and TBFs bomb Japanese convoy off Guadalcanal, sinking transports/cargo ships Arizona Maru and Canberra Maru and merchant transport/cargo ships Brisbane Maru; Kumagawa Maru, Nagara Maru, Nako Maru; and Shinano Maru. Cargo ship Sado Maru is damaged.

1942 Beginning shortly before midnight, TF 64, comprising battleships USS Washington and USS South Dakota and four destroyers, engages a Japanese naval force comprising a battleship, a light cruiser, and six destroyers in the Battle of Guadalcanal. Japanese gunfire sinks destroyers USS Preston (by light cruiser IJN Nagara) and USS Walke.

1942 First boatload of survivors from U.S. freighter Excello, sunk by German submarine U-181 the previous day, make landfall at Port St. John, South Africa.

1943 Japanese planes attack six Lambu Lambu-based U.S. motor torpedo boats off Choiseul Bay, damaging PT-183.

1943 Submarine USS Grayback sinks Japanese fleet tanker Kozui Maru, 27°35'N, 127°30'E, and eludes hunter-killer operations carried out by aviation supply ship IJN Takasaki.

1943 Naval Air Facility, Igarape Assu, Brazil, is established.

1943 Coast Guard Cutter USCG Dow runs aground off Mayaguez, Puerto Rico, and was abandoned.

1944 TF 38 air strikes against Japanese shipping in Philippines continue. At Manila, Navy carrier-based planes sink transport Tatsura Maru, merchant tanker No.5 Horai Maru, merchant cargo ships Hatsu Maru and Aoki Maru, and damage transport Tottori Maru and army cargo ship Myogi Maru; cargo ship Yukihisa Maru is sunk just outside Manila Bay, 13°58'N, 120°36'E. Off Mindoro, F6Fs from carrier USS Yorktown attack Japanese convoy SIMA-04, sinking merchant tanker Ayagiri Maru, 12°40'N, 120°41'E; and damaging army cargo ship Yutaka Maru as well as escorting submarine chasers Ch 1, Ch 19, Ch 26, and Ch 36.

1944 Submarine USS Halibut is damaged by depth charges and aerial bombs, Luzon Strait, 20°56'N, 121°33'E, but returns from patrol with no difficulty.

1944 Submarine USS Jack attacks Japanese convoy, sinking merchant cargo ship Hinaga Maru and damaging merchant tanker No.2 Yuzan Maru, 11°02'N, 109°02'E.

1944 Submarines USS Batfish, USS Raton and USS Ray attack Japanese convoy off the northwest coast of Luzon; USS Raton damages supply ship Kurasaki north-northwest of Cape Bolinao, 17°41'N, 118°00'E, and sinks merchant tanker No.5 Unkai Maru, 17°48'N, 117°58'; USS Ray sinks Coast Defense Vessel No.7 65 miles northwest of Cape Bolinao, 17°45'N, 117°45'E.

1944 Submarine USS Skipjack damages Japanese motor sailship No.6 Tatsu Maru off Shimushiru, Kurils,46°40'E, 151°40'E. Strong currents then drive the damaged vessel upon a reef; she is declared a total loss.

1944 Submarine USS Spadefish sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Gyokuyo Maru, previously damaged by Barb on 12 November 1944 while in convoy MOMA-07, 31°04'N, 123°56'E.

1944 PROJECT MIKE continues as USAAF B-24s (42d Bomb Squadron) lay 6 mines in effective locations off Ani Jima and Haha Jima.

1944 During Japanese air raid on U.S. shipping off Leyte, freighter Floyd B. Olson is damaged by bomb; there are, however, no casualties among the 43-man merchant complement, the 28-man Armed Guard, and the 409 stevedores embarked to work cargo.

1944 USAAF B-24 sinks Japanese lugger Kiho Maru off Sandakan harbor.

1944 Japanese ship IJN Heiyo is sunk by mine, Adang Bay, 01°43'S, 116° 26'E.

1944 Chinese New 22nd Div takes Mantha, in northern Burma.

1945 Java: Sutan Sjahrir appointed as forming government

1947 The United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea (UNTCOK) is authorized to oversee free elections and monitor the withdrawal of American and Soviet occupation forces from that country. Canadians take part in this UN foray which fails as war breaks out in Korea within three years.

1952 Greek Beneral Papagos won elections.

1954 Egyptian President Naguib fired/state of emergency declared.

1956 Hungarian Revolution finally crushed by overwhelming Soviet forces.

1960 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), formed.

1960 First Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine, USS George Washington, leaves Charleston, SC, on initial fleet ballistic missile patrol.

1960 Belgium threatened to leave United Nations due to criticism on it's Congo-policy.

1965 U.S. government sennt 90,000 soldiers to Vietnam.

1968 "National Turn in Your Draft Card Day".

1969 Apollo 12 (Conrad/Gordon/Bean) launched for 2nd manned Moon landing.

1969 2nd Vietnam Moratorium Day in US

1973 Britain's Princess Anne marries commoner, Capt Mark Phillips.

1975 Spain abandoned Spanish Sahara. Spain, Morocco and Mauretania signed accord about Spanish Sahara

1977 Egypt President Sadat repeated willingness to visit Israel to Walter Cronkite.

1980 U.S. performed nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1982 Polish Solidarity chairman Lech Walesa freed.

1983 1st cruise missile emplaced, Greenham Common, England

1984 NASA launched NATO-3D.

1984 Astronauts aboard "Discovery" plucked a 2nd satellite from orbit.

1990 France performed nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1990 Great Britain performed nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1993 Puerto Rico voted against becoming the 51st U.S. state.

By Cap. Teancum:

1862 - President Lincoln approves of General Ambrose Burnside's plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. This was an ill-fated move, as it led to the disastrous Battle of Fredericksburg on December 13, in which the Army of the Potomac was dealt one of its worst defeats at the hands of General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

Lincoln approved Burnside's plan just five days after Burnside assumed command of the army. The general had replaced George McClellan, who led the force for more than a year. McClellan's tenure was marked by sharp disagreements with the administration and sluggishness in the field. Although McClellan was successful against Lee at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, Lincoln removed him from command because of McClellan's reluctance to attack the Confederate army in Virginia.

After McClellan was removed, Burnside stepped up to take his shot at Lee. His plan called for the Army of the Potomac to move 40 miles to Fredericksburg on the Rappahannock River. From there, his troops would advance south to the Confederate capital of Richmond. Lincoln appreciated the fact that Burnside's plan protected Washington, D.C. In spring 1862, McClellan had sailed the army down the Chesapeake Bay and landed it on the James Peninsula for an attempt on Richmond, a move that left the Union capital dangerously exposed. However, Lincoln and general in chief Henry Halleck were concerned that Burnside was focused solely on capturing Richmond; they believed that the goal should be to destroy Lee's army. However, Burnside's plan was an improvement over McClellan's operations.

Lincoln approved the plan but warned Burnside that action needed to be taken quickly. By early December, Burnside had the army in motion. When the Yankees reached Fredericksburg, however, they experienced delays in crossing the Rappahannock, which allowed Lee to move his forces into place above the city. On December 13, Burnside made a series of doomed attacks and the Army of the Potomac suffered one of the most costly and demoralizing defeats of the war.

1951 - In a surprising turn of events, President Harry Truman asks Congress for U.S. military and economic aid for the communist nation of Yugoslavia. The action was part of the U.S. policy to drive a deeper wedge between Yugoslavia and the Soviet Union.

Yugoslavia ended World War II with the communist forces of Josip Broz Tito in control. The United States supported him during the war when his group battled against the Nazi occupation. In the postwar period, as Cold War hostilities set in, U.S. policy toward Yugoslavia hardened. Tito was viewed as simply another tool of Soviet expansion into eastern and southern Europe. In 1948, however, Tito openly broke with Stalin, though he continued to proclaim his allegiance to the communist ideology. Henceforth, he declared, Yugoslavia would determine and direct its own domestic and foreign policies without interference from the Soviet Union.

U.S. officials quickly saw a propaganda opportunity in the fallout between the former communist allies. Although Tito was a communist, he was at least an independent communist who might prove a useful ally in Europe. To curry favor with Tito, the United States supported Yugoslavia's efforts in 1949 to gain a seat on the prestigious Security Council at the United Nations. In 1951, President Truman asked Congress to provide economic and military assistance to Yugoslavia. This aid was granted.

Yugoslavia proved to be a Cold War wild card, however. Tito gave tacit support to the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956, but harshly criticized the Russian intervention in Czechoslovakia in 1968. While the United States admired Tito for his independent stance, he could sometimes be a bit too independent. During the 1950s and 1960s he encouraged and supported the nonalignment movement among Third World nations, a policy that concerned American officials who were intent on forcing those nations to choose sides in the East-West struggle. Relations between the United States and Yugoslavia warmed considerably after Tito's denunciation of the Czech intervention, but cooled again when he sided with the Soviets during the Arab-Israeli conflict of 1973. Tito died in 1980.

1965 - In the first major engagement of the war between regular U.S. and North Vietnamese forces, elements of the 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) fight a pitched battle with Communist main-force units in the Ia Drang Valley of the Central Highlands.

On this morning, Lt. Col. Harold G. Moore's 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry conducted a heliborne assault into Landing Zone X-Ray near the Chu Pong hills. Around noon, the North Vietnamese 33rd Regiment attacked the U.S. troopers. The fight continued all day and into the night. American soldiers received support from nearby artillery units and tactical air strikes. The next morning, the North Vietnamese 66th Regiment joined the attack against the U.S. unit. The fighting was bitter, but the tactical air strikes and artillery support took their toll on the enemy and enabled the 1st Cavalry troopers to hold on against repeated assaults.

At around noon, two reinforcing companies arrived and Colonel Moore put them to good use to assist his beleaguered soldiers. By the third day of the battle, the Americans had gained the upper hand. The three-day battle resulted in 834 North Vietnamese soldiers confirmed killed, and another 1,000 communist casualties were assumed.

In a related action during the same battle, 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, was ambushed by North Vietnamese forces as it moved overland to Landing Zone Albany. Of the 500 men in the original column, 150 were killed and only 84 were able to return to immediate duty; Company C suffered 93 percent casualties, half of them deaths.

Despite these numbers, senior American officials in Saigon declared the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley a great victory. The battle was extremely important because it was the first significant contact between U.S. troops and North Vietnamese forces. The action demonstrated that the North Vietnamese were prepared to stand and fight major battles even though they might take serious casualties. Senior American military leaders concluded that U.S. forces could wreak significant damage on the communists in such battles--this tactic lead to a war of attrition as the U.S. forces tried to wear the communists down. The North Vietnamese also learned a valuable lesson during the battle: by keeping their combat troops physically close to U.S. positions, U.S. troops could not use artillery or air strikes without risking injury to American troops. This style of fighting became the North Vietnamese practice for the rest of the war.

1967 - Maj. Gen. Bruno Hochmuth, commander of the 3rd Marine Division, is killed when the helicopter in which he is travelling is shot down. He was the most senior U.S. officer to be killed in action in the war to date. I've checked in a cople places and it was in 1967, and not in 1969 that Hochmuth died. A few links...

http://www.usmc.mil/genbios2.nsf/0/0...ument&Clic k=
http://www.hmm-364.org/death-of.html
http://www.virtualwall.org/dh/HochmuthBA01a.htm

1972 - One week after his re-election, President Richard Nixon extends to South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu his "absolute assurance" that the United States will "take swift and severe retaliatory action" if Hanoi violates the pending cease-fire once it is in place.

Thieu responded with a list of 69 amendments that he wanted added to the peace agreement being worked out in Paris. Nixon instructed Henry Kissinger to present Le Duc Tho, the senior North Vietnamese negotiator in Paris, with Thieu's amendments. Kissinger protested that the changes were "preposterous" and might destroy chances for the treaty. Despite Kissinger's concerns, the indication that the peace accords were near completion resulted in the Dow Jones closing above 1,000 for first time. In the end, however, Kissinger was correct and the peace talks became deadlocked and were not resumed until after Nixon ordered the December bombing of North Vietnam.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1354  
Old 14 Nov 06, 13:39
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Today's event:

1863 Bedford Forrest is assigned to command of West Tennessee.

Today's book:

That Devil Forrest: Life of General Nathan Bedford Forrest by John A. Wyeth

Book Review:

I have nearly every book written on Nathan Bedford Forrest. He was a complex man, a man that should stand out more amongst the 'peacocks'. Who, having had any knowledge about the War Between the States, does not know JEB Stuart? Forrest did not believe in plumbed hats, jackboots or riding around the Union army to prove a point to the Union troops and his Father-in-law. He believed war was fighting and fighting means killing, and his brilliant military tactics demonstrated this. I think by being raised on both sides of the pond, Forrest first fascinated me because I saw much the same 'force' in Forrest I admired in William Wallace. They were common men, men who were willing to give all in a cause they believed, men that were driven by fighting at 110% and never giving quarter. Many of Forrest's tactics of near guerrilla fighting came from Lighthorse Harry Lee's tactics against the British in the Revolutionary War (Robert E. Lee's daddy by the way!!), a character in himself and much in the vein of Mel Gibson's Patriot. The North despised Forrest - why?? Because he was SO EFFECTIVE. One wonders, what the outcome of the War Between the States would have been had Forrest commanded the Army of the Potomac instead of Lee. Grant and Sherman hated him - Grant giving him the label of 'that devil Forrest', while Sherman admired him - grudgingly - considering him "the most remarkable man our civil war produced on either side", and by Lee `the most extraordinary man the Civil War produced'. Historian Shelby Foote called him one of the two great geniuses of the period (Lincoln being the other). Sherman moaned in disgust that Forrest's men could travel 100 miles faster than his troops could 10. Forrest 'liberated' more guns, horses and supplies than any other single Confederate unit. He did not play at war. He rose from the rank of private to a Lieutenant General - the ONLY man to do that in the Confederate army, but he was just as a complex man before and after the war.
Perhaps, you will not come away liking Forrest, but you cannot doubt his sheer genius, his driven power and his ability to spur men to match his dedication and willingness to give all - just as Wallace did.

