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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1321  
Old 29 Oct 06, 12:48
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October 29



By Admiral:

Born...

1816 King Ferdinand II of Portugal

1824 Joseph Horace Lewis, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1904

1871/1875 Queen Marie of Romania

1878 Alexander von Falkenhausen, German chief-of-the-general staff, 1915-1916

1897 Paul Joseph Goebbels, Nazi chief propagandist

1921 William Henry (Bill) Mauldin, soldier cartoonist ("Willy and Joe")

1952 Valeri I Tokarev, Russian Colonel/Cosmonaut

Died...

1321 King Stefan VI of Serbia (1282-1321)

1618 Sir Walter Raleigh, beheaded on trumped up charges of treason in London

1885 George B McClellan, Maj Gen, U.S., at 58

1901 Leon Czolcosz, assassin of President McKinley, is executed

1950 King Gustav V of Sweden, at 92

1965 Mehdi Am Barka, Moroccan socialist, murdered in Paris

Event...

539 -BC- Babylon falls to Cyrus the Great of Persia

1682 William Penn lands in what will become Pennsylvania

1790 Harmer's Defeat: 11 days of Indian attacks almost destroy column

1814 Launching of USS Fulton I , first American steam powered warship, at New York City. The ship was designed by Robert Fulton.

1847 US Marines help take a Mexican schooner in the Gulf of Mexico.

1861 Skirmish at Morgantown/Woodbury, Ky

1863 International Committee of the Red Cross formed: Nobel 1917, 1944, 1963

1894 1st election of the Hawaiian Republic

1914 Russia declares war on Turkey

1923 Turkey proclaimed a republic

1929 "Wall Street Lays an Egg." "Black Tuesday," Stock Market crashes triggers "Great Depression"

1941 TU 4.1.3 escorts convoy HX 156; destroyer USS Hilary P. Jones carries out depth charge attack on suspicious contact.

1941 TU 4.1.6 screens convoy ON 28. During the day, destroyers USS Lea, USS DuPont, USS MacLeish, and USS Sampson depth charge suspected U-boat contacts.

1942 Submarine USS Grenadier lays mines in Tonkin Gulf off Haiphong, French Indochina.

1942 PBY (VP 11) sinks Japanese submarine I-172 west of San Cristobal Island, Solomons, 13°01'S, 162°45'E.

1942 German submarine attacks on British Isles-bound convoy HX 212 continue: U.S. tanker Pan New York is torpedoed by U-624 about 550 miles west of Northern Ireland, 54°58'N, 23°56'W and her cargo of aviation gasoline catches fire, virtually incinerating the ship. Of the 56 souls on board (39 merchant seamen and a 17-man Armed Guard), only 14 (13 crewmen and one Armed Guard sailor) are rescued by Canadian corvettes: HMCS Rosthern picks up 13 (one of whom dies after being rescued); HMCS Summerside two. Escort vessels shell and depth charge the doomed ship. U-224 torpedoes Canadian tanker Bic Island as it straggles from the convoy at 55°05'N, 23°27'E, and sinks her with all hands (including the 44 men rescued from U.S. tanker Gurney E. Newlin on 27 October 1942).

1942 U.S. freighter West Kebar is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-129 14°57'N, 53°37'E, while en route from Freetown, Sierra Leone, to St. Thomas, Virgin Islands; three merchant seamen are killed. The survivors take to two lifeboats and one raft.

1942 ALCAN Highway opens: motor road to Alaska frees shipping

1942 Nazis murder 16,000 Jewis, Pinsk, Soviet Union

1943 Submarine USS Seawolf sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Wuhu Maru off Swatow, 22°28'N, 116°10'E.

1943 Navy or USMC F4Us damage small Japanese cargo vessel No.16 Kiku Maru near Tonolei, 06°47'S, 155°53'E.

1943 U.S. aircraft sink Japanese transport Ujigawa Maru off Rabaul, near Kieta, Bougainville, Solomons, 06°20'S, 155°45'E.

1943 USAAF B-24 attacks Japanese destroyer IJN Satsuki 20 miles south of Mussau, 04°40'S, 149°20'E.

1943 USAAF subjects Rabaul to a major air raid.

1944 Only moderate opposition greets Canadian and British forces pushing their way westwards across South Beveland. The Battle of the Scehldt is nearing its end with the German defenders now trapped against the North Sea.

1944 Breda liberated from the Germans

1944 Naval Operating Base, Leyte, and Naval Air Station, Samar, are established.

1944 TG 38.2 attacks Japanese airfields in the Manila area and shipping in Manila Bay, damaging heavy cruiser IJN Nachi. During Japanese air attacks on the fast carriers operating off Leyte, a kamikaze crashes USS Intrepid, 15°07'N, 124°01'E.

1944 Japanese guardboat No.3 Kyoei Maru is also lost on this date off Luzon; although the agent of her demise is unspecified, it is most likely Navy carrier-based aircraft, given the level of U.S. naval aviation activity in that area.

1944 PB4Y (VPB 115) sinks Japanese tanker Itsukushima Maru off Brunei Bay, 05°04'N, 119°47'E. Destroyer IJN Shigure rescues survivors.

1944 Japanese army tanker Kokko Maru is sunk by RAAF mine off Balikpapan, Borneo, 01°17'S, 116°48'E.

1944 U.S. aircraft sink Japanese guardboat No.16 Kiku Maru at Rabaul.

1944 U.S. freighter John A. Johnson is torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-12 1,000 miles northeast of Oahu, 29°36'30"N, 141°43'W, and is abandoned when she breaks in two. I-12 surfaces, shells the wreck, setting both halves ablaze, before bearing down on the lifeboats and rafts and firing on them with machine guns and pistols. These brutal actions result in the death of 4 of the 41 merchant sailors, the Army security officer and 4 of the 28-man Armed Guard.

1956 IDF crosses Egyptian territory in the Sinai. Israeli paratroopers drop into Sinai to captures passes & to open Straits of Tiran

1957 A hand grenade explodes in Israel's Knesset (Parliament)

1972 Disaster strikes HMCS Kootenay during full-power trials in the English Channel as an explosion rips through the engine room, killing 9 men. Fire and smoke spread quickly through the ship, but damage control parties react quickly to save the vessel.

1980 USS Parsons rescues 110 Vietnamese refugees 330 miles south of Saigon.

1994 Francisco Duran fires on the White House, attempting to kill Pres. Clinton

By Avalon:

Australian

1950 Australian troops of the 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, reach Chongju, the most northerly point of their advance into North Korea. In two days fierce fighting against determined North Korean opposition the Australians clear Chongju and the surrounding ridges.

1970 8RAR receives South Vietnam Unit Commendation.

By Cap. Teancum:

1449 - English surrender castle of Roen to French.

1863 - Battle of Wauhatchie (Brown's Ferry) concludes. The troops of Union General Ulysses S. Grant open a supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee, when they drive away a Confederate attack by General James Longstreet. Although the Confederates still held the high ground above Chattanooga, the new supply line allowed the Union to hold the city and prepare for a major new offensive the next month.

After the Battle of Chickamauga in northern Georgia on September 19 and 20, the defeated Union army of General William Rosecrans fled back to nearby Chattanooga. Braxton Bragg's Confederates took up positions along Lookout Mountain and Missionary Ridge to the east of the city. The Rebel lines made a semicircle around the city, and Confederate guns closed traffic on the Tennessee River. As a result, Union supplies had to come over a rugged mountainous route from the west. This line was vulnerable to a Confederate attack, and it made the Union's hold on Chattanooga tenuous at best.

On October 23, Grant arrived as the new commander of all western forces. He immediately ordered two brigades to attack Brown's Ferry, where the Confederates were blocking river traffic to Chattanooga. The Yankees captured the ferry on October 27, then held off a counterattack to maintain control. On the night of October 28, Longstreet mounted a much larger attack to retake the crossing. The Confederates possessed superior numbers but could not pry the Union troops from the river. In the dark, the Yankees held and Longstreet withdrew his forces before dawn.

The Union suffered 78 killed, 327 wounded, and 15 missing, while the Confederates suffered 34 killed, 305 wounded, and 69 missing. The Battle of Wauhatchie was one of the few Civil War engagements that took place at night. As a result of the battle, the Tennessee River was reopened for the Union and supplies reached Grant's troops. One month later, Grant drove the Confederates from the mountains around Chattanooga.

1971 - U.S. troop strength reaches five-year low. The total number of U.S. troops remaining in Vietnam drops to 196,700--the lowest level since January 1966. This was a result of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the June 1969 Midway Conference. U.S. troops were to be withdrawn as the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the war. The first withdrawal included troops from the 9th Infantry Division, who departed in August 1969. The withdrawals continued steadily, and by January 1972 there were less than 75,000 U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1322  
Old 29 Oct 06, 12:52
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Today's event:

1790 Harmer's Defeat: 11 days of Indian attacks almost destroy column

Today's book:

A History of the United States and Its People by Edward Eggleston

Book Description:

In this third book in Edward Eggleston's American history series, you'll find solid American history in a thorough handbook of American history up to 1888, containing information every child and adult should know about our American heritage. Filled with information, this book is profusely illustrated with over 400 illustrations and maps, carefully reproduced from the 1888 edition. Other helpful features for educators and parents include: arrangement by topic, study questions, "Study by Topics" sections, fill-in exercises, liberal use of maps, suggestions for diagrams, reviews, other blackboard exercises, and a comprehensive index.

Book Review:

I teach History at a private middle school in California and have been using this book in class. It is exceptionally readable and includes paragraph summaries in the margins along with exquisite illustrations. It refreshingly lacks marxism and political correctness, as noted by another reviewer. This is truly the way textbooks ought to be written.
For example, this book explains why the initial British colonies of Plymouth and Jamestown almost starved: redistribution of wealth. The simple solution was to assign private property ownership. By the next harvest the result of private land ownership led to overwhelmingly plentiful food and led to our current Thanksgiving celebration. Few modern texts mention that it was primarily the lack of private property rights that led to starvation in these colonies.

One word of caution...it reads easily and provides an excellent overview, but does not go into sufficient detail for middle school. Supplemental materials are required.


http://www.amazon.com/History-United...230685-5147252
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1323  
Old 30 Oct 06, 12:46
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October 30


By Admiral:

Born...

1391 Dom Duarte, King of Portugal (1433-38)

1735 John Adams, 2nd US President (1797-1801)

1807 James Samuel Wadsworth, Maj Gen, U.S., d/w 1864

1830 John Stevens Bowen, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1863

1848 Sinovi Rosjestvenski, Russian Admiral, who lost the big one to Japan at Tsushima in 1805.

1873 Francisco Madero, visionary & inept Pres of Mexico (1911-1913), k. 1913

1882 Fleet Admiral William F Halsey

1885 Ezra Pound, Fascist collaborator, poet ("Cantos"), d. 1972

1946 Robert L "Hoot" Gibson, USN, astronaut (STS 41B, 61C, 27, 47)

Died...

1611 King Charles IX of Sweden (1604-11)

1757 Sultan Osman III of Turkey (1754-57)

1816 King Frederik I of Wurttemberg (1806-16)

1893 Sir John Abbott, PM of Canada (1891-92), at 72

1910 Henri Dunant, Founder of the Red Cross

1932 Paul S Methuen, English field marshal at 87

Event...

1270 The Eighth & last Crusade begins, and accomplishes nothing

1485 King Henry VIII forms the Yeomen of the Guard

1489 Peace of Tours, between Emperor Maximilian I and the Flemings

1775 Congress authorizes four vessels for the defense of the United Colonies.

1799 William Balch becomes the US Navy's first commissioned Chaplain.

1899 At Quebec City, the Second Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry marches to the town's old parade square before boarding ship for South Africa. Lining the streets to catch a glimps of the pageantry are 40,000 people.