There are many books that give interesting views of Forrest, but I hold a special spot in my respect for this book, for unlike the others that were written with the distance of time and careful study, this was written by John Allan Wyeth - a surgeon who died in 1922. Wyeth served as a private in the Confederate army until his capture two weeks after Chickamauga. This was written by a man who lived through the war, not an arm chair historian. So his view is unique, more vivid than any other writer or biographer on Forrest. The text is base almost solely on accounts of military papers and records and the people who knew Forrest personally.

So if you have come searching for information on Nathan Bedford Forrest, your collection MUST have a copy of this work.


http://www.amazon.com/That-Devil-For...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1355  
Old 15 Nov 06, 12:30
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November 15



By Admiral:

Born...

1316 King Jean I of France (Nov 15-19, 1316)

1708 William Pitt, the Elder, the "Great Commoner", PM (1756-1761, 1766-1768)

1738 Sir William Herschel, astronomer (discovered Uranus)

1814 Pleasant Adam Hackleman, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1862

1816 Joseph Bennett Plummer, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1862

1836 Pierce Manning Butler Young, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896

1891 Erwin Rommel, Field Marshal, "the Desert Fox," suicide, 1944

1891 W Averell Harriman. US, (Gov-D-NY)/ambassador to USSR (1943-46)

1906 Curtis E Le May, General USAAF/USAF, the ultimate "Bomber Baron"

1907 Count Claus Schenk von Stauffenberg, anti-Nazi conspirator, his bomb narrowly missed the little Corporal.

Died...

1280 Albertus Magnus, scholar, dies at 87

1630 Johann Kepler, astronomer, dies at 58

1908 Tsu-tsi, Dowager Empress, of China

Event...

1315 Battle at Morgarten: Swiss beat duke Leopold I of Austrian

1533 Francisco Pizarro arrived at Cuzco.

1577 Sir Francis Drake aboard HMS Pelican travels from Chile to Washington

1626 The original Mayflower "pilgrims" (Separatists), having lived in their American colony for six years, bought out their London investors for 1,800 pounds.

1688 Prince Willem III's army lands at Torbay England

1715 Barrier Treaty, Austria cedes area to Netherlands.

1763 Surveying of the Mason-Dixon Line was completed.

1777 Articles of Confederation adopted by Continental Congress.

1806 Explorer Zebulon Pike sights Pikes Peak (Colorado)

1813 Allied troops occupied Groningen.

1835 HMS Beagle/Charles Darwin reaches Tahiti.

1864 Sherman burned what Confederates have left of Atlanta.

1882 LCDR French Chadwick reports to American Legation in London as first Naval Attache.

1882 British HMS Flirt destroys village of Asaba Niger

1884 Congress of Berlin carved up Africa among European powers.

1889 Dom Pedro II, Emperor of Brazil, deposed, and a republic proclaimed.

1899 Winston Churchill was captured by the Boer.s

1900 Lord Strathcona's Horse, a mounted infantry unit recruited from Canada's western provinces, was reported to be in bad shape, its complement devastated by enteric fever and dysentery.

1902 Leopold II, King of Belgium almost assassinated by Italian anarchist.

1914 Benito Mussolini founds "Il popolo d'Italia", a pro-war newspaper.

1915 No. 4 (University of Toronto) General Hospital was setting up its field facilities in Salonika, Greece. It was one of 8 such hospitals which would eventually serve outside of Britain. Among the stretcher-bearers from Toronto was one Pte. Lester B. Pearson, a future Prime Minister of Canada.

1919 US Senate 1st invokes cloture to end a filibuster (Versailles Treaty)

1920 League of Nations established the Free City of Danzig under its protection.

1920 League of Nations holds 1st meeting, in Geneva.

1923 50 missionaries were protected by US Marines at Tungshan, China.

1935 Commonwealth of Philippines inaugurated.

1936 Nazi-Germany and Japan sign Anti-Komintern pact.

1938 Farewell Parade of International Brigades in Barcelona.

1939 Nazis begin mass murder of Warsaw Jews.

1939 Anti-German demonstrations in Czechoslovakia.

1939 German DKM Admiral Graf Spee stopped and sank British tanker Africa Shell 160 miles northeast of Lourenco Marques, 24°45'S, 35°00'E; Japanese freighter Tihuku Maru happened upon the scene of the action but was unmolested.

1940 Destroyer USS Plunkett, on Neutrality Patrol off Tampico, Mexico, observed German freighter Orinoco and tanker Phrygia making preparations for sea.

1940 Heavy cruiser USS Louisville arrived at Santos, Brazil, as she continued her goodwill cruise in Latin American waters.

1940 First 75,000 drafted men report for duty with Uncle Sam.

1941 Army GHQ maneuvers began in North and South Carolina. Two U.S. Navy (VB 8 and VS 8) and two Marine Corps (VMF 111 and VMF 121) squadrons took part in the large-scale war games.

1942 Naval Battle of Guadalcanal ends as TF 64 repulses Vice Admiral Kondo's force. Battleship USS South Dakota is damaged by gunfire of Japanese battleship IJN Kirishima and heavy cruisers IJN Atago and IJN Takao; destroyer USS Benham, damaged by torpedo, is scuttled by destroyer USS Gwin in Savo Sound, Solomons; USS Gwin is damaged by gunfire. Gunfire from Admiral Lee's flagship, battleship USS Washington, sinks IJN Kirishima and destroyer IJN Ayanami southeast of Savo Island, 09°10'S,159°52'E.

1942 Navy SBDs (VS 10) and TBFs (VT 10), USMC SBDs (VMSB 132), Marine and Army coast artillery, and gunfire from destroyer USS Meade sink four Japanese merchant transport/cargo ships off the northern coast of Guadalcanal: Kinugasa Maru, Hirokawa Maru, Yamazuki Maru, and Yamura Maru. USS Meade also rescues survivors from sunken destroyers USS Walke and USS Preston.

1942 Although the United States suffers the greater loss in warships in the savagely fought series of engagements on 12-15 November, the Japanese withdraw and never again send large naval forces into the waters around Guadalcanal; the ultimate outcome of the struggle for that island is decided.

1942 USAAF B-17s bomb Japanese shipping at Rabaul, sinking supply ship No.3 Unkai Maru, 04°12'S, 152°00'E, and damaging transport Azuma Maru.

1942 Off North Africa, cargo ship Electra is torpedoed by German submarine U-173, 33°45'N, 07°52'W; cargo ship Almaack is torpedoed by U-155, 36°19'N, 07°52'W.

1942 French submarine FS Le Tonnant, having been damaged by U.S. warships off Casablanca, French Morocco, is scuttled off Cadiz, Spain,

1942 Unarmed U.S. schooner Lucy Evelyn is shelled by what she believes to be an enemy submarine at approximately 12°00'N, 75°00'W; apparently undamaged, she reaches Baranquilla, Colombia, soon thereafter, having suffered no casualties among the seven-man crew.

1943 U.S. Advanced Naval Base and Naval Auxiliary Air Facility, Funafuti, Ellice Islands, are established.

1943 Submarine USS Crevalle sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kyokko Maru off San Antonio, Zambales province, 14°53'N, 119°56'E.

1943 Submarine USS Narwhal lands supplies at Nasipit, Mindanao, and evacuates people.

1943 U.S. bombers based in China attacked harbor installations in Hong Kong.

1944 TG 78.14 lands Army troops (31st Division) on Mapia Island, 160 nautical miles northeast of Sansapor.

1944 Marines reoccupy Ngeregong Island, finding that the Japanese have abandoned it after being pounded by Marine aircraft and LCI(L)-bombardment.

1944 Submarine USS Barbel attacks Japanese convoy in the South China Sea about 250 miles east of Tourane, French Indochina, sinking transports Misaki Maru, 15°10'N, 112°40'E, and Sugiyama Maru, 15°14'N, 112°14'E.

1944 Submarine USS Guavina sinks abandoned Japanese army cargo ship Yutaka Maru, damaged the day before by Navy carrier-based aircraft, off Mindoro, 12°25'N, 120°55'E.

1944 Submarine USS Jack, operating in the South China Sea, sinks Japanese transports Nichiei Maru, 11°11'N, 108°56'E, and No.2 Yuzan Maru, 11°15'N, 108°57'E.

1944 Submarine USS Queenfish attacks Japanese convoy HI-81, and sinks army cargo ship/aircraft transport Akitsu Maru at southern entrance of Tsushima Strait, about 60 miles east of Saishu Island, 33°05'N,128°38'E.

1944 Japanese supply ship Kurasaki sinks as the result of damage inflicted by submarine USS Raton the previous day, north-northwest of Cape Bolinao, Luzon, 17°27'N, 117°43'E.

1944 Submarine USS Saury damages Japanese guardboat Kojo Maru, northwest of the Bonins, 29°59'N, 139°44'E.

1944 Submarines USS Sterlet and USS Silversides damage Japanese guardboat No.12 Hachiryu Maru northwest of Ogasawara-Gunto, 30°10'N, 137°23'E. No.12 Hachiryu Maru reaches port, but apparently performs no more service.

1944 PB4Y completes destruction of Japanese ship Celebes Maru, aground since 10 November 1944 off Bondoc Point, Luzon, 13°17'N, 112°37'E.

1944 Navy land-based aircraft sink Japanese ship Harufuji Maru off Borneo, 06°52'N, 116°51'E.

1944 USAAF P-38s damage Japanese gunboat Man-Yo Maru off Balikpapan.

1944 RAF Liberators bomb Japanese shipping at Mergui, sinking No.3 Tanshin Maru and communications boat Kasumi.

1944 Destroyer escort USS Frament collides with Italian submarine DMB Luigi Settembrini 685 miles west of Gibraltar; USS Frament is damaged, but DMB Luigi Settembrini sinks.

1944 Surprise attack on office of Nethche Bank.

1950 Elements of the 1stMarDiv reached the Chosin Reservoir in North Korea.

1957 US sentences Soviet spy Rudolf Ivanovich Abel to 30 years.

1960 First Fleet Ballistic Missile Submarine, USS George Washington, leaves Charleston, SC behind her as she embarked on initial fleet ballistic missile patrol.

1961 U.N. bans nuclear arms.

1967 Michael Adams in X-15 reaches 80 km.

1969 250,000 demonstrate against the Vietnam War in Washington.

1973 Egypt and Israel exchange prisoners of war.

1976 Syrian army conquerored Beirut, Lebanon.

1979 British government identifies Sir Anthony Blunt as 4th man in Soviet spy ring.

1983 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus proclaimed.

1987 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1988 Soviet space shuttle Buran (Snow Storm) makes unmanned maiden flight. (2 orbits)

1989 France performs nuclear test at Muruora Island.

1995 Space shuttle Atlantis docks with orbiting Russian space station Mir.

By Teancum:

1703 - Battle of Spira. Austrians thrown out of the Bavarian Palatinate.

1919 - The Red Army captures Omsk.

1943 - On this day in 1943, Heinrich Himmler makes public an order that Gypsies and those of mixed Gypsy blood are to be put on "the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps."

Himmler was determined to prosecute Nazism racial policies, which dictated the elimination from Germany and German-controlled territories all races deemed "inferior," as well as "asocial" types, such as hardcore criminals. Gypsies fell into both categories according to the thinking of Nazi ideologues and had been executed in droves both in Poland and the Soviet Union. The order of November 15 was merely a more comprehensive program, as it included the deportation to Auschwitz of Gypsies already in labor camps.

That Himmler would promulgate such a program should come as no surprise to anyone familiar with his resume. As head of the Waffen-Schutzstaffel ("Armed Black Shirts"), the SS, the military arm of the Nazi Party, and assistant chief of the Gestapo (the secret police), Himmler was able over time to consolidate control over all police forces of the Reich. This power grab would prove highly effective in carrying out the Fuhrer's Final Solution. It was Himmler who organized the creation of death camps throughout Eastern Europe and the creation of a pool of slave laborers.

1957 - In a long and rambling interview with an American reporter, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to a missile "shooting match" to prove his assertion. The interview further fueled fears in the United States that the nation was falling perilously behind the Soviets in the arms race.

The interview elicited the usual mixture of boastful belligerence and calls for "peaceful coexistence" with the West that was characteristic of Khrushchev's public statements during the late 1950s. He bragged about Soviet missile superiority, claiming that the United States did not have intercontinental ballistic rockets; "If she had," the Russian leader sneered, "she would have launched her own sputnik." He then issued a challenge: "Let's have a peaceful rocket contest just like a rifle-shooting match, and they'll see for themselves." Speaking about the future of East-West relations, Khrushchev stated that the American and Soviet people both wanted peace. He cautioned, however, that although the Soviet Union would never start a war, "some lunatics" might bring about a conflict. In particular, he noted that Secretary of State John Foster Dulles had created "an artificial war psychosis." In the case of war, it "would be fought on the American continent, which can be reached by our rockets." NATO forces in Europe would also be devastated, and Europe "might become a veritable cemetery." While the Soviet Union would "suffer immensely," the forces of communism would ultimately destroy capitalism.

Khrushchev's remarks came just a few days after the Gaither Report had been leaked to the press in the United States. The report supported many of the Russian leader's contentions, charging that the United States was falling far behind the Soviets in the arms race. Critics of President Dwight D. Eisenhower's foreign policy, particularly from the Democratic Party, went on the attack. The public debate concerning the alleged "missile gap" between U.S. and Soviet rocket arsenals continued through the early 1960s and was a major issue in the 1960 presidential campaign between Richard Nixon and John F. Kennedy.

1969 - Following a symbolic three-day "March Against Death," the second national "moratorium" opens with mass demonstrations in San Francisco and Washington, D.C.

Organized by the New Mobilization Committee to End the War in Vietnam ("New Mobe"), an estimated 500,000 demonstrators rallied in Washington as part of the largest such rally to date. It began with a march down Pennsylvania Avenue to the Washington Monument, where a mass rally and speeches were held. Pete Seeger, Arlo Guthrie, Peter, Paul, and Mary, and four different touring casts of the musical "Hair" entertained the demonstrators.

Later, violence erupted when police used tear gas on radicals who had split off from the main rally to march on the Justice Department. The crowd of about 6,000, led by members of the Youth International Party ("Yippies"), threw rocks and bottles and burned U.S. flags. Almost 100 demonstrators were arrested.

The largest protest outside Washington was held in San Francisco, where an estimated 250,000 people demonstrated. Antiwar demonstrations were also held in a number of major European cities, including Frankfurt, Stuttgart, West Berlin, and London. The largest overseas demonstration occurred in Paris, where 2,651 people were arrested.

1971 - Indian and Pakistan troops clash on the border regions north of Calcutta.

1971 - Rudolf Ivanovich Abel, the Russian master-spy, dies.
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1356  
Old 15 Nov 06, 12:34
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Today's event:

1577 Sir Francis Drake aboard HMS Pelican travels from Chile to Washington

Today's book:

Francis Drake: Lives of a Hero by John Cummins

Book Review:

The Key to Sir Francis Drake was that he was in the essence a shallow water boatman.The technique of long distance navigation had been discovered and exploited by the time Drake hit the water. Drakes first edge in his line of work was that he sailed to the West Indies with shallow water boats on board his transatlantic ships, in partially assembled form or complete 'ready for action' towed behind. His second edge was that he had the sponsorship of the Queen of the Realm, E1. With The Royal Patronage, like 007 he could do whatever, no problem. Let Sir Fancis test his new maritime tactics in the shallow lagoons and bays of the Caribbean against the hated Espanish, if he succeeds everybody's rich, if he fails he's dead. In the early years Sr. Francis exploited every advantage; particularly the huge differences in time and distance between the government of Spain and its Western claims. In Francis' time those regions barely qualified as any governmental area, so far from authority and management they were. Happening upon a likely victim, our pirate simply cut a deal with the site governors, the treasure caravan leaders, and the treasure ship captains in transit. Francis took most but left enough to make the employees rich. He cast off with fair regards for all people, and everybody involved looked forward to the "Good Pirates" return next season. Philip of Spain was more circumspect. Over a period of years he established his authority via clear management lines of responsibility and procedures for the transportation of loot and filthy lugar. After the Spanish King consolidated his realm, Sr. Francis days were done. The Spanish had yet another use for our pirate hero. It was Spanish Literature that was first to elevate Sr. Francis to the place of folk hero, epic warrior, and national poltergeist. For a generation whisper of "El Dragon" was sufficient to warn every child to bed and more importantly every shipping manager, captain and dock clerk to do his best for King and kind.

http://www.amazon.com/Francis-Drake-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1357  
Old 16 Nov 06, 16:43
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November 16


By Admiral:

Born...

42 -BC-Tiberius, Roman Emperor (AD 14-37)

1822 Charles Smith Hamilton, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1891

1835 Elliott Warren Rice, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1887

1896 Oswald Mosley, self-styled British "Führer"

1950 Carl J Meade, Major USAF/Astronaut (STS 38, STS 50)

Died...

1271 King Henry III of England (1216-71), executed

1797 King Frederik Willem II of Prussia (1786-97), at 53

1808 Sultan Mustafa IV of Turkey (1807-08)

1831 Karl von Clausewitz, of cholera

1885 Louis Riel, French Canadian revolutionary, executed for high treason at 41

1960 Clark Gable, Captain, USAAF, actor ("Gone With the Wind"), at 59

Event...

13 Tiberius' triumphant procession through Rome after siege of Germany.

1380 French King Charles VI declares no taxes for ever.

1532 Pizarro seizes Incan emperor Atahualpa after victory at Cajamarca.

1572 Don Frederiks troops occupy/plunder Zutphen.

1621 Catholics adopt Jan 1 as New Year's, Protestants don't, confusing chronology.

1632 Battle of Lutzen: Gustavus Adolfus's Swedes defeat von Wallenstein's Imperials.

1677 French troops occupy Freiburg.

1700 Monarch of Brandenburg becomes king of Prussia.

1764 Native Americans surrender to British in Indian War of Chief Pontiac.

1776 First gun salute to the United States - Dutch salute US Grand Union flag, in USS Andrew Doria at Ft St. Eustatius.

1776 Hessians capture Ft Washington, Manhattan during the American Revolution.

1778 John Paul Jones writes, "I wish to go in harm's way."

1805 Battle at Schongrabern: Russian army stop French.

1835 Charles Darwins voyage published in Cambridge Philosophical Society.

1856 USN & USMC helped RN reduce the Barrier Forts at Canton, China (to Nov 20).

1857 William Hall, a native of Horton's Bluff, N.S., wins the Victoria Cross. Hall is an able-seaman aboard H.M.S. Shannon and present at the relief of Lucknow during the Indian Mutiny. The son of a freed slave, Hall has already been decorated three times for bravery since entering the Royal Navy.

1863 Battle of Campbell's Station, TN.

1864 Union Gen William T Sherman begins march to the sea during Civil War.

1870 Spanish Cortes selects King Amadeus I.

1875 Battle at Gundet: Ethiopian emperor Yohannes beats Egyptians.

1882 British HMS Flirt fire at and destroy Abari village in Niger.

1894 French capt Henri Decoeurs troops reach Nikki West Africa.

1894 6,000 Armenians massacred by Turks in Kurdistan.

1899 Marines from the USS Castine and the USS Manila captured Zamboanga, Philippines.

1914 Pope Benedict XV calls for peace in WW I, is lambasted by all sides.

1916 U.S.S.R. La Satannaya ammunitions factory explodes, killing 1,000.

1917 British occupy Tel Aviv and Jaffa.

1918 Hungary secedes from the Hapsburg Empire.

1919 Admiral Horthy conquerors Budapest from Bela Kuns Soviet Republic

1922 Turkish kalief/sultan Mehmed VI asks British army for help.

1933 US and USSR establish diplomatic relations.

1933 Brazilian president Getulio Vargas names himself dictator.

1936 German Luftwaffe begins bombing of Madrid.

1938 K B Regiment refuses round-table conference in East-India.

1939 U.S. freighter Lafcomo is detained by British authorities at Weymouth, England; freighter West Harshaw is detained by the British at Ramsgate.

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops Dutch freighter Mapia in Indian Ocean but, since the latter is a neutral ship, permits her to proceed unharmed.

1939 German U-boat torpedoes tanker Sliedrecht near Ireland.

1940 Destroyer USSMcCormick, on Neutrality Patrol off Tampico, Mexico, foils attempt by German freighter Orinoco to make a break for European waters. Destroyer USSPlunkett, by her very presence, thwarts German tanker Phrygia's bid for freedom; Phrygia's crew scuttles her.

1940 In accordance with Acting Secretary of State Sumner Welles's request of 13 November, Chargé d'Affaires ad interim H. Freeman Matthews meets with Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain concerning the possible move of French battleships FS Richelieu and FS Jean Bart. Pétain assures the U.S. envoy that the two capital ships would be used to defend French territory and would never be used against the British. "Under present circumstances," Pétain informs Matthews, "I have neither the right nor the possibility of selling them".

1941 TU 4.1.5 clears Argentia, Newfoundland, to assume escort duty for convoy HX 160; between 17 and 28 November, heavy seas will cause varying degrees of damage to destroyers USS Mayo, USS Nicholson, USS Babbitt, USS Leary and USS Schenck. The convoy will not be attacked by U-boats.

1942 U.S. Army 32nd Division and Australian 7th Division land south of Buna, New Guinea.

1942 Submarine USS Haddock sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Nichinan Maru, 31°52'N, 126°14'E.

1942 Submarine USS Seal sinks Japanese army cargo ship Boston Maru off Palaus, 06°18'N, 135°20'E. Just 12 seconds after firing her torpedoes at the cargo ship, Seal is rammed by another enemy vessel; the damage leads to the termination of her patrol.

1942 Japanese destroyer IJN Harukaze is damaged by mine off Surabaya, Java.

1942 Destroyers USS Woolsey, USS Swanson, and USS Quick sink German submarine U-173 off Casablanca, French Morocco.

1942 German submarine U-218 is damaged by depth charges off North Africa.

1942 British steamship Durando rescues the 18 survivors (13 of the 47-man crew, 4 of the 15-man Armed Guard and 2 of the 12 passengers) (one of whom dies later of his injuries) from U.S. freighter East Indian, sunk on 3 November 1942 by U-181. The remainder of those who survived the loss of the ship 13 days before (18 crewmen, 11 Armed Guards and 3 passengers) and managed to reach four rafts, are never found.

1943 U.S. sub USS Corvina sunk by Japanese submarine I-179 near Truk.

1943 Destroyers bombard Japanese airfield at Buka, Bougainville, Solomons.
Japanese planes attack convoy carrying Marine reinforcements to Bougainville, Solomons. High speed transport USS McKean sunk by aerial torpedo 19 miles southwest of Cape Torokina, 06°31'S, 154°52'E.

1943 Submarine USS Capelin departs Darwin, Australia for Molucca and Celebes Seas. She is never heard from again

1943 Submarine USS Drum sinks Japanese submarine depot ship Hie Maru (which had eluded USS Drum on 11 November) north-northwest of New Ireland, 01°45'N, 148°20'E.

1943 1947 Brussels: 1,500 protest mild sentences given Nazi war criminals.

1944 U.S. 9th division and 1st Army attacks at Geilenkirchen.

1944 Submarine USS Scabbardfish sinks Japanese transport Kisaragi Maru north by west of Chichi Jima, 29°04'N, 142°12'E.

1944 Submarine USS Tambor sinks Japanese guardboat Takashiro Maru southwest of Torishima, 30°00'N, 139°30'E.

1944 Japanese guardboat Kojo Maru, damaged the previous day by submarine USS Saury, sinks northwest of the Bonins, 29°59'N, 139°39'E.

1 944 Other Japanese losses include heavy cruiser IJN Haguro, light cruiser IJN Oyodo, and destroyer IJN Yukikaze damaged by aircraft off Brunei, North Borneo; merchant tanker Asokawa Maru damaged by unspecified cause off Brunei; and fleet tanker Kyoei Maru sunk by USAAF B-24 and P-38 aircraft; and Man-yo Maru damaged off Tarakan, Borneo.

1944 U.S. freighter Mary Ball rescues 17 survivors of U.S. tanker Fort Lee, torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-181 on 2 November 1944, but not before she has fired on the lifeboat until identifying it as friendly. Fortunately, there are no casualties.

1944 U.S. freighter Theodore Parker is mined about 12 miles east of the mouth of the Humber River, 53°33'N, 00°39'E, but returns, under her own power, to the port of Hull for repairs. There are no casualties to the 42-man merchant complement or the 27-man Armed Guard.

1947 15,000 demonstrate in Brussels against mild sentence of nazis.

1948 Operation Magic Carpet - 1st plane from Yemen carrying Jews to Israel.

1950 U.S. President Truman proclaims emergency crisis caused by communist threat.

1950 Egyptian King Faruk demands departure of all British troops.

1962 Kuwait adopts constitution (1st, Islamitic)

1963 President John F. Kennedy on USS Observation Island witnesses launch of Polaris A-2 missile by USS Andrew Jackson

1964 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1965 Venera 3 launched, 1st to land on another planet (crashes into Venus).

1968 Operation Tran Hung Dao began in Mekong Delta.

1973 Launch of Skylab 4 under command of LTC Gerald P. Carr, USMC. The missions lasted 84 days and included 1,214 Earth orbits. Recovery by USS New Orleans.

1974 1st intentional interstellar radio message sent from Arecibo telescope towards M 41, a cluster of stars some 25,000 light years away.

1982 Maiden voyage of the Space Shuttle Columbia. She landed at Edwards AFB.

1982 A Hercules transport aircraft crashes while performing low altitude exercises near Edmonton, Alberta, killing all six crewmen aboard.

1988 Estonia declares sovereignty in internal affairs.

1989 6 Jesuit priests are killed by El Salvadorian troops.

1990 Panamanian Gen. Manuel Noriega claims U.S. denied him a fair trial

1993 Russian President Yeltsin shut down Lenin museum.

By Cap. Teancum:

1315 - Battle of Morgarten. Swiss roll boulders down on Austrians, then attacked with halberds routing the troops of Archduke Leopold.