1905 "October Manifesto" Russian Tsar Nicholas II grants civil liberties

1917 The Canadian assault at Passchendaele is renewed. The attack goes in at 5:50 this morning, supported by 420 artillery pieces. Good progress is made all along the battlefront, but unusually high casualties continue to mount.

1922 Mussolini forms cabinet in Italy

1930 Turkey & Greece sign a treaty of friendship

1938 Orson Welles' radio broadcast of "The War of the Worlds"

1939 Latvia & Germany signed an agreement after protracted negotiations which led to the eventual repatriation of 49,885 German-speaking inhabitants of Latvia. An amount equal to 2.96% of its population. Some that were not inclined to return to the Fatherland initially were inticed by German propaganda citing likely atrocities that would soon befall them at Soviet hands.

1939 U.S. freighter Scanpenn is detained by British authorities at Kirkwall, Orkneys; freighter Hybert is detained by British authorities at the Downs the same day

1940 Because of delay in the arrival of crews assigned to the last of the destroyers to be transferred to the Royal Navy, Commander Destroyers, Atlantic Squadron departs Halifax, Nova Scotia, in destroyer tender USS Denebola. Destroyer USS Russell accompanies the tender.

1941 Oiler Salinas, in convoy ON 28, is torpedoed by German submarine U-106 about 700 miles east of Newfoundland. Only one of Salinas's crew is injured. TU 4.1.6, screening ON 28, attacks sound contacts; destroyer USS Bernadou carries out five depth charge attacks and fires at what was most likely German submarine U-67, forcing her to submerge; USS DuPont carries out three depth charge attacks; USS MacLeish and USS Sampson one apiece. USS Lea escorts Salinas (which will reach port under her own power); they will be joined en route by Coast Guard cutter USCG Campbell and ocean going tug Cherokee.

1941 TU 4.1.1 contacts MOMP-bound convoy HX 157 at 45°43'N, 55°37'W. The convoy will not be attacked by U-boats.

1941 USS Reuben James sunk by German u-boat, though US is not at war.

1942 TG 64.2, comprising light cruiser USS Atlanta and four destroyers, bombards Japanese positions at Point Cruz, Guadalcanal.

1942 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-9 reconnoiters Nouméa, New Caledonia.

1942 Japanese land second invasion force at Attu, Aleutians.

1942 Marines on Guadalcanal prepare to assume the offensive.

1943 Moscow Conference ends. Groundwork is laid for conference of President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill and Premier Stalin at Teheran, Iran. Other agreements include the decision that China should join the alliance as the fourth major power and that a postwar organization to keep peace should be established. The latter will be the future United Nations.

1943 U.S. aircraft sink Japanese transport Ujigawa Maru off Rabaul, near Kieta, Bougainville, Solomons, 06°20'S, 155°45'E.

1943 USAAF B-24 attacks Japanese destroyer IJN Satsuki 20 miles south of Mussau, 04°40'S, 149°20'E.

1943 U.S. subs mine the waters off Indochina.

1944 Carrier USS Franklin and small carrier USS Belleau Wood are damaged by kamikazes, 10°20'N, 126°40'E.

1944 Yacht Argus rescues survivors of U.S. freighter John A. Johnson, which had been sunk by Japanese submarine I-12 the previous day.

1944 Submarine USS Salmon damages Japanese Coast Defense Vessel No.22 southwest of Toizaki, Kyushu, and teams with USS Trigger to damage merchant tanker Takane Maru, 30°13'N, 132°49'E, but USS Salmon is damaged by depth charges dropped by the three undamaged escorting coast defense vessels and deep submergence as she evades the escorts, 30°08'N, 132°33'E, and is forced to terminate her patrol.

1944 USAAF P-38s (13th Air Force) damage Japanese submarine chaser Ch 36 near Sibitu Passage, 05°27'N, 119°12'E, and sink merchant tankers Kosho Maru and No.8 Nanshin Maru off Sandakan, Borneo, 05°25'N, 119°20'E.

1944 USAAF aircraft sink Japanese ship Chuko Maru off Hong Kong.

1944 Destroyer USS Madison bombards and destroys German motor convoy, southern France, and sinks floating mines offshore

1944 5th Marines sailed for home from Peleliu.

1944 Anne Frank is transferred from Auschwitz to Belsen

1944 Off Leyte, TG 38.4, attacked by Kamikaze, which damage two carriers.

1945 US announces end of shoe rationing

1953 General of the Army George C Marshall & Dr Albert Schweitzer were awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1954 Defense Department announces elimination of all segregated units

1956 Israel captures Egyptian military post at El-Thamad

1961 Soviet Union tests a 58 megaton hydrogen bomb

1961 Soviet Party Congress unanimously approves a resolution removing Josef Stalin's body from Lenin's tomb in Red Square

1967 USSR Kosmos 186 & 188 make 1st automatic docking & Venmera 13 launch

1975 Prince Juan Carlos assumes power in Spain, as Franco nears death

1980 Honduras & El Salvador settle their boundary dispute

1991 Mid East peace conference begins in Madrid Spain

By Avalon:

Australian

1886 Birthdate 31 Btn. Royal Queensland Regiment.

1915 Gen Sir Charles Munro recommends Gallipoli forces withdraw.

1918 Armistice signed with Turkey, ending Turkish involvement in the First World War. Australian troops had taken a prominent part in the war against the Ottoman empire, especially on Gallipoli and in Sinai-Palestine.

1941 Australian Ski Troop Unit forms in Syria.

1942 9 Division reaches sea in El Alamein offensive.

By Cap. Teancum:

1813 - Battle of Hanau. Retreating from his defeat at Leipzig, Napoleon had to battle his way through Austrian-Bavarian blocking force.

1941 - On this day in 1941, President Roosevelt, determined to keep the United States out of the war while helping those allies already mired in it, approves $1 billion in Lend-Lease loans to the Soviet Union. The terms: no interest and repayment did not have to start until five years after the war was over.

The Lend-Lease program was devised by President Roosevelt and passed by Congress on March 11, 1941. Originally, it was meant to aid Great Britain in its war effort against the Germans by giving the chief executive the power to "sell, transfer title to, exchange, lease, lend, or otherwise dispose of" any military resources the president deemed ultimately in the interest of the defense of the United States. The reasoning was: If a neighbor was successful in defending his home, the security of your home was enhanced.

Although the Soviet Union had already been the recipient of American military weapons, and now had been promised $1 billion in financial aid, formal approval to extend the Lend-Lease program to the USSR had to be given by Congress. Anticommunist feeling meant much heated debate, but Congress finally gave its approval to the extension on November 7.

By the end of the war, more than $50 billion in funds, weapons, aircraft, and ships had been distributed to 44 countries. After the war, the Lend-Lease program morphed into the Marshall Plan, which allocated funds for the revitalization of "friendly" democratic nations--even if they were former enemies.

1953 - On October 30, 1953, President Dwight D. Eisenhower formally approves National Security Council Paper No. 162/2 (NSC 162/2). The top secret document made clear that America's nuclear arsenal must be maintained and expanded to meet the communist threat. It also made clear the connection between military spending and a sound American economy.

The paper began by warning that the Soviet Union already possessed sufficient atomic weapons and delivery capabilities to inflict a "crippling blow to our industrial base and our continued ability to prosecute a war." While in the short-term such action by the Soviets seemed unlikely, this did not mean that the United States could afford to slacken its efforts to stockpile "sufficient atomic weapons." In specific situations, the United States should "make clear to the USSR and Communist China...its intention to react with military force against any aggression by Soviet bloc armed forces." Nuclear weapons should be "as available for use as other weapons."

NSC 162/2 indicated the growing reliance of the United States on its nuclear arsenal as a deterrent to communist aggression during the Eisenhower years. It also suggested that concerns were being raised about the ability of the American economy to support both a booming domestic standard of living and massive military expenditures. Its approval by the President was a definite sign of his so-called "New Look" foreign policy that depended on more cost efficient nuclear weapons to fight the Cold War.

1965 - Marines repel attack near Da Nang. Just miles from Da Nang, U.S. Marines repel an intense attack by successive waves of Viet Cong troops and kill 56 guerrillas.

A search of the dead uncovered a sketch of Marine positions written on the body of a 13-year-old Vietnamese boy who had been selling drinks to the Marines the previous day. This incident was indicative of the nature of a war in which even the most seemingly innocent child could be the enemy. There were many other instances where South Vietnamese civilians that worked on or near U.S. bases provided information to and participated in attacks alongside the enemy.

Also on this day: Two U.S. planes accidentally bomb a friendly South Vietnamese village, killing 48 civilians and wounding 55 others. An American civic action team was immediately dispatched to the scene, and a later investigation disclosed that a map-reading error by South Vietnamese officers was responsible.

Also on this day: In New York City, military veterans lead a parade in support of government policy in Vietnam. Led by five recipients of the Congressional Medal of Honor, 25,000 people march in support of America's action in Vietnam.

1970 - Heavy monsoon rains hit Vietnam. Fighting in the five northern-most provinces comes to a virtual halt as the worst monsoon rains in six years strikes the region. The resultant floods killed 293 people and left more than 200,000 homeless.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1324  
Old 30 Oct 06, 12:52
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
General of the Forums
Portuguese_Monarchy
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Join Date: Jul 2005
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
This one was on the IOU list for a long time... sorry!

Today's event:

1965 - Marines repel attack near Da Nang. Just miles from Da Nang, U.S. Marines repel an intense attack by successive waves of Viet Cong troops and kill 56 guerrillas.

Today's book:

Semper Fi-Vietnam: From Da Nang to the DMZ: Marine Corps Campaigns, 1965-1975 by Edward F. Murphy

Book Review:

This author shows an incredible lack of knowledge about the Vietnamese (both ARVN and Nva/Vc troops) who fought at Hue. This lack of knowledge means that the readers have no clue of how bloody the battle Hue was and why it takes several weeks to regain the city.
According two recently publish Communist books: "Hue, Spring 1968, Ban Nghien Cuu Dang[the Communist Party Research committee], Hue, 1988" and the "Tck-tkn [Generl offensive-General Uprising 1968, Ban Nghien Cuu Dang[the Communist Party Research committee], Ho Chi Minh City, 1988". The Nva/Vc troops in Hue consist of 4 full strength regiments: the E1, E5, E8, E9 and several battalions from the E6 regiment several sapper battalions (E is the NVA denote for regiment). Only the South Viets Hac Bao Company, most of who during the New Year was on leave, defended Hue. The Nva attacked on the first day of the Lunar New Year and quickly gain control of the city. After which they release 2,300 violent criminals from the city prison and armed them and the city VC sympathizers to form the "Nghia Quan"[Rightous Army]. In total the Nva/VC have around 9,000 to 10,000 troops in the city including the "Nghia Quan' criminals. On the second day of the New Year, the ARVN 1st Airborne Brigade consists of the 2nd and 6th battalions fought their way into Hue by way of An Hoa. They succeeded in getting into the city and later the ARVN 9th Airborne battalions; fresh from their victory at Quang tri also joined them. It's true that the S. Viets ask the Americans for help after the second week of battle but it was not due to S. Viets troops cowardice or low morale like the author tries to imply.

The ARVN who fought at Hue consists of the Airborne, then later the Marines, Rangers and the 1st Division, the best fighting force in Vietnam war. However, initially, the S. Viets leaders do not want the ncient city of Hue to be destroyed and forces the S. Viets and Americans to fight with little or no air and artillery support. This means the cost in retaking the city from 8,000 well-fortified enemies has to be done hand to hand. During the week of the battle, the S. Vietnamese 2nd and 7th battalions went from 500 men each down to only 200 men. The S. Viets 9th airborne battalion went from 400 men to only 100 men, the rest were killed and wounded. The S. Viets marines and ranger battalions that later came to join in the fight was fresh from the battles in Saigon without replacement and were all at or around half strengths. A typical S. Viet airborne battalion consists of 500 men, 800 men for the Vietnamese marine battalion and 450 men for the Vietnamese ranger battalion. The Nva/VC also lost a tremendous number of men and o both sides settle down to defensive and probing attacks. This also is true for the USMC since the US marines for the first two weeks or so, fought only during the day and then retreat to the MACV compound at night, this go on until sufficient troops and allies replacement have arrive. The battle for Hue was bloody and vicious, the S. Viet dead was twice that of the U.S marines, as for the Nva/VC most of their troops die during the battle for the city.


http://www.amazon.com/Semper-Fi-Viet...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1325  
Old 31 Oct 06, 19:58
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
October 31



By Admiral:

Born...

1345 King Ferdinand I of Portugal

1740 William Paca, Signer, d. 1799

1825 Raleigh Edward Colston, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896

1826 Hugh Boyle Ewing, Bvt Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1905

1831 Daniel Butterfield, Maj Gen, U.S., composer of "Taps," d. 1901

1835 Adalbert Ames, Brig Gen, U.S., last surviving Civil War General, d. 1933

1860 Juliette Gordon Low, founder of the Girl Scouts

1887 Chiang Kai-shek, leader of the Chinese Nationalists

1930 Michael Collins, USAF, Astronaut (Gemini 10, Apollo 11)

1949 Terrence Wilcutt, USMC, Astronaut

1960 Prince Reza Pahlavi of Iran, Last Persian Shah

Died...

1448 John VIII Palaeologus, Byzantine Emperor

1851 Prince-Bishop Peter II Petrovic Njegos of Montenegro (1830-51), at 37

1918 Stephen Tisza, Hungarian premier assassinated

1964 Theodore C Freeman, astronaut, at 34 in a T-38 jet air crash

1984 Indira Gandhi, PM of India, assassinated by two Sikh bodyguards

Event...

1448 Constantine XI Paleologos becomes Byzantine Emperor (kia 1453)

1803 USS Philadelphia grounds off Tripoli and is taken by the Barbary pirates

1808 Battle of Durango, Spain

1925 Cossack officer, Prince Reza Pahlevi replaces sultan Ahmad Shah in Persia

1937 Spanish republican government moves to Valencia from Barcelona

1939 U.S. freighter Black Osprey is detained at the Downs by British authorities; freighter Gateway City, detained by the British since 16 October, is released after cargo billed for delivery at Antwerp and Rotterdam, Holland, is seized as contraband.

1940 Deadline for Warsaw Jews to move into Warsaw Ghetto

1940 British forces occupy Crete in response to Italian invasion of Greece.

1940 German auxiliary minelayer Passat begins laying mines in Bass Strait, the body of water between Australia and Tasmania.

1940 German freighter Rio Grande sails from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; she eludes the Neutrality Patrol and ultimately reaches Bordeaux, France, six weeks later.

1941 TU 4.1.6, screening ON 28, carries out vigorous attacks on sound contacts: destroyer USS Babbitt carries out two, while USS Buck, USS DuPont (which is attacked by U-boat but missed), USS Leary and USS Sampson one attack apiece.

1941 Destroyer USS Reuben James, while escorting 42-ship convoy HX 156, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-552 off western Iceland, 51°59'N, 27°05'W; 115 men are killed. No merchantmen in HX 156 are attacked. Despite the heavy oil slick in the vicinity and the need to investigate sound contacts, destroyer USS Niblack rescues 36 men (one of whom dies of wounds on 2 November); USS Hilary P. Jones picks up 10. The loss of USS Reuben James, the first U.S. naval vessel to be lost to enemy action in World War II, proves a temporary detriment to Navy recruiting efforts.

1942 While en route to from French Frigate Shoals to Midway, district patrol craft YP-345 is lost without trace to unknown causes, about 80 miles northeast of Laysan Island.

1942 Submarine USS Grayback damages Japanese army cargo ship Noto Maru off Rabaul, 04°37'S, 152°30'E.

1942 South African naval forces board the forward portion of U.S. freighter Anne Hutchinson, torpedoed and shelled by German submarine U-504 on 26 October 1942; British tug HMS David Haigh tows the bow portion (the after part has sunk in the meantime) to Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

1943 Submarine USS Rasher sinks Japanese oiler Koryu Maru, 00°25'N, 119°45'E.

1943 U.S. airship K 94, en route from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, to San Juan, Puerto Rico, catches fire and crashes 35 miles north of Cape Borinquen, Puerto Rico.

1943 Aircraft (VC 9) from escort carrier USS Card sink German submarine U-584 about 580 miles north of Flores Island, Azores, 49°14'N, 31°55'W. Other VC 9 aircraft attack U-91 at the same rendezvous point, but she escapes unharmed.

1943 Destroyer USS Borie damages German submarine U-256 north of the Azores.

1943 LT Hugh D. O'Neill of VF(N)-75 destroys a Japanese aircraft during night attack off Vella Lavella in first kill by a radar-equipped night fighter of the Pacific Fleet.

1944 Canadian troops clear South Beveland of its German defenders, thereby securing the approach to the Scheldt estuary. In two days North Beveland will be secure, leaving the remainder of the Germans bottled up on the flooded polders of Walcheren Island.

1944 Submarine USS Gabilan sinks Japanese oceanographic research vessel No. 6 Kaiyo Maru off Murotosaki, Japan, 32°50'N, 134°21'E.

1944 Submarine USS Guitarro attacks Japanese convoy and sinks cargo ship Komei Maru and army cargo ship Komei Maru off Botolan Point, Luzon, 15°17'N, 119°50'E, and although damaged by the concussion generated by the explosion of one of these two ships, remains on patrol.

1944 Submarine USS Nautilus, en route to Mios Woendi after completing her clandestine mission, finishes the destruction of submarine USS Darter, aground on Bombay Shoal (09°26'N, 116°56'E) since 24 October, to prevent the boat from falling into enemy hands.

1944 Submarine USS Sterlet sinks Japanese merchant tanker Takane Maru, damaged the day before by USS Salmon and USS Trigger, southwest of Kyushu, 30°09'N, 132°45'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Stoic sinks two Japanese sailing vessels, 07°40'S, 114°13'E, and bombards warehouses and fuel tanks at Jangka Island.

1944 Motor gunboat PGM-9 bombards Japanese targets on Aguijan Island, Marianas.

1944 Other Japanese casualties include landing ship T.131 damaged by aircraft, northeast of Panay; and auxiliary submarine chaser Uruppu Maru is sunk by aircraft, near Mindoro Island.

1950 Puerto Ricans nationalists try to kill President Truman in Washington

1952 First thermonuclear bomb detonated, the Marshall Islands

1954 Algerian Revolution against French begins

1955 Lewis B. "Chesty" Puller, who earned five Navy Crosses (and 1 Army Distinguished Service Cross), retired as a Lieutenant General.

1956 Britain & France begin to bomb Egypt to reopen Suez Canal

1956 USS Burdo and USS Harlan R. Dickson evacuate 166 persons from Haifa, Israel due to the fighting between Egypt and Israel.

1956 Navy men land a R4D Skytrain on the ice at the South Pole. RADM George Dufek, CAPT Douglas Cordiner, CAPT William Hawkes, LCDR Conrad Shinn, LT John Swadener, AD2 J. P. Strider and AD2 William Cumbie are the first men to stand on the South Pole since Captain Robert F. Scott in 1912.

1961 End of Lighter than Air in U.S. Navy with disestablishment of Fleet Airship Wing One and ZP-1 and ZP-3, the last operating units in LTA branch of Naval Aviation, at Lakehurst, New Jersey.

1967 Nguyen Van Thieu takes oath president South Vietnam

1968 President Johnson orders a halt to all bombing of North Vietnam

1991 Survivors of a crashed Canadian Forces Hercules transport aircraft en route to Alert in the high arctic huddle in the tail section of the plane, awaiting rescue. Eleven crew members will be picked up by rescue teams; five others will not survive the ordeal.

By Avalon:

Australian

1917 The Desert Mounted Corps, commanded by Gen Harry Chauvel, encircles Beersheba .4th Light Horse Brigade's bold charge against Turkish positions at Beersheba enabled British empire forces to break the Ottoman line near Gaza and advance into Palestine.

1942 Sgt William Kibby, 2/48 Bn, awarded the VC for his actions at El Alamein.

1967 1ATF in Operation Santa Fe, a search and destroy mission in May Tao Mountains, Vietnam.

1973 Formation 8th/9th Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment.

By Cap. Teancum:

1861 - Winfield Scott steps down. Citing failing health, General Winfield Scott, commander of the Union forces, retires from service. The hero of the Mexican War recognized early in the Civil War that his health and advancing years were a liability in the daunting task of directing the Federal war effort.

Scott was born in Virginia in 1786. He graduated from William and Mary College and joined the military in 1808, where he had become the youngest general in the army by the end of the War of 1812. He was an important figure in the development of the U.S. Army after that war, having designed a system of regulations and tactical manuals that defined the institution for most of the 19th century. Scott borrowed heavily from the French, but his tactics were of little use in the irregular warfare the army waged against the Seminoles and Creek in the southeast. His methods, however, worked brilliantly during the war with Mexico in 1846 and 1847. His campaign against Mexico City, in particular, was well planned and executed.

During the crisis of 1861, Scott remained at his post and refused to join his native state in secession. President Lincoln asked Scott to devise a comprehensive plan to defeat the Confederacy. Scott's strategy called for the blockading of ports to isolate the South economically, then an offensive down the Mississippi River. In the optimistic early days of the war, this strategy seemed hopelessly sluggish-in fact, critics dubbed it the "Anaconda Plan" after the giant Amazonian snake that slowly strangles its prey. Despite initial criticism, it was the basic strategy that eventually won the war.

Scott also drew criticism for ordering the advance of General Irwin McDowell's army into Virginia, which resulted in the disastrous Union defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run on July 21, 1861. With the arrival of George McClellan as commander of the Army of the Potomac shortly after, Scott's influence waned. He weighed over 300 pounds, suffered from gout and rheumatism, and was unable to mount a horse. His resignation on October 31 did not end his influence on the war, however. Lincoln occasionally sought his counsel, and many of his former officers commanded forces and executed the same maneuvers that he had used in Mexico. Scott retired to West Point to write his memoirs before he died in 1866.

1917 - ANZAC forces capture Beersheba, Palestine.

1968 - President Johnson announces bombing halt. In a televised address to the nation five days before the presidential election, President Lyndon Johnson announces that on the basis of developments in the Paris peace negotiations, he has ordered the complete cessation of "all air, naval, and artillery bombardment of North Vietnam." Accordingly, effective November 1, the U.S. Air Force called a halt to the air raids on North Vietnam known as Operation Rolling Thunder.

The President further disclosed that Hanoi had finally agreed to allow the South Vietnamese government to participate in the peace talks. Johnson said that the United States would consent to a role for the National Liberation Front, though he stated that the latter concession "in no way involves recognition of the National Liberation Front in any form." The National Liberation Front (or Viet Cong, as it was more popularly known) was the classic Communist front organization that included both Communists and non-Communists who had banded together in opposition against the Saigon regime. Domestically, President Johnson's action drew widespread acclaim; both major presidential candidates expressed their full support. The reaction in Saigon, however, was much more subdued; President Thieu issued a communiqué declaring that the United States had acted unilaterally in its decision to halt the bombing.