1805 - Battle of Oberhollabrun. Successful delaying action of Prince Bagration allowed Russian army to withdraw to safety.

1941 - On this day in 1941, Joseph Goebbels publishes in the German magazine Das Reich that "The Jews wanted the war, and now they have it"-referring to the Nazi propaganda scheme to shift the blame for the world war onto European Jewry, thereby giving the Nazis a rationalization for the so-called Final Solution.

Just two days earlier, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, having read more than a dozen decoded messages from German police which betrayed the atrocities to which European Jews were being subjected, had written in a letter to the Jewish Chronicle that "The Jew bore the brunt of the Nazis' first onslaught upon the citadels of freedom and human dignity.... He has not allowed it to break his spirit: he has never lost the will to resist." And active Jewish resistance was increasing, especially in the USSR, where Jews were joining partisans in fighting the German incursions into Russian territory.

But it was proving too little too late, as Goebbels, Himmler, and the rest of Hitler's henchmen carried out with fanatical glee the "elimination of the Jews," using propaganda and anti-Bolshevik rhetoric to infuse SS soldiers with enthusiasm for their work. As Goebbels wrote in Das Reich: "[T]he prophecy which the Fuhrer made...that should international finance Jewry succeed in plunging the nations into a world war once again, the result would not be the Bolshevization of the world...but the annihilation of the Jewish race in Europe. We are in the midst of that process.... Compassion or regret are entirely out of place here."

1945 - In a move that stirs up some controversy, the United States ships 88 German scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the U.S. government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured German scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.
Realizing that the importation of scientists who had so recently worked for the Nazi regime so hated by Americans was a delicate public relations situation, the U.S. military cloaked the operation in secrecy. In announcing the plan, a military spokesman merely indicated that some German scientists who had worked on rocket development had "volunteered" to come to the United States and work for a "very moderate salary." The voluntary nature of the scheme was somewhat undercut by the admission that the scientists were in "protective custody." Upon their arrival in the United States on November 16, newsmen and photographers were not allowed to interview or photograph the newcomers. A few days later, a source in Sweden claimed that the scientists were members of the Nazi team at Peenemeunde where the V-weapons had been produced. The U.S. government continued to remain somewhat vague about the situation, stating only that "certain outstanding German scientists and technicians" were being imported in order to "take full advantage of these significant developments, which are deemed vital to our national security."
The situation pointed out one of the many ironies connected with the Cold War. The United States and the Soviet Union, once allies against Germany and the Nazi regime during World War II, were now in a fierce contest to acquire the best and brightest scientists who had helped arm the German forces in order to construct weapons systems to threaten each other.

1961 - President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops.

Kennedy was concerned at the advances being made by the communist Viet Cong, but did not want to become involved in a land war in Vietnam. He hoped that the military aid would be sufficient to strengthen the Saigon government and its armed forces against the Viet Cong. Ultimately it was not, and Kennedy ended up sending additional support in the form of U.S. military advisors and American helicopter units. By the time of his assassination in 1963, there were 16,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam.

1970 - South Vietnamese Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky, speaking at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, says Cambodia would be overrun by communist forces "within 24 hours" if South Vietnamese troops currently operating there are withdrawn.

Ky described the Cambodian operation of the previous spring (the so-called "Cambodian Incursion," in which President Nixon had sent U.S. and South Vietnamese soldiers into Cambodia to destroy North Vietnamese base camps) as the "turning point" of the war. He said that as a result of that operation, the enemy had been forced to revert to low-level guerrilla warfare. Ky also reported that his government was concerned that the Nixon administration might be yielding to the "pressure of the antiwar groups" and pulling out the remaining U.S. troops too quickly.

1971 - As the fighting gets closer to Phnom Penh, the United States steps up its air activities in support of the Cambodian government. U.S. helicopter gunships struck at North Vietnamese emplacements at Tuol Leap, 10 miles north of Phnom Penh.

1988 - Benazir Bhutto elected leader of Pakistan
__________________
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  #1358  
Old 16 Nov 06, 16:46
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Today's event:

13 Tiberius' triumphant procession through Rome after siege of Germany.

Today's book:

Tiberius by Robin Seager

Book Description:

Robin Seager traces the life of Tiberius from his birth in Rome in 42 bc during the death throes of the Republic, through his military career and reign as Emperor, to his death in ad 37. Tiberius' complex character is the key to understanding his reign. Challenging the common ancient view of Tiberius as a consummate hypocrite, Seager portrays him instead as a man whose virtues and beliefs were corrupted by power, who lost his grasp of reality as his fears of conspiracy and assassination spiralled out of control, and who finally resorted to ruling by terror.The second edition of this highly readable biography contains a substantial afterword, reconsidering various questions and discussing important new evidence that has come to light since the book was first published.

http://www.amazon.com/Tiberius-Black...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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  #1359  
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November 17


By Admiral:

Born...

331 Flavius Claudius Julianus, (Julian the Apostate), emperor.

1755 King Louis XVIII of France (1814-24), "Louis the Unavoidable"

1794 John Barrien Montgomery, naval officer, U.S., d. 1873

1814 Joseph Finegan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1885

1826 John McArthur, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1906

1834 Stephen Hinsdale Weed, Brig Gen, U.S., KIA, Gettysburg, 1863

1854 Louis HG Lyautey, French minister of Defense, 1916-17

1887 Field Marshal Viscount Bernard Law Montgomery of Alamein

1902 Eugene Paul Wigner, mathematician/physicist, A Bomb, Nobel 1963

Died...

375 Valentinianus I, co-emperor of E Roman Empire (336-75), at 54

474 Leo II, Byzantine Emperor (474)

1512 Kempo Roeper, Frisian rebel, quartered

1558 Queen Mary I (Mary I Tudor) of England (1553-1558)

1796 Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, naturally, aided by neither a horse nor a commode

1818 Charlotte Sophia von Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Queen of England

1893 Alexander-Jozef von Battenberg, king of Bulgaria (1879-86), at 36

1941 Earnest Udet, German general/head air pioneer, suicide

Event...

1278 680 Jews arrested in England for counterfeiting coins, 293 hanged.

1511 England and Spain sign anti-French covenant.

1555 William of Orange becomes member of Council of State.

1558 Elizabeth I ascends English throne upon death of Queen "Bloody" Mary.

1796 Battle of Arcole: Bonaparte beats Austrians in northern Italy.

1838 The patriot invasion of Upper Canada ends with the surrender of insurgent forces at Windmill Point, just below Prescott, Ontario. Of the 400 invaders, 11 will be executed, twice as many will be deported to Australia and the rest will be sent back to the United States.

1859 Melody utilized in "The Marines' Hymn" premiered in Offenbach's operetta.

1861 Skirmish at Cyprus Bridge, Ky.

1862 Confederate Sec of War George B Randolph resigns.

1863 James Longstreet besieges Knoxville, TN (gives up Dec 4).

1863 Lincoln begins 1st draft of his Gettysburg Address.

1869 Suez Canal opens, links Mediterranean and Red seas.

1885 Battle of the Slivnitza begins: Bulgarians defeat Serbs by Nov 19.

1913 Panama Canal opens.

1914 U.S. declares Panama Canal Zone neutral.

1915 The first trench raid by members of the Canadian Corps goes in at 2:30 this morning. It successfully returns with 12 prisoners, details of opposing German denfenses and several new German gas masks for intelligence experts.

1915 Leatherneck Magazine established.

1917 First US ASW: DDs USS Fanning and USS Nicholson sink U-58, in the Irish Sea.

1917 Lenin defends "temporary" removal of freedom of the press.

1922 Turkish sultan Mehmed VI flees to Malta on British warship.

1924 USS Langley, first aircraft carrier, (converted collier) reports for duty.

1929 Stalin throws Nicolai Bucharin out of Politburo.

1932 German government of von Papen, resigns.

1933 U.S. recognizes U.S.S.R., opens trade.

1937 Britains Lord Halifax visits Germany, appeasement begins.

1938 Italy passes their own version of anti-Jewish Nuremberg laws.

1939 U.S. freighter Black Gull is detained by British authorities. U.S. freighter Nishmaha, detained at Gibraltar since 11 November, is given option of submitting to further detention or proceeding to Barcelona and thence to Marseilles to unload items seized by British authorities. Nishmaha's master chooses the latter. On the same day the British allow Nishmaha to clear Gibraltar, however, they detain U.S. freighter Examiner and seize 11 bags of first-class mail. Freighter Black Condor, detained by the British at Weymouth, England, since 5 November, is released after part of her cargo and 126 bags of mail are seized.

1940 PBYs (VP 54) inaugurate flight operations from Bermuda; seaplane tender USS George E. Badger provides support.

1941 Congress amends Neutrality Act to allow U.S. merchant ships to be armed. Navy's Bureau of Navigation directs Navy personnel with Armed Guard training to be assigned for further training before going to Armed Guard Centers for assignment to merchant ships.

1941 Bureau of Navigation directs that naval district personnel who received Armed Guard training be assigned to Little Creek, Virginia, or San Diego, California, for further instruction. They will be transferred to Armed Guard centers at New York, New York, and Treasure Island, California, for assignment to merchant ships.

1941 Special Japanese envoy Saburo Kurusu arrives in Washington and confers with Secretary of State Cordell Hull.

1941 Destroyers USS Benson and USS Edison, screening convoy ON 34, depth charge submarine contacts.

1941 TU 4.1.5 intercepts and joins convoy HX 160; although none of the destroyers in the task unit will be damaged by enemy action, all--USS Mayo , USS Babbitt, USS Leary, USS Schenck, and USS Nicholson--will suffer storm damage of varying degrees between this date and 28 November.

1941 German blockade runner Odenwald, captured by light cruiser USS Omaha and destroyer USS Somers on 6 November, is escorted into San Juan, Puerto Rico, by USS Somers and turned over to U.S. authorities.

1942 Submarine USS Searaven sinks Japanese transport Nissei Maru in Flying Fish Cove, off Christmas Island, 10°24'S, 105°41'E.

1942 Submarine USS Salmon, attacking Japanese convoy off west coast of Luzon, sinks repair ship Oregon Maru about 65 miles northwest of Manila, 14°16'N, 119°44'E.

1942 Naval Air Station, De Land, Florida, is established.

1942 German submarine U-566 is damaged by depth charges in Central Atlantic.

1943 Destroyers bombard Japanese airfield at Buka, Bougainville, Solomons.

1943 Japanese planes attack convoy carrying Marine reinforcements to Bougainville, Solomons. High speed transport McKean is sunk by aerial torpedo 19 miles southwest of Cape Torokina, 06°31'S, 154°52'E.

1943 Submarine USS Capelin departs Darwin, Australia for Molucca and Celebes Seas. She is never heard from again.

1943 Submarine USS Drum sinks Japanese submarine depot ship Hie Maru (which had eluded USS Drum on 11 November) north-northwest of New Ireland, 01°45'N, 148°20'E.

1944 Attack transport Alpine is damaged by kamikaze off Leyte, 11°07'N, 125°02'E. Elsewhere, during a Japanese air raid on shipping off Red Beach, Leyte, freighter Benjamin Ide Wheeler is damaged by bombs; there are no casualties.

1944 TBM (VC 82) from escort carrier USS Anzio and destroyer escort USS Lawrence C. Taylor sink Japanese submarine I-26 in Philippine Sea, 12°44'N, 130°42'E.

1944 Submarine Bluegill is damaged by depth charges in Makassar Strait, 00°48'N, 118°52'E, but remains on patrol.

1944 Submarines USS Burrfish and USS Ronquil battle Japanese guardboat Fusa Maru in a spirited surface gunnery action fought in heavy weather south of Hachiro Jima, central Honshu, 32°15'N, 140°00'E; American gunfire damages the enemy patrol craft, but not before she in turn damages USS Burrfish. USS Ronquil is damaged by own gunfire (premature explosion of 40-millimeter shell or contact with lifeline stanchion) and is forced to terminate her patrol. Fusa Maru is written off as a total loss and performs no more active service.

1944 Submarine USS Gunnel attacks Japanese convoy and sinks torpedo boat Hiyodori and merchant tanker Shunten Maru 130 miles east of Tourane, French Indochina, 16°56'N, 110°30'E. Destroyer Shiokaze and submarine chaser Ch 21's hunter-killer operations are ineffective.

1944 Submarine USS Picuda sinks Japanese landing ship Mayasan Maru and damages merchant tanker Awagawa Maru,33°16'N, 124°43'E.

1944 Submarine USS Spadefish sinks Japanese escort carrier IJN Shinyo 140 miles northeast of Shanghai, China, in Yellow Sea, 33°02'N, 123°33'E, and damages landing ship Shinshu Maru.

1944 Submarine USS Sunfish damages Japanese army transport Edogawa Maru west of Quelpart Island, 33°40'N, 124°30'E; although Coast Defense Ship No.61 claims her destruction, USS Sunfish escapes. Edogawa Maru sinks the next day.

1944 PROJECT MIKE continues as USAAF B-24s (42d Bomb Squadron) lay 8 mines in effective locations in Futami Ko, Chichi Jima.

1944 USAAF P-38s sink Japanese ships Jinko Maru and No.3 Yawata Maru off Merida, 10°55'N, 124°30'E.

1944 Japanese merchant tanker Seian Maru runs aground off entrance to Subic Bay.

1944 Destroyer USS Woolsey shells German artillery at Ventimiglia; shrapnel again showers the ship but she suffers no casualties; destroyer USS Benson bombards barracks in same area.

1945 New world air speed record of 606 mph (975 kph) set by HJ Wilson of RAF.

1955 Navy sets up Special Projects Office under Rear Admiral William F. Raborn, USN, to develop a solid propellant ballistic missile for use in submarines.

1956 U.S.S.R. performs atmospheric nuclear test.

1962 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1964 British Labour Party installs weapon embargo against South Africa.

1965 General Meeting of United Nations refuses admittance of China PR.

1967 Surveyor 6 becomes 1st man-made object to lift off Moon.

1969 SALT-discussions open in Helsinki Finland.

1970 Russia lands Lunokhod 1 unmanned remote-controlled vehicle on Moon.

1973 Greek regime attacks students with tanks, 100s killed.

1976 China PR performs nuclear test at Lop Nor PRC.

1977 Egyptian President Sadat formally accepts invitation to visit Israel.

1979 Khomeini (Iran) frees most black and female U.S. hostages.

By Cap. Teancum:

1812 - Napoleon's troops capture Minsk.

1942 - Soviet Union counter-attacks at Stalingrad.

1965 - During part of what would become known as the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley, a battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division is ambushed by the 8th Battalion of the North Vietnamese 66th Regiment. The battle started several days earlier when the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry engaged a large North Vietnamese force at Landing Zone X-Ray at the base of the Cheu Pong hills (Central Highlands).

As that battle subsided, the 2nd Battalion, 7th Cavalry, was ordered to move cross-country to Landing Zone Albany, where it was to be picked up by helicopter and moved to a new location. The U.S. unit was moving through the jungle in a long column when the North Vietnamese sprang a massive ambush along the length of the column from all sides. Companies C and D took the brunt of the Communist attack--within minutes, most of the men from the two companies were hit.

The North Vietnamese forces had succeeded in engaging the U.S. forces in very tight quarters, where supporting U.S. firepower could not be used without endangering American lives. The cavalrymen returned fire, but the Communistss were fighting from prepared fighting positions and many of the American leaders had been felled in the initial stages of the ambush. As night fell, the cavalrymen waited for the North Vietnamese to attack but illumination flares provided by air force aircraft made the enemy cautious. By morning, they had withdrawn.

Senior U.S. military leaders declared the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley an American victory. That had clearly been the case with the fight at Landing Zone X-Ray, where the three-day battle resulted in 834 North Vietnamese soldiers confirmed killed with another 1,000 communist casualties likely. However, the battle at Landing Zone Albany was another story. Although there were over 400 enemy soldiers lying on the battlefield after the fighting was over, the battle had been an extremely costly one for the 1st Cavalry troopers. Of the 500 men in the original column moving to Landing Zone Albany, 150 had been killed and only 84 were able to return to immediate duty. 93 percent of Company C sustained some sort of wound or injury--half of them died.

The Battle of the Ia Drang Valley was important because it was the first significant contact between U.S. troops and North Vietnamese forces. The action demonstrated that the North Vietnamese were prepared to stand and fight major battles, and senior American leaders concluded that U.S. forces could wreak significant damage on the communists in such battles. The North Vietnamese also learned a valuable lesson during the battle: they saw that they could negate the effects of superior American firepower by engaging American troops in physically close combat, so that U.S. artillery and air fire could not be used without endangering American lives. This became standard North Vietnamese practice for the rest of the war.

1970 - The court-martial of 1st Lt. William Calley begins. Calley, a platoon leader in Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division, had led his men in a massacre of Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4 on March 16, 1968. My Lai 4 was one of a cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in the northern area of South Vietnam.

The company had been conducting a search-and-destroy mission as part of the yearlong Operation Wheeler/Wallowa (November 1967-November 1968). In search of the 48th Viet Cong Local Force Battalion, the unit entered the village but found only women, children, and old men. Frustrated by unanswered losses due to snipers and mines, the soldiers took out their anger on the villagers, indiscriminately shooting innocent people as they ran from their huts. They then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to nearby ditch and killing them.

Calley was charged with six specifications of premeditated murder. During the trial, Chief Army Prosecutor Capt. Aubrey Daniel charged that Calley ordered Sgt. Daniel Mitchell to "finish off the rest" of the rounded-up villagers. The prosecution stressed that all the killings were committed despite the fact that Calley's platoon had met no resistance and that no one had fired on the men.

The My Lai massacre was initially covered up, but came to light a year later. An Army board of inquiry, headed by Lt. Gen. William Peers, investigated the massacre and produced a list of 30 persons who knew of the atrocity, but only 14, including Calley and his company commander, Capt. Ernest Medina, were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted by courts-martial except Calley, whose platoon allegedly killed 200 innocent people.

Calley was found guilty of personally murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment, but his sentence was reduced to 20 years by the Court of Military Appeals and further reduced to 10 years by the Secretary of the Army. Proclaimed by much of the public as a "scapegoat," Calley was paroled in 1974.
__________________
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1360  
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Today's event:

1863 James Longstreet besieges Knoxville, TN (gives up Dec 4).

Today's book:

James Longstreet: The Man, the Soldier, the Controversy by R. L. Dinardo, Albert A. Nofi

Book Review:

A very early book of Longstreet was written in the 1930's called "General James Longstreet: My Old Warhorse". This book showed the south's view of the man still as very bitter toward his after war activities--which in turn turned to badgering his war record.

As the years have gone by, Longstreet's memory has grown to be more respected, either by research by an individual or by the 3 or 4 books that have been published since that 1930's time period which detract many of the ant-Longstreet cabul.

Lt. General James Longstreet served in the Confederate Army in high command positions from 1861-1865, from Manassas to Appomattox. "Old Pete" (nickname) became known as Lee's "Old War Horse" and the best fighter and corps commander in the Army.

Despite a distinguished military record and several brilliant victories where his prescience, strategic vision and well-executed tactics saved the Army of Northern Virginia from certain destruction, General Longstreet was unfairly scapegoated and blamed for the loss of Gettysburg (and the war itself) for many years after the conflict.

Within the past decade historians and Civil War experts have refocused their attention on Longstreet with a view toward rehabilitating his reputation with a more balanced assessment. Various programs, roundtable groups and memorial funds emerged as a consequence of the Longstreet "revival," culminating with the unveiling of a Longstreet statue on Seminary Ridge at Gettysburg in July 1998.

Despite these good efforts there remains a strong sentiment among Longstreet's modern-day admirers that more can and should be done to rectify the wrongs heaped upon "Old Pete" and his family for the sake of honesty and decency in the treatment of heroic (if controversial) figures and American History itself.

Just as these negative, media-driven barrages took a toll on Longstreet and his family and countless other Americans, we are all reduced by these vicious, orchestrated falsehoods. Our history becomes distorted and truth becomes a casualty. Moreover, we as a nation are nullifying, even negating the enormous sacrifices made by our ancestors, particularly the noble soldiers like Longstreet, if we permit the erasure from history of their lives and achievements --the actions which have created our current bounty.

James Longstreet's life encompassed much of the tumultuous nineteenth century. As a West Point-trained officer, Longstreet served with distinction in the Mexican War and matured with the young nation's Manifest Destiny, honing his military skills in the rough wilds of the West. Longstreet knew the frontier and its values, and he drew strength and vision from his experience which served him well in the Civil War and beyond.

Longstreet's struggles with the exigencies of the South's military situation and his acute awareness of broad facets of the interlocking tragedy which unfolded after Appomattox did not inoculate him from one of American history's cruelest outbreaks of scapegoating and ostracism through which he endured an unrelenting barrage of personal attacks on his military record and beliefs. For nearly four decades Longstreet stood against the ill winds, did his duty, and helped the country grow into an industrial power.

Serious students of American history need to understand Longstreet's life, especially after his last great battle at The Wilderness (where he was nearly killed by accidental wounding) -- what happened to him and why it happened to gain a fuller understanding of what has transpired in the past one hundred and thirty-five years. There are profound lessons for all of us in understanding Longstreet, his travails and times.

This book--which is the most new addition to the Longstreet collection comes through as a "Gallagher essay" type format where various authors from Dinardo, to Nofi, to Piston, to Wert, all chip in with new and original essays on the man--Lee's Old War Horse.


http://www.amazon.com/James-Longstre...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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November 18


By Admiral:

Born...

1810 Benjamin Stone Roberts, Brig Gen, U.S., of "Roberts' Rules", d. 1875

1812 Jesse Johnson Finley, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1904

1824 Franz Sigel, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1902

1824 Isham Nicholas Hayne, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868

1835 Americus Vespucius Rice, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1904

1836 Maximo Gomez, Cuban revolutionary

1897 Patrick M S Blackett, British physicist, nuclear reaction, Nobel 1948

1916 Shelby Foote, author ("The Civil War: A Narrative")

1923 Alan B Shepard, Jr, Rear Adm, USN, Astronaut (Mercury 3, Apollo 14)

1928 Mickey Mouse, aka "Steamboat Willie"

1929 William Joseph "Pete" Knight, Astronaut/test pilot, X-15

1942 Qabus bin Said, Sultan of Oman

1948 Ural Nazibovich Sultanov, Cosmonaut

1951 Mark N Brown, Major USAF/Astronaut, (STS 28, 48, 66)

Died...

1170 Albrecht I the Bear, first Margraf of Brandenburg.

1247 Robin Hood, purportedly murdered by a nun.

1664 Miklos Zrinyi, Hungarian general and military thinker, at 44.

1851 Ernst August, Duke of Cumberland, King of Hanover (1837-51), at 80.

1886 Chester A Arthur, militiaman and president (1881-85), at 56.

1962 Niels Bohr, Danish physicist (atom, Nobel 1922), at 77

1969 Joseph P Kennedy, John F. Kennedy/RFK/TMK father, Ambassador

Event...

1095 Pope Urban II convenes Council of Clermont, to plan the First Crusade.

1307 William Tell allegedly shoots an apple off his son's head.

1494 French King Charles VIII occupies Florence.

1495 French-held Gaeta (besieged since Sep 8) falls to Ferrantino II of Naples.

1497 Vasco da Gama reached the Cape of Good Hope.

1667 Treaty of Bongaja: King Hassan-Udin of Makasar and VOC.

1738 France and Austria sign peace.

1742 Prussia and England sign anti-French military covenant.

1745 Bonnie Prince Charlies troops occupy Carlisle.

1776 Hessians capture Fort Lee, NJ.

1803 Battle of Vertieres, Haitians defeat French.

1805 Lewis and Clark reach Pacific Ocean, 1st Americans to cross continent.

1820 Antarctica discovered by USN Captain Nathaniel B. Palmer.

1833 Netherlands and Belgium sign Treaty of Zonhoven.

1852 State funeral of Duke of Wellington (London).

1861 Skirmish at Palmyra, Mo.

1871 An expeditionary force of 200 militia from Ontario and Quebec enters Ft. Garry (Winnipeg) after a 28-day march from Thunder Bay. It has been dispatched to supress Fenian raids in the region, but the problem has been dealt with already.

1890 Second Class Battleship USS Maine is launched.

1903 Hay-Bunau-Varilla Treaty gives US exclusive canal rights in Panama.

1905 Prince Carl of Denmark becomes King Haakon VII of Norway.

1909 U.S. invades Nicaragua, later overthrows President Zelaya.

1911 Britain's 1st seaplane flies.

1912 Albania declares independence from Turkey.

1914 Russian Black Sea Fleet defeats Germano-Turkish Squadron off Cape Sarych.

1915 US Marines participated in the Battle of Fort Riviere during the occupation of Haiti.

1916 The Battle of the Ancre is renewed today. Canadians capture the German trenches outside of Courcelette, but at a cost of some 1250 casualties.

1916 Gen Douglas Haig finally calls off 1st Battle of the Somme in Europe.

1918 Latvia declares independence from Russia.

1922 CDR Kenneth Whiting in a PT seaplane, makes first catapult launching from aircraft carrier, USS Langley, at anchor in the York River.

1929 Stalin routes troops to Manchuria.

1936 Germany & Italy recognized Spanish government of Francisco Franco.

1939 Netherlands KNSM passenger ship Simon Bolivar hits German mine, 86 die.

1940 Acting Secretary of State Sumner Welles directs Chargé d'Affaires ad interim H. Freeman Matthews to communicate President Roosevelt's concern over the French battleships FS Richelieu and FS Jean Bart being moved to a port such as Toulon to Marshal Henri Philippe Pétain, and reiterate the United States' offer to acquire those two ships "as well as any other vessels of the French Navy".

1941 British troops open attack on Tobruk, North Africa.

1941 Italian forces in Ethiopia surrender to the British.

1942 USAAF B-17s damage Japanese destroyers IJN Umikaze and IJN Kawakaze off Buna, New Guinea.

1942 British submarine HMS Trusty sinks Japanese army cargo ship Columbia Maru off Penang, Malaya.

1942 USAAF B-17s (5th Air Force) sink Japanese merchant cargo ship Havana Maru off Kahili airfield, Bougainville.

1942 German submarine U-613 is damaged by aircraft; U-91 is damaged by depth charges off North Africa.

1942 German submarines attack west-bound convoy ONS 144. U.S. freighter Parismina is torpedoed and sunk by U-624 at 54°07'N, 38°26'W; of the 75 souls on board, 20 are lost with the ship: 15 crewmen, two Armed Guard sailors and three passengers. British rescue ship HMS Perth and Dutch-manned corvette HMS Rose rescue the 55 survivors between them. U.S. freighter Yaka also falls victim to U-624, at 54°25'N, 38°52'W, and is abandoned; all hands (41 merchant seamen and a 11-man Armed Guard) are rescued by Canadian corvette HMCS Vervain. German submarine U-522 torpedoes and finishes off Yaka.