1970 - Thieu vows to never accept a coalition government. South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu delivers a speech on the state of the nation before a joint session of the South Vietnamese National Assembly, asserting that 99.1 percent of the country had been "pacified." The pacification program that he alluded to had been a long-term multi-faceted effort to provide territorial security, destroy the enemy's underground government, reassert political control, involve the people in their own government, and provide for economic and social reforms. Citing success in this program, Thieu said that a military victory was close at hand and that "we are seeing the light at the end of the tunnel." With regard to the ongoing peace talks in Paris, the South Vietnamese president declared that the Communists viewed negotiations merely as a way to gain time and "to achieve victory gradually." He said he would never accept a coalition government with the Communists, because "countless past experiences" had already shown that such an approach would not bring peace.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1326  
Old 31 Oct 06, 20:03
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1861 - Winfield Scott steps down.

Today's book:

Agent of Destiny: The Life and Times of General Winfield Scott by John S. D. Eisenhower

Book Review:

This man's life is very much worth knowing about. Serving 14 Presidents, 13 as a general officer, he is the person who executed the military policies and directions of his civilian superiors.
He became a military officer almost by accident. He did this at a time when the United States was a mere concept, a thought process whose liberties and freedoms were undeveloped, untested and subject to interpretation by men who were not completely sold on the United States as a unified country.

His time coincided with the concept more popularly known as Manifest Destiny and he lived to see the United States evolve from an aggregation of discordant, fractious, sovereign States to a Nation that filled a continent. He was a man that avoided more wars than he fought and when he fought them you had best get out of the way.

The military was his life, the tool through which he made his contribution to America. Because he made his contributions in our country's formative stages, he has largely been forgotten. But he once strode across the evolution of the American stage with very big boots, a set of shoes which very few military men have since been able to fill.

John Eisenhower's book is a long overdue thank you.


http://www.amazon.com/Agent-Destiny-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1327  
Old 01 Nov 06, 05:17
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November 1



By Admiral:

Born...

846 King Louis II the Stutter of France (877-79)

889 Philip John Noel-Baker, Nobel Peace Prize (1959);

1500 Benvenuto Cellini, gunner, sculptor, goldsmith, author, rake

1757 Antonio Canova, sculptor (Pauline Bonaparte)

1815 Douglas Hancock Cooper, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1879

1825 Joseph Benjamin Palmer, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1890

1835 Godfrey Weitzel, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1884

1853 Jose Santos Zelaya, Dictator of Nicaragua (1893-1910)

1871 Stephen Crane, novelist ("The Red Badge of Courage"), d. 1900

1878 Carlos Saavedra Lamas, Nobel Peace Prize (1936)

Died...

1700 King Charles II of Spain (1665-1700)

1963 Ngo Dinh Diem, South Vietnamese strongman, killed in a coup

1972 Ezra Pound, Nazi collaborator, poet ("Cantos"), at 87

Event...

82 -BC- Battle of the Porta Collina; Sulla captures Rome

1210 King John of England begins imprisoning Jews

1765 Stamp Act goes into effect in British colonies, which object

1784 Maryland grants citizenship to Lafayette & his descendants

1806 Fra Diavolo taken at Baronissi by French Col Sigisbert Hugo (Victor's father)

1835 Texians begin siege of San Antonio (it falls Dec 4)

1841 "Mosquito Fleet" commanded by LCDR J. T. McLaughlin, USN, carries 750 Sailors and Marines into the Everglades to fight the Seminole Indians.

1860 Neapolitan 3rd Div takes up defensive positions at Itri

1861 George B McClellan named General-in-Chief of the United States Army

1861 Skirmish at Renick, Mo

1863 Fortifications built on Angel Island (San Francisco Bay) by troops

1869 Red River Rebellion: Louis Riel seizes Fort Garry, Winnipeg

1899 The first contingent of Canadian troops were en route to South Africa to assist Britain against the Boers. Conditions aboard the troopship were cramped as 50 men were unable to find a place to sleep. Ironically, the ship's name is Sardinian.

1904 First Army War College Class convenes, including Capt. John J. Pershing.

1911 First Air Raid: Italian Lt. Garetti bombs Tanguira Oasis, Libya.

1914 Coronel: Von Spee's German cruisers annihilate Cradock's British cruisers..

1914 Paul von Hindenburg named commander-in-chief of the Eastern Front.

1916 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo begins (to Nov 4)

1918 4th Marine Brigade (US) participated in action at Meuse-Argonne.

1922 Ottoman Empire abolished.

1928 Graf Zeppelin sets airship distance record, 6384 km.

1932 Wernher von Braun named head of German liquid-fuel rocket program.

1933 The German Army creates its first panzer unit.

1936 Mussolini describes the Italo-German alliance as "The Axis".

1939 First jet plane, a Heinkel He 178, demonstrated to German Air Ministry.

1939 U.S. freighter Exminster is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities.

1940 Fleetwood, Pa.: 1st US air raid shelter opens.

1940 The Netherlands: Nazis establish a 2400-0400 curfew.

1940 Atlantic Squadron is renamed Patrol Force, U.S. Fleet

1940 Submarine Force, Scouting Force, ceases to exist; in its stead are two type commands: Submarines Scouting Force, Pacific Fleet, and Submarines, Atlantic Fleet.

1940 Naval Air Station, Alameda, California, is established.

1940 German auxiliary minelayer Passat completes laying mine barrage off Australian coast in Bass Strait.

1941 President Franklin D. Roosevelt places Coast Guard under jurisdiction of Department of the Navy for duration of national emergency.

1941 Pacific Escort Force is formed at Pearl Harbor to protect transports and certain merchant vessels carrying troops and valuable military cargoes between Hawaii and the Far East.

1941 PBYs (VP 73) provide air coverage for convoy ON 30.

1941 Destroyers USS Dallas, USS Ellis, and USS Eberle, screening convoy HX 157, carry out depth charge attacks on sound contacts off St. John's, Newfoundland.

1942 Patrol Wings are redesignated Fleet Air Wings.

1942 District patrol craft YP-205 is lost after grounding off Saba Island, 18°30'N, 65°00'W.

1942 Japanese merchant cargo ship Biwa Maru is lost to unknown cause, 13°30'N, 109°21'E.

1942 U.S. freighter George Thatcher, bound for French Equatorial Africa, is torpedoed by German submarine U-126, 01°45'S, 07°30'E, and abandoned; five crewmen and five Armed Guard sailors, as well as eight soldier passengers, perish in the attack. Free French corvettes rescue the survivors (34 merchant seamen, 10 Armed Guard sailors and four Army passengers) and transport them to their original destination, Port Noire.

1942 Guadalcanal: Marines attack across the Matanikau River.

1943 Dim-out ban lifted in San Francisco Bay area

1943 Third Amphibious Force, TF 31, lands 1st Marine Amphibious Corps at Cape Torokina, Bougainville, Solomons; assault is covered by TBF aircraft and destroyer gunfire. During Japanese retaliatory air strikes, destroyer USS Wadsworth is damaged by near-miss of bomb.

1943 Cruiser and destroyer force TF 39 and carrier task force TF 38 shell and bomb Japanese airfields and installations in Buka-Bonis area, Solomons. Rear Admiral Merrill's force later bombards enemy airfields on Shortland Island, Solomons. Japanese return fire damages destroyer USS Dyson.

1943 Submarine USS Haddock attacks Japanese cable-layer Tateishi and trawler Kitagami Maru off Rokutei Island, 09°02'N, 150°43'E. Although USS Haddock claims damage to both ships, neither is actually damaged.

1943 U.S. aircraft sink Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 13 west of Shortland Island, Solomons, 07°00'S 155°30'E.

1943 USS Borie sinks off the Azores, having rammed & sunk U-405.

1944 In Leyte Gulf, kamikazes sink destroyer USS Abner Read, 10°47'N, 125°22'E; and damage destroyers USS Anderson, 10°11'N, 125°02'E, and USS Claxton and USS Ammen, 10°40'N, 125°20'E. Destroyers USS Bush, 10°13'N, 125°21'E, and USS Killen, 10°40'N, 125°20'E, are damaged by horizontal bombers.

1944 Submarine USS Atule attacks Japanese convoy, and sinks transport Asama Maru in Luzon Strait, 20°09'N, 117°38'E.

1944 Submarine USS Blackfin attacks Japanese convoy, and sinks auxiliary vessel Caroline Maru and transport No.12 Unkai Maru in Mindoro Strait, 12°54'N, 120°10'E.27

1944 Submarine USS Ray sinks Japanese merchant tanker No.7 Horai Maru, 13°02'N, 120°17'E, and lands men and supplies on west coast of Mindoro.

1944 British submarine HMS Storm sinks Japanese schooner No.3 Goenong Perak, 04°56'S, 120°59'E.

1944 Destroyer USS Benson, although troubled by inadequate spotting, fires bombardment mission against railroads and troop concentrations.

1947 UN trusteeship for Nauru granted to Australia, NZ & UK

1948 Chinese People's Liberation Army captures Mukden, Manchuria.

1950 Puerto Rican nationalists try to kill President Truman at Blair House.

1951 Fist atomic explosion witnessed by troops, NM.

1952 Fusion occurred for the first time on Earth - First hydrogen device exploded at Eniwetok Atoll in Pacific.

1954 Algeria begins rebellion against French rule.

1954 General Fulgencio Batista elected president of Cuba.

1954 India takes over administration of 4 French Indian settlements

1955 Time bomb aboard a United Airlines DC-6 kills 44 above Longmont, Colorado.

1956 Delhi becomes a territory of the Indian union

1956 Imre Nagy government of Hungary withdraws from the Warsaw Pact.

1956 The 3d Battalion, 2nd Marine Regiment helped evacuate Americans from Alexandria, Egypt.

1959 Nationalist Patrice Lumumba arrested in Belgian Congo.

1960 Benelux Treaty goes into effect.

1962 USSR launches Mars 1; radio contact lost before arrival at Mars

1963 Coup against the Ngo Dinhm Diem regime in South Vietnam.

1966 William Dana in X-15 reaches 93 km.

1967 Operation Coronado IX began in Mekong Delta.

1976 Gilbert Is (Kiribati) obtains internal self-gov't from Britain

1979 Beginning of retirement of Polaris A-3 program begins with removal of missiles from USS Abraham Lincoln. Last Polaris missile removed in February 1982.

1981 Antigua & Barbuda gains independence from Britain

1990 Rhetoric escalates as Bush likens Saddam to Hitler

By Cap. Teancum:

1618 - Battle of Pilsen. German mercenary Count von Mansfield captured Pargue after 16 hours of hard fighting.

1861 - McClellan replaces Scott. President Lincoln names George Brinton McClellan general in chief of the Union armies, replacing the aged and infirm Winfield Scott. In just six months, McClellan had gone from commander of the Ohio volunteers to the head of the Union army.

McClellan's prewar career presaged his meteoric rise to the ranking Union general in the first year of the war. The Pennsylvania native graduated from West Point second in his class in 1846. He served with distinction under General Winfield Scott in the Mexican-American War. McClellan left his successful military career in 1857 for an engineering position with the Illinois Central Railroad, and by the time the war broke out in 1861 he was president of the St. Louis, Missouri, and Cincinnati Railroad. He resigned to accept command of the Ohio volunteers with the rank of major general. During the summer of 1861, McClellan lead Union troops in a series of small battles in western Virginia that resulted in Federal control of the strategic region, and he earned a national reputation-though it is debatable just how much McClellan contributed to the achievements; in several cases, decisions by his subordinates were the main reason for the success.

Nonetheless, he provided Northern victories when they were in scarce supply. On July 16, the U.S. House of Representatives passed a resolution recognizing his accomplishments in Virginia. Just five days later, the main Union force, commanded by General Irwin McDowell, suffered an ignominious defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run. In the aftermath of the debacle, many turned to McClellan to save the war effort. McClellan arrived in Washington on July 26 to take command of the disorganized and demoralized Army of the Potomac. He quickly began to build a magnificent fighting force, establishing a rigorous training procedure and an efficient command structure. He also demonstrated brashness, pomposity, and arrogance for many of the nation's political leaders. He loudly complained about Scott, and he treated the president with utter contempt.