1942 U.S. tanker Brilliant, in convoy SC 109, is torpedoed by German submarine U-43 at 50°45'N, 45°53'E; an intense fire breaks out. Although ship's master and six merchant seamen and two Armed Guard sailors take to a lifeboat, apparently intending to remain nearby but the boat swamps, drowning two men; British corvette HMS Bury rescues the remainder of that boat's occupants and retains them on board for medical treatment. The ship's junior third officer, J. Cameron, meanwhile, takes command; the crew puts out the fire. Lieutenant John R. Borum, USNR, the Armed Guard officer, instills confidence by the casual attitude he assumes when things are the worst.

1942 Spanish tanker Campares rescues nine survivors (including six Armed Guard sailors) from U.S. freighter West Kebar, sunk by German submarine U-129 on 29 October.

1943 444 British bombers attack Berlin.

1943 Carrier force TG 50.4 attacks Nauru in support of the unfolding operations to capture the Gilberts.

1943 Submarine USS Bluefish sinks Japanese destroyer IJN Sanae and damages oiler Ondo 90 miles south of Basilan Island, 05°00'N, 122°00'E. In return Ondo engages the submarine with gunfire.

1943 Submarine USS Crevalle attacks Japanese landing ship/aircraft transport Akitsu Maru, escorted by torpedo boat Tomodzuru, 15°10'N, 119°40'E; although USS Crevalle claims destruction of her quarry, Akitsu Maru survives unscathed.

1944 British aircraft carriers raid oil facilities, bases, and ports in Sumatra.

1944 Destroyer escort USS Lawrence C. Taylor and TBM (VC 82) from escort carrier USS Anzio sink Japanese submarine I-41 in Philippine Sea, 12°44'N, 130°42'E.

1944 Submarine USS Pampanito sinks Japanese depot ship No.17 Banshu Maru and merchant cargo ship No.1 Shinko Maru, 19°12'N, 110°51'E.

1944 Submarines USS Peto, USS Spadefish and USS Sunfish operate against the same Japanese convoy attacked the previous day in the East China Sea west of Saishu Island, USS Peto sinks army cargo ships Aisakasan Maru, 33°50'N, 124°44'E, and Chinkai Maru, 33°39'N, 124°26'E; USS Spadefish sinks auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 156, 33°07'N, 123°19'E; USS Sunfish sinks army transport Seisho Maru, 33°36'N, 124°18'E.

1944 Submarine USS Saury damages Japanese merchant cargo ship No.11 Asahi Maru, 30°50'N, 141°56'E.

1944 Japanese planes raid U.S. shipping off Leyte; freighter Nicholas J. Sinnott is near-missed by a kamikaze, 11°15'45"N, 125°02'45"E. There are no casualties among the 40-man merchant complement, the 80 Army passengers or the 26-man Armed Guard. Off Tacloban, Armed Guard gunners on board freighter Gilbert Stuart shoot the tail off a kamikaze which nevertheless crashes their ship, triggering fires that are ultimately brought under control with the help of fleet tug Chickasaw (ATF-83). While 5 of the 39-man merchant complement perish in the attack, only 1 of the 29-man Armed Guard is killed in action. Freighter Cape Romano is damaged by near-miss of bomb.

1944 PROJECT MIKE continues as USAAF B-24s (42d Bomb Squadron) lay 12 mines in effective locations in Futami Ko, Chichi Jima. B-24s sink auxiliary sailing vessel Sumiei Maru off Haha Jima.

1944 Off Borneo, aircraft damage Japanese escort destroyer IJN Okinawa off Labuan. Guardboats No.6 Kompira Maru, Benten Maru, and Eikoku Maru are sunk by U.S. aircraft off Tarakan.

1944 Tank landing ship LST-6 is sunk by mine in Seine River, France.

1944 Destroyer escort USS Camp is damaged in collision with tanker Santa Cecilia off coast of southern Ireland.

1944 Motor torpedo boat PT-311 is sunk by mine off Spezia, Italy, 43°41'N, 09°37'E.

1951 British troops occupies Ismailiya Egypt.

1955 Bell X-2 rocket plane taken up for 1st powered flight.

1956 Morocco gains independence.

1957 Tunisia refuses Russian weapons.

1961 JFK sends 18,000 military advisors to South Vietnam.

1962 USS Currituck rescues 13 Japanese fishermen from their disabled fishing boat Seiyu Maru, which was damaged in Typhoon Karen.

1966 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1968 Miltary coup in Mali, President Keita ousted.

1971 China PR performs nuclear test at Lop Nor PRC.

1976 Spain's parliament establishes democracy after 37 years of dictatorship.

1978 Great Britain performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1979 Ayatollah Khomeini charges U.S. ambassador/embassy espionage.

1980 Honduras and El Salvador signs peace. (after "soccer war" 1969)

By Cap. Teancum:

1679 - Battle of Splitter. 16,000 Swedes routed by 10,000 Austrians. Only 1,500 Swedes reached Riga to embark for home.

1809 - The Battle of Ocana begins.

1841 - Battle of Ingavi. Bolivians rout invading Peruvian army, killing their leader.

1852 - Funeral of the Duke of Wellington at St Paul's Cathedral, London.

1863 - President Lincoln boards a train for Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, to deliver a short speech at the dedication for the cemetery of soldiers killed during the battle there on July 1 to 3, 1863. The address he gave became perhaps the most famous speech in American history.

Lincoln had given much thought to what he wanted to say at Gettysburg, but he nearly missed his chance to say it. On November 18, Lincoln's son, Tad, became ill with a fever. Abraham and Mary Lincoln were, sadly, no strangers to juvenile illness: they had already lost two sons. Prone to fits of hysteria, Mary Lincoln panicked when the president prepared to leave for Pennsylvania. Lincoln felt that the opportunity to speak at Gettysburg and present his defense of the war was too important to miss, though. He boarded a train at noon and headed for Gettysburg.

Despite his son's illness, Lincoln was in good spirits on the journey. He was accompanied by an entourage that included Secretary of State William Seward, Postmaster General Montgomery Blair, Interior Secretary John Usher, Lincoln's personal secretaries John Hay and John Nicolay, several members of the diplomat corps, some foreign visitors, a Marine band, and a military escort. During one stop, a young girl lifted a bouquet of flowers to his window. Lincoln kissed her and said, "You're a sweet little rose-bud yourself. I hope your life will open into perpetual beauty and goodness."

When Lincoln arrived in Gettysburg, he was handed a telegram that lifted his spirits: Tad was feeling much better. Lincoln enjoyed an evening dinner and a serenade by Fifth New York Artillery Band before he retired to finalize his famous Gettysburg Address.

1914 - Caucasian Front opens with Turkish advance from Erzurum.

1917 - General Maude dies in Mesopotamia.

1940 - On this day, Adolf Hitler meets with Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano over Mussolini's disastrous invasion of Greece.

Mussolini surprised everyone with a move against Greece; his ally, Hitler, was caught off guard, especially since the Duce had led Hitler to believe he had no such intention. Even Mussolini's own chief of army staff found out about the invasion only after the fact!

Despite being warned off an invasion of Greece by his own generals, despite the lack of preparedness on the part of his military, despite that it would mean getting bogged down in a mountainous country during the rainy season against an army willing to fight tooth and nail to defend its autonomy, Mussolini moved ahead out of sheer hubris, convinced he could defeat the inferior Greeks in a matter of days. He also knew a secret, that millions of lire had been put aside to bribe Greek politicians and generals not to resist the Italian invasion. Whether the money ever made it past the Italian fascist agents delegated with the responsibility is unclear; if it did, it clearly made no difference whatsoever-the Greeks succeeded in pushing the Italian invaders back into Albania after just one week. The Axis power spent the next three months fighting for its life in a defensive battle. To make matters worse, virtually half the Italian fleet at Taranto had been crippled by a British carrier-based attack.

At their meeting in Obersalzberg, Hitler excoriated Ciano for opening an opportunity for the British to enter Greece and establish an airbase in Athens, putting the Brits within striking distance of valuable oil reserves in Romania, which Hitler relied upon for his war machine. It also meant that Hitler would have to divert forces from North Africa, a high strategic priority, to Greece in order to bail Mussolini out. Hitler considered leaving the Italians to fight their own way out of this debacle-possibly even making peace with the Greeks as a way of forestalling an Allied intervention. But Germany would eventually invade, in April 1941, adding Greece to its list of conquests.

1964 - In the largest air assault of the war thus far, 116 U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft fly 1,100 South Vietnamese troops into Binh Duong and Tay Ninh Provinces to attack what is believed to be a major communist stronghold. General Nguyen Khanh personally directed the operation, but the troops made only light contact with the Viet Cong.

1969 - Sixty South Vietnamese men are killed or wounded when their troops clash with communist forces in the Mekong Delta. The North Vietnamese lost only 14 men. A South Vietnamese spokesman said that the high South Vietnamese casualties were "due to bad fighting on our part." The battle was the first major action in the northern delta since the U.S. 9th Division was withdrawn and the South Vietnamese assumed responsibility for the area.

1970 - President Nixon asks Congress for supplemental appropriations for the Cambodian government of Premier Lon Nol. Nixon requested $155 million in new funds for Cambodia - $85 million of which would be for military assistance, mainly in the form of ammunition. He also asked for an additional $100 million to restore funds taken from other foreign appropriations during the year by "presidential determination" and given to Cambodia. Nixon wanted the funds to provide aid and assistance to Lon Nol to preclude the fall of Cambodia to the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies. Lon Nol was a Cambodian general who had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in March 1970. He and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), were engaged in a desperate struggle with the communists for control of the Cambodian countryside. The Nixon administration had initiated a program of aid to Lon Nol in April 1970 with $7.5 million in arms and supplies. This !

aid did not have an immediate impact as the government forces reeled under heavy communist attacks. Besides trying to get additional funds for more military aid for Cambodia, Nixon also committed U.S. aircraft in direct support of Cambodian government troops and initiated a program whereby U.S. Army Special Forces would train Lon Nol's troops.

With this U.S. support, Lon Nol was able to successfully withdraw most of his forces (which numbered over 200,000 troops) from the rural areas to the larger urban centers, where they were able to hold out against the communist attacks. The fighting continued, but generally a stalemate prevailed so that neither side gained the upper hand. This situation changed in 1973 after the signing of the Paris Peace Accords. Under the provisions of that agreement, the United States withdrew its forces from South Vietnam and both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the communists alone.

Without U.S. support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975. During the five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia's 7 million people died, but the suffering of the Cambodian people did not end with the communist takeover. The victorious Khmer Rouge evacuated Phnom Penh and set about to reorder Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields." During this period, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians died from murder, exhaustion, hunger, and disease.

1987 - After nearly a year of hearings into the Iran-Contra scandal, the joint Congressional investigating committee issues its final report. It concluded that the scandal, involving a complicated plan whereby some of the funds from secret weapons sales to Iran were used to finance the Contra war against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, was one in which the administration of Ronald Reagan exhibited "secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law." Naming several members of the Reagan administration as having been directly involved in the scheme (including National Security Advisor John Poindexter and deceased CIA Director William Casey), the report stated that Reagan must bear "ultimate responsibility." A number of government officials were charged and convicted of various crimes associated with the scandal.
A minority opinion by some of the Republican members of the committee contained in the report argued that the hearings had been politically motivated. They also suggested that while Reagan administration officials might have used poor judgment, the ultimate end-continuing the fight against the leftist regime in Nicaragua-was a worthy goal.
The differences in opinion, while partially reflective of partisan biases, were also evidence of a question that had plagued U.S. policy makers since the early days of the Cold War: in the battle against communism, were the ends more important than the means?
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1362  
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Today's event:

1803 Battle of Vertieres, Haitians defeat French.

Today's book:

Revolutionary Freedoms: A History of Survival, Strength, by Ccile Accilien, Jessica Adams, Elmide Mlance

Book Review:

This new perspective on Haitian history features 30 distinguished essays linked to the magnificent paintings by renowned painter Ulrick Jean-Pierre, formerly of New Orleans, LA, that accompany and illustrate this work. Revolutionary Freedoms combines scholarship, experience, and inspiration to more fully reveal the complex history of the island of Hispaniola, as well as its influence in the world. Well-referenced essays cover pre-Columbian and colonial history; critical events and people of the Haitian Revolution; U.S.'s Haitian history and links, particularly the special relationship with Louisiana; Haitian connections to South America; the history of Haitian painting; and relations with the neighboring Dominican Republic. The work also features an interview with the artist and an unprecedented section on women in the nation's history.

http://www.amazon.com/Revolutionary-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1363  
Old 19 Nov 06, 09:58
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Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 19


By Admiral:

Born...

1600 King Charles I of England (1625-49), who lost his head.

1752 George Rogers Clark, Revolutionary War frontier military leader

1810 August von Willich, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1878, friend to Marx

1811 John Ancrum Winslow, naval officer, U.S., d. 1873

1827 Isaac Munroe St John, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880

1831 James A Garfield, Maj Gen, U.S., and president (March 4-Sept 19, 1881)

1835 Fitzhugh Lee, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1905

1893 Mao Tse-Tung, Chinese visionary, with a high body count

1897 Quentin Roosevelt, kia July 14, 1918

1917 Indira Gandhi, Indian PM (1966-1977, 1980-1984), murdered 1984

1959 Jean-Francois Clervoy, French Astronaut, (STS 66, 84)

Died...

1316 King Jean I of France (Nov 15-19 1316)

1495 King Alfonso II of Naples (1494-95)

1594 Ivan, Prince of Russia, killed by his father, Ivan the Terrible

1692 Georg F von Waldeck, German commander-in-chief

1703 "The Man in the Iron Mask," of natural causes, after years in Bastille.

1798 Theobald Wolf Tone, Irish nationalist

1911 Ramon Caceres, President, Dominican Republic, murdered

1924 Lee Stack, Sirdar of Egypt, Governor General of the Sudan, murdered

1936 Buenaventura Durruti, Spanish anarchist, KIA outside Madrid

Event...

1367 League of Cologne goes against Danish King Waldemar IV.

1493 Christopher Columbus finds Puerto Rico, on his 2nd voyage.

1521 Battle at Milan: Emperor Karel V's/pontifical/Spanish/German troops beat France and occupy Milan.

1700 Battle at Narva: Swedish King Karel XII beats Russians.

1813 USN Capt. David Porter claims Marquesas Islands for the United States.

1861 Julia Ward Howe committed "Battle Hymn of the Republic" to paper.

1861 Skirmish at Wirt Court House, Va.

1863 Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address.

1879 The Argentine Marine Corps was founded.

1894 Dutch troops occupy and plundered palace of Tjakra Negara, Lombok.

1916 The last of the Battles of the Somme ends today on the Ancre Heights as exhausted manpower and driving rains combine to halt the allied advance.

1919 U.S. Senate rejects Treaty of Versailles and League of Nations.

1932 Shaft and Thyssen demand Hitler become German chancellor.

1940 Belgian King Leopold III visits Adolf Hitler.

1941 Destroyer USS Leary, with TU 4.1.5, escorting convoy HX 160, depth charges a sound contact.

1942 Russia launches winter offensive against Germans along Don front.

1942 District patrol craft YP-26 is destroyed by explosion of undetermined origin while on marine railway, Cristobal, C.Z.

1942 Damaged U.S. tanker Brilliant proceeds back toward Newfoundland, obtaining her true position from passing warships.

1943 The First Special Service Force, made up of American and Canadian troops, lands in Italy. The men of this crack unit have completed a rigourous training course in wilderness survival, skiing, mountain climbing, parachuting and hand-to-hand combat.

1943 Submarine chaser SC-1067 founders and sinks off Attu, Aleutians.

1943 Motor torpedo boat PT-147, damaged by grounding, eastern New Guinea, 05°55'S, 147°20'E, is scuttled by crew.

1943 Submarine USS Harder attacks Japanese convoy escorted by escort vessel IJN Fukue and destroyer IJN Yuzuki, sinking transports Hokko Maru and Udo Maru, 22°28'N, 147°22'E.

1943 Submarine USS Nautilus is damaged by friendly fire from light cruiser USS Santa Fe and destroyer USS Ringgold off Tarawa, Gilberts, 01°05'N, 173°03'E. USS Nautilus remains on patrol and enters Tarawa lagoon in the first submarine photograph reconnaissance mission.

1943 Submarine USS Sculpin, heavily damaged by Japanese destroyer IJN Yamagumo about 154 miles north of Truk, Carolines, 00°00'N, 152°50'E, is scuttled. Captain John P. Cromwell, the embarked submarine squadron commander in USS Sculpin, familiar with secret details of upcoming operations, decides to go down with the ship rather than risk capture and inevitable interrogation. For his decision to accept certain death, Cromwell is awarded the Medal of Honor, posthumously.

1944 TF 38 aircraft attack Japanese shipping off Luzon, in addition to airfields on that island. Navy carrier-based planes attack convoy ten miles off San Fernando, sinking merchant cargo ship Esashi Maru and damaging escorting submarine chasers Ch 19 and Ch 26, 16°50'N, 120°08'E.

1944 Elements of TG 78.14 (Captain Lord Ashbourne, RN) land Army troops (31st Division) on Asia Island, 100 nautical miles west of Sansapor.

1944 Destroyer escorts USS Conklin and USS McCoy Reynolds sink Japanese submarine I-37, 100 miles west of Palaus, 08°07'N, 134°16'E.29

1944 Submarine USS Hake torpedoes Japanese light cruiser IJN Isuzu west of Corregidor, 14°22'N, 119°38'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Stratagem sinks Japanese merchant tanker Nichinan Maru in Malacca Strait, 01°36'N, 102°53'E.

1944 U.S. freighter Alcoa Pioneer is crashed by kamikaze, San Pedro Bay, Leyte, killing 6 of the 28-man Armed Guard. Thirteen other men from among the 46-man merchant complement and two passengers are injured; patrol escort vessel PCE-851 provides medical assistance. Nearby, a second kamikaze crashes Norwegian motor vessel General Fleischer, while a third crashes U.S. freighter Cape Romano; there are, however, no casualties among Cape Romano's 47-man merchant complement, her two passengers, or the 26-man Armed Guard.

1944 Navy aircraft sink motor sailship No.8 Kyoun Maru off Mindoro.

1944 Aircraft sink Japanese submarine chaser Ch 36 and merchant tanker Seian Maru off Subic Bay.

1944 USAAF B-24s damage Japanese transport Natsukawa Maru off Brunei Bay, Borneo, 05°20'N, 115°13'E; Natsukawa Maru, however, does not return to service, a total loss.

1944 U.S. troops land on Asia Island, off northwestern New Guinea.

1950 U.S. General Eisenhower becomes supreme commander of NATO-Europe.

1951 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1952 North American F-86 Sabre sets world aircraft speed record, 1124 KPH.

1953 U.S. Vice President Richard Nixon visits Hanoi.

1961 At the request of President of Dominican Republic, U.S. Naval Task Force sails to Dominican Republic to bolster the country's government and to prevent a coup.

1962 Fidel Castro accepts removal of Soviet weapons.

1968 Mali military coup, president Modibo Keita flees.

1969 Apollo 12, Navy astronauts CDR Charles Conrad Jr. and CDR Alan L. Bean are 3rd and 4th men to walk on the moon. CDR Richard F. Gordon, Jr., the Command Module Pilot, remained in lunar orbit. During the mission lasting 19 days, 4 hours, and 36 minutes, the astronauts recovered 243 lbs of lunar material. Recovery by HS-4 helicopters from USS Hornet.

1970 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

1977 Egyptian President Anwar Sadat arrives in Israel.

1977 Libya drops diplomatic relations with Egypt.

1985 President Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for 1st time.

1987 France performs nuclear test.

1990 Iraq announces it will free all German hostages.

1995 Suicide bomber blasts into Egyptian embassy in Islamabad, kills 16.

By Cap. Teancum:

1807 - Portugal invaded by French troops commanded by Junot.

1809 - Battle of Ocana. French defeated larger Spanish army killing 5,000, taking 26,000 prisoners and all artillery and baggage against a loss of 1,700.

1914 - Russians halt the German advance at Lodz only to abandon the city 17 days later.

1916 - Monastir in Macedonia captured by the Allies.

1940 - On this day, Adolf Hitler tells Spanish Foreign Minister Serano Suner to make good on an agreement for Spain to attack Gibraltar, a British-controlled region. This would seal off the Mediterranean and trap British troops in North Africa.

Spain had just emerged from a three-year (1936-39) civil war, leaving Gen. Francisco Franco in dictatorial control of the nation. Although Franco had accepted aid for his Nationalist forces from the fascist governments of Germany and Italy during his war against the left-wing Republicans, he had maintained a posture of "neutrality" once the Second World War broke out. Two factors led the Caudillo, or chief of state, to reconsider this stance: (1) the fact that early Italian victories in Africa and German victories in Europe made a fascist victory more than just a possibility, and (2) his own desire to regain control of Gibraltar, a tiny peninsula south of Spain and a British colony. Toward this end, Franco began manipulating his own people to the point of exercising frenzied mobs to demand war against England to retake Gibraltar, which Spain lost during the War of Spanish Succession in 1704.

Gibraltar was a key strategic region, the only point of access to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean and long a significant air and naval base for the United Kingdom. If Spain could occupy Gibraltar, it would cut Britain off from its own troops in North Africa and frustrate plans to drive back Rommel and his Afrika Korps, as well as stop any British plans to invade Italy. Hitler was keen on pushing Spain in this direction. But when the Fuhrer emphasized the need to move quickly, the Spanish foreign minister, on orders from Franco, insisted that Spain would need 400,000 tons of grain before it could wage war against Britain. Hitler knew this was merely a delaying tactic; Franco did not want to commit his country to the war, even as he allowed German subs to refuel in Spanish ports and German spies to keep tabs on British naval forces in Gibraltar.

But as the war began to turn against the Axis powers, so did Franco, who saw a future of negotiating trade deals with the Western democracies. The Caudillo began to cooperate with the Allies in a variety of ways, including allowing Free French forces to cross Spain from Vichy France to Resistance bases in North Africa. But the Allies saw Franco as a mere opportunist, and Spain was not allowed into the United Nations until 1955.

1942 - The Soviet Red Army under General Georgi Zhukov launches Operation Uranus, the great Soviet counteroffensive that turned the tide in the Battle of Stalingrad.

On June 22, 1941, despite the terms of the Nazi-Soviet Pact of 1939, Nazi Germany launched a massive invasion against the USSR. Aided by its greatly superior air force, the German army raced across the Russian plains, inflicting terrible casualties on the Red Army and the Soviet population. With the assistance of troops from their Axis allies, the Germans conquered vast territory, and by mid October the great Russian cities of Leningrad and Moscow were under siege. However, the Soviets held on, and the coming of winter forced the German offensive to pause.

For the 1942 summer offensive, Adolf Hitler ordered the Sixth Army, under General Friedrich von Paulus, to take Stalingrad in the south, an industrial center and obstacle to Nazi control of the precious Caucasus oil wells. In August, the German Sixth Army made advances across the Volga River while the German Fourth Air Fleet reduced Stalingrad to burning rubble, killing more than 40,000 civilians. In early September, General Paulus ordered the first offensives into Stalingrad, estimating that it would take his army about 10 days to capture the city. Thus began one of the most horrific battles of World War II and arguably the most important because it was the turning point in the war between Germany and the USSR.

In their attempt to take Stalingrad, the German Sixth Army faced General Vasily Zhukov leading a bitter Red Army employing the ruined city to their advantage, transforming destroyed buildings and rubble into natural defensive fortifications. In a method of fighting the Germans began to call the Rattenkrieg, or "Rat's War," the opposing forces broke into squads eight or 10 strong and fought each other for every house and yard of territory. The battle saw rapid advances in street-fighting technology, such as a German machine gun that shot around corners and a light Russian plane that glided silently over German positions at night, dropping bombs without warning. However, both sides lacked necessary food, water, or medical supplies, and tens of thousands perished every week.

Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was determined to liberate the city named after him, and in November he ordered massive reinforcements to the area. On November 19, General Zhukov launched a great Soviet counteroffensive out of the rubble of Stalingrad. German command underestimated the scale of the counterattack, and the Sixth Army was quickly overwhelmed by the offensive, which involved 500,000 Soviet troops, 900 tanks, and 1,400 aircraft. Within three days, the entire German force of more than 200,000 men was encircled.

Italian and Romanian troops at Stalingrad surrendered, but the Germans hung on, receiving limited supplies by air and waiting for reinforcements. Hitler ordered Von Paulus to remain in place and promoted him to field marshal, as no Nazi field marshal had ever surrendered. Starvation and the bitter Russian winter took as many lives as the merciless Soviet troops, and on January 21, 1943, the last of the airports held by the Germans fell to the Soviets, completely cutting off the Germans from supplies. On January 31, Von Paulus surrendered German forces in the southern sector, and on February 2 the remaining German troops surrendered. Only 90,000 German soldiers were still alive, and of these only 5,000 troops would survive the Soviet prisoner-of-war camps and make it back to Germany.

The Battle of Stalingrad turned the tide in the war between Germany and the Soviet Union. General Zhukov, who had played such an important role in the victory, later led the Soviet drive on Berlin. On May 1, 1945, he personally accepted the German surrender of Berlin. Von Paulus, meanwhile, agitated against Adolf Hitler among the German prisoners of war in the Soviet Union and in 1946 provided testimony at the International Military Tribunal at Nuremberg. After his release by the Soviets in 1953, he settled in East Germany.

1944 - British and Indian troops cross the Sittang and Chindwin rivers, Burma.

1967 - For action this date, Chaplain (Major) Charles Watters of the 173rd Airborne Brigade is awarded the Medal of Honor. Chaplain Watters was serving with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry when it conducted an attack against North Vietnamese forces entrenched on Hill 875 during the Battle of Dak To. The Catholic priest from New Jersey moved among the paratroopers during the intense fighting, giving encouragement and first aid to the wounded. At least six times he left the defensive perimeter with total disregard regard for his own personal safety to retrieve casualties and take them for medical attention. Once he was satisfied that all of the wounded were inside the perimeter, he busied himself helping the medics, applying bandages, and providing spiritual strength and support. According to reports filed by survivors of the battle, Father Watters was on his knees giving last rites to a dying soldier when an American bomber accidentally dropped a 500-pound bomb onto the group of paratroopers. Father Watters was killed instantly. He was awarded a posthumous Medal of Honor on November 4, 1969, in a ceremony at the White House.