Still, he was the only real choice to replace Scott. No other Union general had achieved much of anything to that point in the war. After alienating much of the administration by early 1862, McClellan moved the Army of the Potomac to the James Peninsula for an attack on Richmond. As a field commander, he proved to be sluggish and timid, and he retreated from the outskirts of the Confederate capital when faced with a series of attacks by General Robert E. Lee during the Seven Days' battles in June. In July, Henry W. Halleck was named general in chief, and much of McClellan's Army of the Potomac was transferred to General John Pope's Army of Virginia. After Pope was defeated at Second Bull Run in August, much of McClellan's command was restored to him. Lee invaded Virginia, and McClellan defeated him at the Battle of Antietam in September. Despite this victoriy, his refusal to pursue the retreating Confederates led to his permanent removal in November 1862. In 1864, he challenged Lincoln for the presidency as the Democratic nominee but lost decisively.

1868 - Battle of Tayezian. The Shogun's troops made their last stand at the Tayezian temple in Tokyo.

1883 - Battle of El Obeid. 10,000 British and allied troops trapped by the Mahdi, leader of the Dervishes. In four days of fighting, entire British force killed. The defeat prompted England to withdraw from the Sudan.

1914 - Battle of Coronel, Chilie. German cruisers Gneisenau, Scharnhorst, Nurnberg, Dresden and Leipzig destroyed H.M.S. Good Hope and H.M.S. Monmouth. The smaller H.M.S. Glasgow was fast enough to escape.

1964 - Military and political situation in South Vietnam deteriorates. One year after the overthrow and assassination of President Ngo Dinh Diem, the situation in South Vietnam is deteriorating in both the military and political spheres.

Following two months of extreme political turmoil, the High National Council confirmed the appointment of Tran Van Huong as South Vietnam's premier. Though he promised to wage total war against the communists while separating religion and politics, he proved to be only the latest in a line of ineffectual leaders that attempted to fill the void left by Diem's death.

The military situation was no better. On this date, Viet Cong raiders infiltrated the U.S. air base at Bien Hoa, 12 miles north of Saigon, and launched a heavy mortar attack that caught the U.S. and South Vietnamese off guard. Before the Viet Cong withdrew, they killed five U.S. servicemen and two South Vietnamese soldiers, wounded 76, destroyed two B-57 bombers, and damaged another 20 U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft. A lengthy search of the area around Bien Hoa failed to locate any of the Viet Cong. Word of the attack reached Washington early in the morning, and the Joint Chiefs of Staff called for "a prompt and strong response" against North Vietnam. Ambassador Maxwell Taylor called for a more limited response, but also advocated bombing in retaliation. President Lyndon Johnson, concerned with the presidential election that was only 48 hours away, decided to do nothing except order the immediate replacement of destroyed and damaged planes.

1968 - Two new programs initiated in South Vietnam. The U.S. mission in Saigon initiates two operations designed to bolster rural security and development efforts.

The Le Loi program was an intensified civic action campaign intended to repair the damage done by the enemy's offensives earlier in the year and to return control of the rural population to the Saigon government.

The other operation was the Phuong Hoang (Phoenix) program, a hamlet security initiative run by the Central Intelligence Agency that relied on centralized, computerized intelligence gathering to identify and eliminate the Viet Cong infrastructure--the upper echelon of the National Liberation Front political cadres and party members. This program became one of the most controversial operations undertaken by U.S. personnel in South Vietnam.

Critics charged that American-led South Vietnamese "hit teams" indiscriminately arrested and murdered many communist suspects on flimsy pretexts. Despite these charges, the program was acknowledged by top-level U.S. government officials, as well as Viet Cong and North Vietnamese leaders after the war, to have been very effective in reducing the power of the local communist cadres in the South Vietnamese countryside.

According to available sources, from 1968 to 1972, the Phoenix program resulted in the capture of 34,000 Viet Cong political cadre, while an additional 26,000 were killed. The program also convinced 22,000 communists to change their loyalties and support the South Vietnamese government.

1993 - European Union established. The Maastricht Treaty comes into effect, formally establishing the European Union (EU). The treaty was drafted in 1991 by delegates from the European Community meeting at Maastricht in the Netherlands and signed in 1992. The agreement called for a strengthened European parliament, the creation of a central European bank, and common foreign and security policies. The treaty also laid the groundwork for the establishment of a single European currency, to be known as the "euro."

By 1993, 12 nations had ratified the Maastricht Treaty on European Union: Great Britain, France, Germany, the Irish Republic, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Greece, Denmark, Luxembourg, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Austria, Finland, and Sweden became members of the EU in 1995. After suffering through centuries of bloody conflict, the nations of Western Europe were finally united in the spirit of economic cooperation.

This fact is mainly related to economic questions, but there's such a thing as a European Army, so ...

On this day at 1755 (250 years), one of the most important facts of portuguese story occured. This is not related to the military facts, but I would feal really bad if I didn't mentioned it.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1328  
Old 01 Nov 06, 05:23
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1835 Texians begin siege of San Antonio (it falls Dec 4)

Today's book:

Texans in Revolt: The Battle for San Antonio, 1835 by Alwyn Barr

Book Citations:

A Line in the Sand: The Alamo in Blood and Memory by Randy Roberts

Inside The Alamo by Jim Murphy

Lone Star Nation: How a Ragged Army of Volunteers Won the Battle for Texas Independence - and Changed America by H.W. Brands

Manifest Destiny's Underworld: Filibustering in Antebellum America by Robert E. May
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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November 2



By Admiral:

Born...

1470 King Edward V of England (1483); deposed, murdered? by Richard III

1734 Daniel Boone, frontiersman/explorer

1755 Marie-Antoinette, Queen of France ("Let them eat cake")

1795 James Knox Polk, sometime militiaman and president (1845-1849)

1810 Andrew Atkinson Humphreys, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1883

1826 Robert Hopkins Hatton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1862

1826 William Haines Lytle, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1863

1828 Byron Grimes, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880

1865 Warren G. Harding, 29th president of the United States (1921-23).

1932 Henri Namphy, President of Haiti

1938 Queen Sofia of Spain

1944 Jeffrey A. Hoffman, Brooklyn astronaut (STS 51-D, 35, 46)

Died...

1483 Henry Stafford, Earl of Buckingham, Constable of England, beheaded at 49

1917 James Gressham, US Army, kia in the trenches in France

1917 Thomas Enright, US Army, kia in the trenches in France

1917 Merle Hay, US Army, kia in the trenches in France

Event...

1355 English army under King Edward III lands at Calais

1648 12,000 Jews massacred by Chmielnicki hordes in Narol, Podlia

1692 The besieged settlement of Verchères is relieved by a party of 40 soldiers from Montreal. Inspired by 14 year old Madeleine, the settlers have withstood 8 days of investment by Iroquois warriors, securing for the young girl a legendary place in Canadian history.

1783 General George Washington bids farewell to his army near Princeton

1789 French National Assembly confiscates the property of the Church

1811 Battle of Tippecanoe: Gen William Henry Harrison defeats Tecumseh

1835 Second Seminole War begins

1835 Sam Houston is chosen C-in-C of the Texas Army

1841 Akbar Khan ousts Shah Shuja in Afghanistan

1852 Brig. Gen. Franklin Pierce elected President of US

1880 Maj Gen James A Garfield elected US President

1914 Great Britain annexes Cyprus

1916 Ft Vaux, Verdun, recaptured by the French

1917 The first Americans are kia in the trenches in France (See Died...)

1917 British foreign secretary Arthur J. Balfour, 69, issued the Balfour Declaration, calling for "establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people." The document's recognition of a Jewish nationalism planted the seed which in 1948 led to an establishment of the modern state of Israel.

1917 Lansing-Ishii Agreement; US recognizes Japan's privileges in China

1930 Ras Tafari crowned as Haile Selassie I, Emperor of Ethiopia

1931 VS-14M on the USS Saratoga and VS-15M on the USS Lexington became the first US Marine carrier-based squadrons.

1939 U.S. freighters Endicott and West Gambo, detained by French authorities since 22 October and portions of their cargo ordered ashore as contraband, are released and clear LeHavre, France.

1940 US Rear Admiral John W. Greenslade arrives in Fort-de-France, Martinique, to confer with Vice Admiral Georges A.M.J. Robert on the economic distress of Martinique and Guadeloupe, and the status of French warships and aircraft there.

1941 TF 14 reaches MOMP and exchanges convoy "Cargo" for CT 5, eight British transports carrying 20,000 British troops earmarked for the Middle East. Convoy CT 5's first destination is Halifax, Nova Scotia.

1941 PBMs (VP 74) provide air coverage for convoy ON 30.

1942 Fleet Air Wing 6 is established at Seattle, Washington, for multi-engine aircraft training.

1942 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-reconnoiters Efate Island, New Hebrides.

1942 Destroyer USS Conyngham and transport Fuller (AP-14) are damaged in collision in Sealark Channel, Guadalcanal.

1942 Submarine USS Seawolf sinks Japanese water tender Gifu Maru west-southwest of Cape San Augustin, Mindoro, P.I., 06°14'N, 126°07'E.

1942 Submarine USS Tambor lays mines in Hainan Strait, Tonkin Gulf.

1942 SubmarineUSS Tautog sows mines south of Cape Padaran, French Indochina.

1942 USAAF B-17s sink Japanese army cargo ship Yasukawa Maru off Buna, New Guinea, 07°16'S, 156°00'E.

1942 Dutch motorship Zaandam is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine Uhttp://www.net1hosting.com/downloads/cs/steam.gif at 01°25'N, 36°22'W. Lost with the ship are men who have survived the loss of U.S. freighters: 18 (12 merchant seamen and 6 Armed Guard sailors) from Chickasaw City (sunk 7 October 1942), 15 sailors from Swiftsure (8 October 1942), 6 men from Coloradan and 15 from Examelia (9 October 1942).

1942 Guadalcanal: "Tokyo Express" lands c. 1500 troops at Tetere

1942 Aussie 25th Bde captures Kokoda, and its airfield, from the Japanese.

1942 British breakthrough at El Alamein.

1943 Ineffective Japanese air attack on U.S. ships off Empress Augusta Bay.

1943 Casa Nofi, Itri, has an unfortunate encounter with US fighter-bombers

1943 U.S. carrier aircraft raid Japanese installations at Buin and Buka.

1943 Battle of Empress Augusta Bay is fought during darkness as TF 39, comprising four light cruisers and eight destroyers, intercepts and turns back a Japanese force of two heavy and two light cruisers and six destroyers steaming to attack transports off Bougainville, Solomons. Light cruiser USS Denver is damaged by 8-inch gunfire; destroyer USS Foote by torpedo; and destroyer USS Spence by gunfire and collision with destroyer USS Thatcher. Destroyers USS Charles Ausburne, USS Spence, USS Dyson, USS Claxton, and USS Stanly sink Japanese destroyer IJN Hatsukaze (already damaged in collision with heavy cruiser IJN Myoko); U.S. gunfire sinks light cruiser IJN Sendai and damages heavy cruisers IJN Myoko and IJN Haguro. Destroyers IJN Shiratsuyu and IJN Samidare are damaged in collision during this night surface action. Japanese planes attack TF 39 during its retirement from the scene of battle, damaging light cruiser USS Montpelier.

1943 Carrier task force TF 38 attacks enemy airfields in Buka area, Solomons.

1943 Submarine USS Haddock engages Japanese submarine chaser Ch 28, 09°12'N, 150°13'E, but neither side damages the other.