Also on this date: The Senate Foreign Relations Committee unanimously passes a resolution to curb the commitment of U.S. armed forces and a resolution urging the President Johnson to take the initiative to have the Vietnamese conflict brought before the United Nations Security Council.

1971 - Cambodians appeal to Saigon for help as communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh. Saigon officials revealed that in the previous week, an eight-person Cambodian delegation flew to the South Vietnamese capital to officially request South Vietnamese artillery and engineer support for beleaguered Cambodian government troops. Cambodian Premier Lon Nol and his troops were involved in a life or death struggle with the communist Khmer Rouge force and their North Vietnamese allies for control of the country.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1364  
Old 19 Nov 06, 10:06
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Today's event:

1700 Battle at Narva: Swedish King Karel XII beats Russians.

Today's book:

The Northern Wars: War, State and Society in Northeastern Europe, 1558 - 1721 by Robert I. Frost

Book Review:

This book is a collection of discrete essays on the theme of the Baltic or Northern wars. In the period following the end of the crusading in the Baltic region four key players emerged to contend for control of the crusader states. These were Sweden, Denmark, Russia and Poland/Lithuania.
Frost analyses the rises and falls of the influence of each of the states over time with regard to a number of factors.
1. He looks at the makeup of the military machines in each state. The ratio of professional and conscript soldiers. The makeup of the officer corps. The percentage of cavalry to infantry. The adoption of firearms, the development of the Huzzar to replace heavy cavalry, the failure of early mounted musketeers against Polish cavalry shock tactics and the ability of well drilled infantry to frustrate cavalry ambitions as practiced by the Swedes.
2. He looks at the relationship between ruler and state, from the wholly autocratic Russian system to the almost democratic Polish and Lithuanian system. The income of ruler and state such as the ability of Danish kings to act autonomously of their parliament due to the money from sound dues etc.
3. He looks (most interesting to me) at the ability of nations to fund war. The cost of standing armies and mercenaries. The need to vote extraordinary funds to armies in times of national peril. The difference in support given to rulers by landowner classes in periods of defence against an agressive neighbour and in periods of national expansion. His analysis of the economics of war is where Frost excels.
4. He also places the northern wars in their temporal, historical and geographical context by commenting on the developments in Western Europe, the 30 years war, the wars of the protestant reformation, the expansion of the Ottoman Turks in the south of the region, the incursions by Tatars from the asian steppes etc.
5. He analyses the impact of war on the societal makeup of the countries in the region. How landownership and serfdom developed, the evolution of the Cossack class, and so on.

If you are looking for an adventure story about knights charging into battle this is probably not the book for you. If you are looking for real history on the different approaches that can be taken to wage war, and how these strategies played out in short and long term, then this is a very useful read.

Because they are discrete essays it is possible to deal with them one at a time. Although the essays move chronologically through time, they deal with different sets of players and different types of tensions. Frost strives to uncover why any given set of strategies was successful in the time period where they worked.


http://www.amazon.com/Northern-Wars-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1365  
Old 20 Nov 06, 10:39
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
November 20


By Admiral:

Born...

1726 Oliver Wolcott, Ct-Gov, /signed Declaration of Independence

1797 Gaetano Maria Donizetti, composer ("La fille du régiment")

1802 James Lawrence Lardner, Commander, Union, USN, d. 1881

1830 Patrick Henry Jones, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1900

1836 John Thomas Croxton, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1874

1872 Joseph Mason Reeves, Adm., U.S.N., "Father of Carrier Aviation," d. 1948

1895 William V.S. Tubman, Liberian President (1943-1970), murdered, 1970

1916 Ferdinand AM van der Ham, Dutch WW II resistance fighter

1932 Jacques Chirac, Preisent of France.

1955 Timothy Kristian Charles Mace, Great Britain, Cosmonaut

1956 Sergei Gayevich Severin, Russia, Cosmonaut

Died...

1347 Stefano Colonna, Roman Senator, dies in battle (Coke di Rienzo)

1643 Claudio Monteverdi, sometime soldier

1737 Caroline of Ansbach, Queen of Great-Britain

1780 Empress-Queen Maria Theresa, at 63

1924 Giacomo Puccini, composer ("Madama Butterfly")

1925 Alexandra, Danish Princess/Queen of Great Britain, at 80

1944 Sekio Nishina, Japanese inventor of the kaiten weapon

1965 Gabriella VM Elisabeth, Queen of the Belgians, dies at 89

1975 Francisco Franco y Bahamonde, Il Caudillo, Spanish dictator, at 82

Event...

1272 Edward I proclaimed King of England

1347 Roman tribunal Coke di Rienzo beats nobles

1426 Brescia surrenders to the Venetians under Carmagnola

1521 Arabs attribute shortage of water in Jerusalem to Jews making wine

1583 Duke of Parma conquerors Aalst

1616 Bishop Richelieu becomes French minister of Foreign affairs/War

1719 Sweden and Hannover sign peace Treaty of Stockholm

1759 Battle in Bay of Quiberon, British beat French

1780 Britain declares war on Holland

1815 2nd Peace of Paris: France, Russia, Prussia, Austria and England signs Great Alliance

1817 1st Seminole War begins in Florida

1829 Jews are expelled from Nikolayev & Sevastopol, Russia

1856 USN CDR Andrew H. Foote lands at Canton, China, with 287 Sailors and Marines to stop attacks by Chinese on U.S. military and civilians. The Brish Royal Navy was very much involved in the reduction of the Canton Forts, as well.

1862 Confederate Army of Tennessee formed by Gen Braxton Bragg

1866 First national convention of the Grand Army of the Republic

1894 U.S. intervenes in Bluefields, Nicaragua

1900 Canadian mounted infantry are engaged in the unpleasant task of destroying Boer farms and small towns east of Pretoria. The policy is designed to prevent the enemy from using these places as defensive positions.

1910 Revolution breaks out in Mexico, led by Francisco I Madero

1917 Ukrainian Republic declared

1917 The Battle of Cambrai opens today with the first mass use of tanks at the start of battle. The tactic is successful for the opening stages of the fight, and by 11:40 this morning the Canadian Cavalry Corps is leading the 5th British Cavalry Division into the lines.

1917 USS Kanawha, USS Noma and USS Wakiva sink German sub off France.

1920 Nobel Peace Prize awarded to Woodrow Wilson

1933 Navy crew (LCDR Thomas G. W. Settle, USN, and MAJ Chester I. Fordney, USMC) sets a world altitude record in balloon (62,237 ft.) in flight into stratosphere.

1939 U.S. freighter Excambion is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities.

1940 Hungary joins the Axis.

1941 Ambassadors Kurusu & Adm. Nomura presents Japan's "final proposal" to keep peace in the Pacific. It is the last such diplomatic note before the attack on Military & Naval forces at Pearl Harbor.

1941 German Q/pirate ship Kormoran sinks near Australia

1942 Soviet army offensive, 1 million Russians breach German lines

1942 26th Russian Armoured Corps recaptures Perelazovski

1942 Japanese submarine I-175 is damaged when she runs aground at Truk, Carolines.

1942 District patrol craft YP-405 burns and sinks off Smith Shoal light.

1942 U.S. freighter Pierce Butler is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-177 off the coast of South Africa at 29°40'S, 36°35'E. All hands (41-man merchant complement and 21-man Armed Guard) abandon ship in four lifeboats.

1942 British hospital ship Atlantis rescues the last 13 survivors from U.S. freighter Excello, sunk by German submarine U-181 on 13 November.

1942 Damaged U.S. tanker Brilliant encounters auxiliary schooner Isabel H., whose master pilots the ship to Musgrave harbor, Newfoundland, where she anchors to await an escort to St. John's.

1942 British Eighth Army recaptures Banghazi, Lybia.

1943 U.S. Naval Base, Cairns, Australia, is established.

1943 Navy, Marine, and Army forces land on Tarawa and Makin, Gilberts, in Operation GALVANIC. The operation is under overall command of Commander Central Pacific Force (Vice Admiral Raymond A. Spruance). Marines (5th Amphibious Corps) landing on Tarawa encounter bitter resistance. During operations supporting GALVANIC, four ships are damaged: battleship USS Mississippi by turret explosion, 03°10'N, 172°58'E; light carrier USS Independence by aircraft torpedo, 01°30'N, 172°40'E; destroyer USS Ringgold by Tarawa shore battery, 01°24'N, 172°58'E, and destroyer USS Dashiell by grounding, 01°00'N, 173°00'E.

1943 Submarine USS Harder continues stalking convoy attacked the previous day and sinks Japanese transport Nikko Maru northeast of the Marianas, 23°20'N, 147°30'E.

1943 PBYs sink Japanese cargo vessel Naples Maru, 03°22'S, 151°45'E; submarine chasers Ch 17 and Ch 18 rescue survivors.

1944 Heavy cruiser USS Augusta is damaged by explosion of unknown origin, Boston Navy Yard.

1944 Oiler Mississinewa is sunk by kaiten (fired by Japanese submarine I-47 or I-36) Ulithi, 10°06'N, 139°43'E.30

1944 Japanese planes attack three U.S. tankers proceeding from Ulithi to Eniwetok, near-misses and strafing account for damage to tanker Fort Dearborn at 12°00'N, 155°00'E. There are, however, only four men wounded among the ship's 50-man merchant complement, 27-man Armed Guard and five passengers.

1944 Submarine USS Atule sinks Japanese minesweeper W.38 southwest of Formosa, 21°21'N, 119°45'E.

1944 Submarine USS Gar lands supplies on north coast of Mindoro.

1944 British submarine HMS Tally Ho sinks Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Ma 4 30 miles east of the southern tip of Great Nicobar Island, 06°55'N, 94°15'E.

1944 USAAF B-25 (14th Air Force) sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Daichi Maru in Yangtze River northeast of Shanghai, China, 31°57'N, 122°18'E.

1944 USAAF B-25s sink Japanese ship No.79 Nany Maru off Timor.

1945 24 Nazi leaders put on trial at Nuremberg, Germany

1947 Major Bill Hendricks and Marine reservists started Toys For Tots in Los Angeles around this date. The Marine Corps Reserve adopted the program one year later.

1947 Britain's Princess Elizabeth, marries Duke Philip Mountbatten

1947 1st permanent TV installed on seagoing vessel - Battleship USS New Jersey.

1953 Scott Crossfield in Douglas Skyrocket breaks Mach 2 (1300 MPH)

1962 U.S.S.R. agrees to remove bombers from Cuba, and U.S. lifts blockade.

1968 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1969 Alcatraz Island off SF, is seized by militant Native Americans

1970 U.N. General Assembly accepts membership of China PR

1971 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1977 Egyptian President Sadat became 1st Arab leader to address Israeli Knesset

1979 Sji'ieten occupies great mosque of Mecca, 100s killed

1981 El Salvador guerrilla group FMLN opens "limited offensive"

1986 Afghanistan President Babrak Karmal flees

1990 US 68th manned space mission STS 38 (Atlantis 7) returns from space

1994 Kosmos 2294/2295/2296 launched.

By Cap. Teancum:

284 - Marcus Aurelius Numerianus, Roman Emperor, is assassinated.

1777 - After 10 day bombardment, Americans abandon Fort Mifflin.

1864 - Nearly a week into the famous March to the Sea, the army of Union General William T. Sherman moves toward central Georgia, destroying property and routing small militia units it its path. Advanced units of the army skirmished with scattered Rebel forces at Clinton, Walnut Creek, East Macon, and Griswoldville, all in the vicinity of Macon.

The march began on November 15 and ended on December 21, 1864. Sherman led 62,000 troops for 285 miles across Georgia and cut a path of destruction more than fifty miles wide. He divided his force into two columns and widened the swath of destruction. The Yankees cut away from their supply lines at Atlanta and generally lived off the land. What they did not consume, they destroyed. More than 13,000 cattle fell into Union hands, as well as 90,000 bales of cotton and numerous sawmills, foundries, cotton gins, and warehouses.

Sherman's superiors, President Lincoln and General in Chief Ulysses S. Grant, endorsed his controversial tactic. Sherman planned, in his words, to "make Georgia howl." Sherman argued that, although it would be brutal, destroying the resources of the South could bring the war to a speedy end. Though he did not permit violence against civilians or the wanton destruction of property, there seemed to be little enforcement of that policy. The Union troops moved nearly unopposed across the region until they reached Savannah on December 21. The March to the Sea devastated Southern morale and earned Sherman the lasting hatred of many Southerners.

1941 - Fall of Rostov to the Germans.

1969 - In the United States, Seymour Hersh, an independent investigative journalist, files a second My Lai story based on interviews with Michael Terry and Michael Bernhardt, who served under 1st Lt. William Calley during the action that was later dubbed the My Lai massacre.

Also on this day, the Cleveland Plain Dealer published explicit photos of the dead at My Lai. The American public was stunned. Hersh broke the story earlier in the month, describing how soldiers from the Americal Division conducting a sweep of My Lai indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts, and then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to a ditch where they were executed per Calley's orders.

Despite the fact that an Army board of inquiry found that 30 persons either participated in the atrocity or knew of it and failed to do anything, only 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and was sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice and he was paroled in November 1974.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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