1943 Submarines USS Seahorse, USS Halibut, and USS Trigger, each operating independently of the other, attack Japanese convoy south of Honshu; USS Seahorse sinks transport Chihaya Maru, 29°31'N, 134°50'E, and army cargo ship Yawata Maru, 28°30'N, 135°35'E; USS Halibut sinks army cargo ship Ehime Maru, 28°40'N, 135°35'E; USS Trigger sinks army transport Delagoa Maru, 28°30'N, 135°35'; USS Seahorse or USS Trigger sinks army cargo ship Ume Maru, 28°40'N, 135°35'E.

1943 USAAF B-25s, escorted by P-38s, raid airfields and harbor at Rabaul, sinking Japanese stores ship Manko Maru and damaging heavy cruisers IJN Haguro and IJN Myoko, destroyer IJN Shiratsuyu, stores ship Hayasaki, and minesweeper W.26.

1943 Destroyer USS Borie, damaged in battle with U-405 the previous day (during which the destroyer had rammed the enemy submarine), 1,000 miles east of Cape Race, Newfoundland, is scuttled by TBF (VC 9) from escort carrier USS Card, 50°12'N, 30°48'W after attempt to scuttle USS Borie with gunfire, by destroyer USS Barry, fails.

1944 Japanese aircraft bomb U.S. airstrip and planes on the ground at Tacloban, Leyte.

1944 USAAF B-24s and P-38s (13th Air Force) attack Japanese reinforcement convoy (TA Operation, Second Phase) unloading reinforcements at Ormoc Bay, sinking army cargo ship Noto Maru, 10°30'N, 125°00'E. The rest of the convoy, however, returns safely to Manila.

1944 Submarine USS Barbero, despite presence of escort vessel, sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kuramazan Maru in Makassar Strait, 04°30'S, 118°20'E.

1944 Submarine USS Pomfret attacks Japanese convoy between Formosa and Luzon, sinking transport Hamburg Maru damaging transport Atlas Maru in Luzon Channel, 20°20'N, 121°30'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Tantalus attacks Japanese Singapore-to-Manila convoy SIMA-04 one day after its departure, sinking cargo ship Hachijin Maru and damaging submarine chaser Ch 1 about 225 milee east of Singapore, 00°48'N, 107°43'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Terrapin sinks netlayer Kumano Maru in Strait of Malacca, 01°30'N, 103°00'E.

1944 Japanese army cargo ship No.2 Tateyama Maru is sunk by aircraft, 13°16'N, 99°46'E.

1944 U.S. tanker Fort Lee is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-181 at 27°35'S, 83°11'E; of the 26-man Armed Guard, at least ten perish in the loss of the ship.

1944 Army clears Japanese troops from the central valley on Leyte.

1947 Howard Hughes' "Spruce Goose" flies for the first, and only, time

1951 Chinese forces open their campaign to push UN forces from their positions along the 38th Parallel in Korea. The Royal Canadian Regiment is the first to encounter the communist troops as they attempt to drive the Canadians from Hill 187.

1956 Israel captures Gaza & Sheham

1956 Hungary appeals for UN assistance against Soviet invasion

1962 JFK announces Soviets are dismantling their missile bases in Cuba

1962 LtCol. John H. Glenn (First American to orbit the earth and the world's only septuagenarian Astronaut, Senator) was awarded the first Alfred A. Cunningham Trophy as Marine Aviator of the Year upon the commemoration of the 50th anniversary of Marine Corps Aviation.

1968 Operation Search Turn began in Mekong Delta.

1978 Crew of Soyuz 29 returns to Earth aboard Soyuz 31

1982 Fire in Salung tunnel, Afghanistan, over 1,000 Soviet troops die

1988 Computer virus strikes Pentagon, SDI research lab & 6 universities

By Cap. Teancum:

1775 - Americans under General Richard Montgomery capture the British fort of Saint Johns.

1861 - Controversial Union General John C. Fremont is relieved of command in the Western Department and replaced by David Hunter.

Fremont was one of the most prominent Union generals at the start of the war. Born in Georgia and raised in South Carolina, he joined the military in 1838 and helped map the upper Mississippi River. He made a significant career move in 1841 when he married Jesse Benton, the daughter of powerful Missouri senator Thomas Hart Benton. At first, the senator objected to the marriage, but he soon became Fremont's staunchest supporter. With his father-in-law's help, Fremont secured leadership of two famous expeditions to the West in the 1840s. He became involved in politics in the 1850s and was the fledgling Republican Party's first presidential candidate in 1856.

When the war started in 1861, Fremont became a major general in command of the Western Department based in St. Louis. In August 1861, the Union suffered a stunning defeat when an army under General Nathaniel Lyon was routed at the Battle of Wilson's Creek in southwestern Missouri. Many criticized Fremont for failing to provide proper support for Lyon, who was killed in the battle. In response, Fremont took action to demonstrate his control over the region. He declared martial law and proclaimed freedom for all slaves in Missouri. In doing so, he placed the Lincoln administration in a difficult position. Lincoln was trying to keep the Border States (Delaware, Kentucky, Maryland, and Missouri) from seceding from the Union. With the exception of Delaware, these states contained substantial numbers of slaveholders, and opinion over the issue of slavery was evenly divided. Fremont's freeing of slaves threatened to destroy the balance and send these states into the hands of the Confederacy. Of particular concern was Kentucky, Lincoln's native state. It was of vital strategic importance and the movement for secession there was very strong. Fremont's actions in Missouri fueled secessionist spirit and alienated many Northerners who were unwilling to wage a war to end slavery.

Lincoln requested privately that Fremont rescind the order, but he refused. Lincoln had no choice but to negate the order of emancipation and remove Fremont from command in the west. Fremont still had many supporters, so Lincoln placed him in charge of a small army in Virginia. He had little success in the Shenandoah Valley, where he was pitted against the brilliant Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson. Fremont resigned in 1862 after Jackson defeated his force, and Fremont's army was merged with the command of General John Pope, a longtime rival.

Some Republican allies urged Fremont to challenge Lincoln for the 1864 presidential nomination, but Fremont declined. After the war, he served as territorial governor of Arizona and died in New York in 1890.

1963 - Ngo Dinh Diem assassinated in South Vietnam. Following the overthrow of his government by South Vietnamese military forces the day before, President Ngo Dinh Diem and his brother are captured and killed by a group of soldiers. The death of Diem caused celebration among many people in South Vietnam, but also lead to political chaos in the nation. The United States subsequently became more heavily involved in Vietnam as it tried to stabilize the South Vietnamese government and beat back the communist rebels that were becoming an increasingly powerful threat.
While the United States publicly disclaimed any knowledge of or participation in the planning of the coup that overthrew Diem, it was later revealed that American officials met with the generals who organized the plot and gave them encouragement to go through with their plans. Quite simply, Diem was perceived as an impediment to the accomplishment of U.S. goals in Southeast Asia. His increasingly dictatorial rule only succeeded in alienating most of the South Vietnamese people, and his brutal repression of protests led by Buddhist monks during the summer of 1963 convinced many American officials that the time had come for Diem to go.
Three weeks later, an assassin shot President Kennedy. By then, the United States was more heavily involved in the South Vietnamese quagmire than ever. Its participation in the overthrow of the Diem regime signaled a growing impatience with South Vietnamese management of the war. From this point on, the United States moved step by step to become more directly and heavily involved in the fight against the communist rebels.

1942 British launch Operation Supercharge


On this day in 1942, General Montgomery breaks through Rommel's defensive line at El Alamein, Egypt, forcing a retreat. It was the beginning of the end of the Axis occupation of North Africa.

In July 1942, having already taken Tobruk, Gen. Erwin Rommel and his mixed German-Italian forces attempted to push through the British defensive line at El Alamein, but failed. The Brits and the Axis had reached a standstill, and both sides took time to regroup before resuming the battle. Meanwhile, Lt. Gen. Bernard Montgomery took control of the British 8th Army, and on October 23 launched Operation Lightfoot, a broad offensive initiated by artillery fire. Rommel's forces had dug a five-mile-deep defensive area, replete with minefields and antitank guns. But this did not stop Montgomery, who had three armoured divisions and almost seven infantry divisions. The Axis forces were without their leader, as Rommel had taken ill and was convalescing in Austria. By the time the German general was recalled to Africa by Hitler, two days after the launching of Lightfoot, Monty and his forces had pushed passed his defensive line and were six miles beyond the original stalemate point.

Rommel gave as good as he got, using his antitank weaponry to destroy four times as many British tanks as he lost (but still leaving the Brits with 800 against Rommel's 90). Montgomery's drive northward was stopped-but only temporarily. On November 2, he launched Operation Supercharge, switched the direction of his attack westward, and punched through the German-Italian line. Rommel retreated to Fukah but Hitler insisted that Rommel hold his position at El Alamein. Rommel obeyed, which was a mistake. Instead of making a stand at Fukah, he was forced to waste more time and more of his forces as the British pushed harder, forcing Rommel to retreat even farther as he attempted to escape sweeping British offensives from the south. By mid-January 1943, Rommel had been pushed through Libya into Tunisia. As Churchill would sum up: "Up to Alamein we survived. After Alamein we conquered."

1967 - Johnson meets with "the Wise Men". President Johnson holds a secret meeting with some of the nation's most prestigious leaders, who were collectively called "the Wise Men." This group included former Secretary of State Dean Acheson, General of the Army Omar Bradley, Ambassador-at-Large Averell Harriman, and former Ambassador to South Vietnam Henry Cabot Lodge.

Johnson asked them for advice on how to unite the U.S. in the Vietnam War effort. They reached the conclusion that the administration needed to offer "ways of guiding the press to show the light at the end of the tunnel." In effect, they decided that the American people should be given more optimistic reports. When Johnson agreed, the administration, which included senior U.S. military commander in Saigon Gen. William Westmoreland, began to paint a more positive picture of the situation in South Vietnam. In early 1968, this decision came back to haunt Johnson and Westmoreland when the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese launched a major surprise attack on January 30, the start of the Tet New Year holiday. Stunned by the scope of the Communist attack after the administration had painted such an upbeat picture of Allied progress in the war, many Americans began to question the credibility of the president and antiwar sentiment increased significantly.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1835 Second Seminole War begins

Today's book:

History of the Second Seminole War, 1835-1842 by John K. Mahon

Book Review:

This superb book will fascinate anyone with a love for American history. The Second Seminole War is almost unknown today, but it was a major conflict in our country's history before the Civil War. The conflict cost more in lives and money than all the famed Indian wars of the western plains, and a number of celebrated American officers (Zachary Taylor, Edmund Gaines, Winfield Scott) cut their teeth in the conflict. They also often failed spectacularly, as Mahon demonstrates. He superbly treats the military strategy of the war, painting a big picture while weaving a skillful narrative which will interest military historians and novices alike. As Mahon shows, the 2nd Seminole War was our country's least successful military engagement of the century -- in fact, the least successful until Vietnam. Readers today will be surprised to learn of the stirring protests that Americans leveled against the war in the 1830s and 40s. We are conditioned to think that American history is one long series of evil white men raping and pillaging innocent blacks and Indians. Mahon's book vividly depicts a few events that conform to this vision of our past, but the book shows how much more complex the 19th century truly was -- how complex was the political situation of the Seminoles, and how Americans of the time expressed widespread dissent, anger, and anguish over the way that the country chose to deal with them. Amazingly, the US officer corps charged with fighting the war was itself in the vanguard of the protest movement agains the conflict. This is a slice of the American past that people rarely see. Readers will also be fascinated to learn more about the "Seminole Negroes," today known as Black Seminoles -- African and slave allies of the Indians, who played a central role in the conflict. The only shortcoming of Mahon's book is its occasional paucity of detail on this group, but readers can usefully complement the book with Kenneth Wiggins Porter's fascinating history of the Black Seminoles. The 2nd Seminole War deserves renewed historical attention. Scholars and general readers alike will find their attention well rewarded by Mahon's excellent history.

http://www.amazon.com/History-Second...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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November 3



By Admiral:

Born...

39 Lucan, Latin poet born in Cordova, Spain ("Bellum Civile")

1470 Edward V of England (Apr 9-Jun 25 1483), done in by Uncle Richard, 1483

1604 Sultan Osman II of Turkey (1618-22)

1718 John Montague, 4th Earl of Sandwich, inventor of the sandwich.

1793 Stephen F. Austin, the "Father of Texas"

1816 Jubal A. Early, Lt Gen, C.S.A., the only man Lee ever sacked, d. 1894

1818 Gustavus Adolphus DeRussy, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1891

1826 Jasper Adalmorn Maltby, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1867

1833 Edward Dorr Tracy, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1863

1844 Sultan Mohammed V Resjad of Turkey (1909-18)

1852 Mutsuhito -- the Meiji -- 122nd Emperor of Japan (1867-1912)

1879 Vilhjalmur Stefansson, Canadaian Arctic explorer/ethnologist

1901 Andre Malraux, resistance fighter, novelist, radical

1901 King Leopold III of Belgium, collaborator

1912 Alfredo Stroessner, dictator of Paraguay

1930 William H Dana, pilot (X-15)

1954 Kevin P Chilton, USAF, Astronaut (STS 49, SK:59)

Died...

361 Constantius II, Roman Emperor, at 44

1254 St. Johan III Dukas Vatatzes, Byzantine Emperor (1222-54)

1926 Annie Oakley, sharpshooter

1970 King Peter II Karadjordjevic of Yugoslavia (1934-45)

Event...

82 -BC- Sulla issues the first "Proscription List"

1394 Jews are expelled from France by Charles VI

1679 Great panic occurs in Europe over the close approach of a comet

1755 Massachusetts will pay for Indian scalps: £30 for Warriors, £20 boys or girls

1762 Spain acquires Louisiana from France (returns it in1800);

1775 A force of 1100 'rebels', commanded by General Benedict Arnold, arrives at the first Canadian homesteads along their 46-day trek through the wilderness from Boston.

1783 The Continental Army is disbanded on General Washingtons order

1813 US troops under Gen Coffee destroy Indian village at Talladega, Alabama

1820 Cuenca, Ecuador declares independence

1839 First Opium War: British frigates engage several Chinese junks

1853 USS Constitution seizes the slaver H.N. Gambrill

1860 Neapolitan Royalists retired from the Garigliano towards Itri

1862 Dr Richard Gatling patents a clever invention

1863 Battle of Grand Coteau, GA

1868 Ulysses Grant won US presidential election.

1869 Louis Riel and a group of Métis soldiers occupy Ft. Garry (Winnipeg). Their action is unopposed by the Hudson Bay Company traders who live in the stronghold as there is no military force available to oppose the raiders.

1888 Jack the Ripper kills his last victim

1896 William McKinley defeated William Jennings Bryan for US President

1903 Colombia grants Panama independence

1908 William Howard Taft elected US President over William Jennings Bryan

1916 Treaty establishes British suzerainty over Qatar

1918 Austro-Hungarian Empire dissolved.

1918 Poland proclaimed independence from Russia after WW I

1931 Dirigible USS Los Angeles makes 10 hour flight out of NAS Lakehurst, NJ, carrying 207 persons, establishing a new record for the number of passengers carried into the air by a single craft.

1935 George II is restored to the Greek throne (1935-1941)

1936 FDR wins landslide victory over Alfred M Landon for US President

1939 U.S. freighter City of Flint is restored to U.S. control at Haugesund, Norway.

1940 Typhoon devastates Guam, M.I., rendering the U.S. Navy Yard at Piti a shambles, damaging the Marine Barracks, blowing away dwellings and poultry, destroying crops and completely disrupting the lives of the native farmers; it also reduces the Pan American Airways hotel to "kindling wood." In addition, one of the recently arrived district patrol craft (YP-16 or YP-17) is sunk; dredge YM-13, being used to dredge a channel near Sumay, Guam, is blown ashore. Greek freighter Axios, in the harbor for repairs, parts her moorings at the height of the typhoon, and despite the fact that she possesses neither harbor chart nor pilot miraculously escapes foundering on nearby reefs. Governor of Guam (Captain George J. McMillin) later praises the people of the island for their "cheerful willingness and unremitting effort...to repair or replace their homes that reflected "character of which any group...might be proud."

1940 Heavy cruiser USS Louisville departs Montevideo, Uruguay, for Buenos Aires, Argentina, as she continues to "show the flag" in Latin American waters.

1940 Rear Admiral John W. Greenslade departs Fort-de-France, Martinique, after concluding talks with Vice Admiral Georges A.M.J. Robert. Among Admiral Greenslade's recommendations: that every effort be made to alleviate the distress of the inhabitants by easing restrictions on frozen assets to allow for purchase of food, medical supplies and gasoline for automobiles and trucks; that the naval observer and U.S. vice consul maintain careful and complete liaison with Vice Admiral Robert; that a patrol plane make daily visits to Fort-de-France to improve communications and survey the situation from the air; and that the patrols off Martinique and Guadaloupe be continued.

1940 German freighter Helgoland, which had departed Colombian waters on 24 October, skirts the Antilles near St. Thomas, Virgin Islands, in her bid for freedom.

1941 Secretary of State Hull releases to the press the correspondence of June and September detailing the German refusal to pay reparations for sinking U.S. freighter Robin Moor on 21 May.

1941 PBYs (VP 73) provide air coverage for convoy ON 31.

1941 Destroyer USS Upshur, escorting convoy HX 157, depth charges sound contact (later determined to be most likely a whale or blackfish) at 56°56'N, 49°21'W.

1942 US Marines on Guadalcanal clear Point Cruz of Japanese troops.

1942 Submarine USS Haddock sinks merchant cargo ship Tekkai Maru in the East China Sea between Shanghai and Korea, 32°02'N, 126°13'E.

1942 Submarine USS Seawolf sinks Japanese transport Sagami Maru off Davao, P.I., 07°02'N, 125°33'E.

1942 Submarine USS Tambor sinks merchant cargo ship Chikugo Maru in Tonkin Gulf, northwest of Hainan Island, 21°18'N, 108°39'E.

1942 U.S. tanker Hahira, in convoy SC 107, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine approximately 400 miles south of Cape Farewell, 54°15'N, 41°57'E; two crewmen and one Armed Guard sailor are killed in the attack. British rescue ship Southport rescues the 36 surviving crewmen and 17 Armed Guard sailors.

1942 U.S. freighter East Indian is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-181 300 miles southwest of the Cape of Good Hope; 17 of the 47-man crewmen and 6 of the 12 passengers perish.

1942 U.S. freighter George Thatcher, torpedoed by German submarine U-126 on 1 November 1942 and abandoned, eventually sinks.

1943 After months of arduous effort, battleship USS Oklahoma, sunk on 7 December 1941 by Japanese aircraft, is refloated at Pearl Harbor.

1943 U.S. Navy PB4Ys sink Japanese stores ship Minato Maru 19 miles off Ocean Island, 00°53'S, 169°35'E.

1943 USAAF B-24s bomb Japanese light cruiser IJN Naka (near-miss) and transport (ex-armed merchant cruiser) Kiyozumi Maru off central New Ireland, 02°00'S, 151°30'E; light cruiser IJN Isuzu takes the damaged auxiliary in tow.

1943 USAAF B-24s bomb Japanese ships en route to Rabaul, but score no damage upon their targets, transport (ex-armed merchant cruiser) Gokoku Maru and destroyer IJN Urakaze.

1943 A detachment of the 3d Raider Battalion occupied Torokina Island, Solomon Islands, in support operations at Bougainville.

1944 Japanese began release of 9,000 balloons to start fires in America.

1944 Japanese aircraft attack air facilities on Saipan and Tinian as part of a series of strikes on this area from which heavy bombing missions against their home islands are launched.

1944 Japanese planes raid U.S. shipping and airfield facilities at Tacloban, Leyte; U.S. freighter Matthew P. Deady is crashed by kamikaze that is engaged with intense antiaircraft fire from the Armed Guard; the explosion of the crashing suicide plane starts a fire in the cargo that threatens the ship. Although firefighting efforts are successful, two Armed Guard sailors (of the 27-man detachment) and 26 troops (of the 300 on board) perish in the attack.

1944 Light cruiser USS Reno is damaged by Japanese submarine I-41 off Leyte, 13°46'N, 131°27'E.28

1944 Submarine USS Cero lands men and supplies on east coast of Luzon.

1944 Submarine USS Gurnard attacks Japanese convoy in the South China Sea, and sinks merchant cargo ship Taimei Maru about 275 miles west of Labuan, Borneo, 05°48'N, 111°12'E.

1944 Submarine USS Pintado attacks small detachment of Japanese warships and sinks destroyer IJN Akikaze 160 miles west of Lingayen Gulf, 16°50'N, 117°29'E.

1944 Submarine USS Pomfret sinks Japanese army cargo ship Hamburg Maru in Bashi Channel, 20°19'N, 121°30'E. Transport Atlas Maru, torpedoed by USS Pomfret the previous day, is beached, a total loss, off Sabtang Island, 20°18'N, 121°51'E.

1944 Japanese merchant cargo ship Shino Maru is sunk by aircraft off Palau.

1944 Destroyer USS Woolsey shells German troop concentrations near Franco-Italian border.

1950 Chinese Communists attacked the 1st Marine Division northwest of Hungnam, Korea.

1956 USS Cambria removes 24 members of United Nations Truce Commission team from the Gaza Strip. USS Chilton, USS Thuban, and USS Fort Snelling evacuate more than 1,500 U.S. and foreign nationals from Egypt and Israel because of the fighting.

1957 USSR launches Sputnik 2 with the dog Laika, the first animal in orbit

1961 After Hurricane Hattie, helicopters from USS Antietam begin relief operations at British Honduras providing medical personnel, medical supplies, general supplies, and water.

1962 Wilt Chamberlain of NBA San Francisco Warriors scores 72 points vs Los Angeles Lakers.

1964 LBJ defeated Barry Goldwater for US President

1970 Salvador Allende inaugurated as president of Chile

1973 Mariner 10 launched-1st Venus pics, 1st mission to Mercury

1978 UK granted Dominica independence

1979 Iranians revolutionarys took 63 Americans hostage from the US embassy in Teheran

1984 3,000 die in 3 day anti-Sikh riot in India. Body of assassinated Indian PM Indira Gandhi cremated

1986 Lebanese magazine Ash Shirra reveals secret US arms sales to Iran

1988 Talk-show host Geraldo Rivera's nose is broken as Roy Innis brawls with Neo-Nazis at TV taping

1988 Pakistan claims it downed Afghan warplane

1992 Wm J Clinton defeated incumbent George H W Bush for US President

By Cap. Teancum:

1443 - Battle of Morawa. Outnumbered, Hungarians attack and defeat Turkish army.

1781 - Dutch-Mysore garrison surrenders Negapatam to the British.

1867 - Battle of Mentana. Despite personal leadership by Garibaldi himself, French and Papal troops defeat Garibaldians.

1883 - Battle of Kashgal. After stubborn three day resistance, Egyptian troops massacred by Mahdists.

1941 - The order is given: Bomb Pearl Harbor. On this day in 1941, the Combine Japanese Fleet receive Top-Secret Order No. 1: In 34 days time, Pearl Harbor is to be bombed, along with Mayala, the Dutch East Indies, and the Philippines.

Relations between the United States and Japan had been deteriorating quickly since Japan's occupation of Indochina in 1940 and the implicit menacing of the Philippines (an American protectorate), with the occupation of the Cam Ranh naval base only eight miles from Manila. American retaliation included the seizing of all Japanese assets in the States and the closing of the Panama Canal to Japanese shipping. In September 1941, Roosevelt issued a statement, drafted by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, that threatened war between the United States and Japan should the Japanese encroach any further on territory in Southeast Asia or the South Pacific.

The Japanese military had long dominated Japanese foreign affairs; although official negotiations between the U.S. secretary of state and his Japanese counterpart to ease tensions were ongoing, Hideki Tojo, the minister of war who would soon be prime minister, had no intention of withdrawing from captured territories. He also construed the American "threat" of war as an ultimatum and prepared to deliver the first blow in a Japanese-American confrontation: the bombing of Pearl Harbor.

And so Tokyo delivered the order to all pertinent Fleet commanders, that not only the United States-and its protectorate the Philippines--but British and Dutch colonies in the Pacific were to be attacked. War was going to be declared on the West.

1956 - Soviet army invaded Hungary.

1967 - Battle of Dak To begins. In some of the heaviest fighting seen in the Central Highlands area, heavy casualties are sustained by both sides in bloody battles around Dak To, about 280 miles north of Saigon near the Cambodian border.

The 1,000 U.S. troops there were reinforced with 3,500 additional troops from the U.S. 4th Division and the 173rd Airborne Brigade. They faced four communist regiments of about 6,000 troops. The climax of the operation came in a savage battle from November 19-22 for Hill 875, 12 miles southwest of Dak To. The 173rd was victorious, forcing the North Vietnamese to abandon their last defensive line on the ridge of Hill 875, but the victory was a costly one because the paratroopers suffered the loss of 135 men, 30 of whom died as a result of an accidental U.S. air strike on U.S. positions. In the 19 days of action, North Vietnam fatalities were estimated at 1,455. Total U.S. casualties included 285 killed, 985 wounded, and 18 missing.

During this battle, the North Vietnamese failed to achieve one of their main objectives, which was the destruction of an American unit. They came close, but the Americans, despite heavy losses, had achieved the true victory: they mauled three enemy regiments so badly that they were unavailable for the Tet Offensive that the Communists launched in late January 1968.

1969 - Nixon calls on the "silent majority". President Richard Nixon goes on television and radio to call for national solidarity on the Vietnam War effort and to gather support for his policies; his call for support is an attempt to blunt the renewed strength of the antiwar movement.

Pledging that the United States was "going to keep our commitment in Vietnam," he said U.S. forces would continue fighting until the communists agreed to a fair and honorable peace, or until the South Vietnamese were able to defend themselves on their own. He said that he had already withdrawn 60,000 U.S. troops and would make additional reductions as the situation permitted. He also reported progress in the "Vietnamization" effort to increase the combat capability of South Vietnam's armed forces so that they could assume more responsibility for the war. Having provided this perspective on the situation, he then appealed to the American people, calling on the "great silent majority" for their support as he worked for "peace with honor" in Vietnam.

A Gallup Poll survey carried out in the wake of the president's speech indicated that 77 percent were in support of Nixon's policy in Vietnam. Congressional reaction to the president's speech was also overwhelmingly favorable. Although Senator J. William Fulbright (D-Arkansas) and other congressmen and senators who opposed the war questioned the president's sincerity, more than 300 congressmen and 40 senators cosponsored resolutions supporting the president's efforts to make peace and bring the war to an honorable end.
__________________
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  #1332  
Old 03 Nov 06, 16:53
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Today's event:

1775 A force of 1100 'rebels', commanded by General Benedict Arnold, arrives at the first Canadian homesteads along their 46-day trek through the wilderness from Boston.

Today's book:

Through a Howling Wilderness: Benedict Arnold's March to Quebec, 1775 by Thomas A. Desjardin

Book Review:

Having thouroughly enjoyed Desjardin's Stand Firm Ye Boys From Maine, I eagerly anticipated reading this book. I was a little disappointed..

The Quebec invasion was actually an expedition and then a battle, and while Desjardin's handling of the battle is well written, his account of the expedition is sometimes dull and tedious and tends to bog down like the quagmire that he is describing.

Having read books about Franklin's, Scott's and Amundsen's expeditions, I was somewhat bored by Desjardin's treatment of the Quebec expedition. Yes they were different types of expeditions, but they all involved courage, suffering and sacrifice. One possible reason for Dejardin's being less exciting is that there are more accounts of Arnold's expedition then of Franklin's (everyone died) and Scott's, which means that Desjardin had less room to speculate or to 'novel-ize' in his book. The book is very well researched, so much so that at some points it seems as if Desjardin wrote the story around the quotes, rather then using the quotes to back up his story.

There are a few parts in the book that left me scratching my head. On page 112 after writing about the quagmire that the men had walked through with mud up to their knees, Desjardin writes 'In ten hours, they had covered just 20 miles'. This is actually an incredible pace. 20 miles is a good day on a backpacking trip, so to cover that much in 10 hours through a quagmire is unbelievable.

Another low point for the book was the end. The book ends at the bottom of a page, and I literally turned the page expecting there to be more.. There wasn't.. It was almost as if Dejardin had nothing left to say, so he just stopped writing.

On the positive side, the description of the battle is good, but what really saves the book is Dejardin's theory that the failure to seize Quebec actually helped to win the war. Desjardin's arguments backing this theory are very compelling.

So while the 'Invasion of Quebec' is an important part of US History, involving great courage and sacrifice, I would hope that there is a better book out there by which to learn about it.


http://www.amazon.com/Through-Howlin...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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  #1333  
Old 04 Nov 06, 13:45
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November 4



By Admiral:

Born...

1650 William III of Orange, King of England (1689-1702)

1816 William Polk Hardeman, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1898

1818 Alexander Robert Lawton, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896

1820 Robert Vinkler Richardson, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1870

1835 Lunsford Lindsay Lomax, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1913

1842 William Barker Cushing, naval hero, U.S., d. 1874

1916 Walter Cronkite, war correspondent

Died...

644 Caliph Umar, assassinated at Medina by his successor, Uthman

1203 Count Dirk VII of Holland

1918 Wilfred Owen, war poet (Anthem for Doomed Youth), KIA at 25

1921 Takashi Hara, premier of Japan, murdered

1940 Manuel Azana y Diez, President, Spanish Republic (1936-39), at 60

1970 King Peter II of Yugoslavia (1934-1945), in exile in the US

1995 Yitzhak Rabin, IDF Chief of Staff, diplomat and the fifth Prime Minister of the State of Israel, at 73

Event...

644 Uthman becomes Caliph, having assassinated his predecessor

1576 Spanish defeat Walloons and take Antwerp

1619 Frederik V crowned king of Bohemia

1677 William of Orange marries Mary Stuart (William & Mary of England)

1760 Battle of Torgau: Frederick the Great defeats the Austrians

1791 Kekionga: Little Turtle's Miamis almost annihilate the U.S. Army

1840 British, Turkish, Austrian fleets capture Acre, Palestine, from the Egyptians

1854 Lighthouse established on Alcatraz Island

1860 Mola: Piedmontese-Italians drove Neapolitan Royalists back on Gaeta

1861 Skirmish at Port Royal, SC

1862 Richard J. Gatling receives a patent for a "rapid fire gun." The Gatling Gun

1864 Naval Engagement at Reynoldsburg Island

1866 Kingdom of Italy annexes Venetia

1879 James & John Ritty patent 1st cash register, to combat stealing by bartenders in their Dayton, Ohio saloon (What else can I say but that it was Combat!)

1884 Grover Cleveland beats James G Blaine for his 1st presidential term

1890 Great Britain proclaims Zanzibar as a protectorate.

1903 US Naval Academy defeats New York Naval Militia in football, 28-0

1905 The last British troops posted to Canada sailed for Great Britain. British troops had been in the Dominion since the fall of Louisbourg in 1758.

1915 Third Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Oct 18)

1916 Ninth Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Nov 1)

1918 Austria-Hungary concludes and armistice with Italy.

1918 Kiel, Germany, falls into the in hands of revolutionary sailors

1918 Canadian troops chase the German Army eastward. Today, the enemy makes a stand on the Belgian border but is soon overwhelmed by allied artillery fire.

1939 Neutrality Act of 1939 becomes law. It repeals the arms embargo and substitutes a policy of "cash and carry," prohibits U.S. vessels and citizens from entering combat zones, and establishes National Munitions Control Board composed of the Secretaries of State, Treasury, War, Navy and Commerce.

1939 President Roosevelt declares area around British Isles a combat zone.

1940 The Netherlands: Nazis begin rationing of eggs & cake

1941 PBYs (VP 73) provide air coverage for convoy ON 31.

1941 British RFA oiler Olwen reports German surface raider attack at 03°04'N, 22°42'W. Commander-in-Chief, South Atlantic, Vice Admiral Algernon U. Willis, RN, orders heavy cruiser HMS Dorsetshire (accompanied by armed merchant cruiser HMS Canton) to investigate. Light cruiser HMS Dunedin and special service vessels HMS Queen Emma and HMS Princess Beatrix are ordered to depart Freetown, Sierra Leone to join in the search. HMS Dorsetshire and HMS Canton part company, with the former heading southeast and the latter steaming toward a position to the northwest, to be supported by TG 3.6, light cruiser USS Omaha and destroyer USS Somers, which are at that time well to the northwest of the reported enemy position. Light cruiser USS Memphis and destroyers USS Davis and USS Jouett, near to Olwen's position, search the area without result; USS Omaha and USS Somers search unsuccessfully for survivors.

1942 TG 65.4 cruisers and destroyers bombard Japanese positions near Koli Point, Guadalcanal.

1942 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-31 reconnoiters Suva, Fiji Islands; small reconnaissance seaplane from I-9 reconnoiters Nouméa, New Caledonia.

1942 Japanese submarine RO-65 is sunk when she accidentally dives into a reef while seeking to avoid attack, Kiska harbor, 51°58'N, 177°33'E.

1942 Submarines USS Shad, USS Gunnel, USS Herring, USS Barb, and USS Blackfish are deployed to reconnoiter French North African waters off Rabat, Fedala, Casablanca, Safi, and Dakar, in advance of Operation TORCH.

1942 U.S. freighter John H. B. Latrobe, proceeding independently from Reykjavik, Iceland, to Archangel, USSR, is attacked by HE 115s at 74°37'N, 02°00'E. Withering Armed Guard gunfire disrupts the attack by the enemy floatplanes and none of the seven torpedoes launched strike home; strafing, however, slightly damages the merchantman, and 3 of the 25-man Armed Guard are wounded. John H.B. Latrobe returns to Reykjavik for repairs.

1942 U.S. freighter William Clark, proceeding independently from Hvalfjordur, Iceland, to Murmansk, USSR, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-354 at 71°05'N, 13°20'W. Survivors abandon ship into three lifeboats.

1942 Australian 16th Brigade begins an attack on Oivi, on the Kokoda Trail.

1943 Aircraft from No.6 Bomber Group, RCAF, joined in a 577-aircraft raid against the German industrial city of Dusseldorf. The Canadian aircrews could see the target indicators clearly on this night and dropped their bombs into the growing conflagration below them.

1943 Submarine USS Seawolf sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Kaifuku Maru 90 miles south-southwest of Hong Kong, 21°22'N, 113°20'E.

1943 Submarine USS Silversides lays minefield off New Ireland; Japanese surveying ship Tsukushi and transport Ryosan Maru are sunk; light cruiser IJN Isuzu and destroyer IJN Isokaze, damaged.

1943 Submarine USS Tautog unsuccessfully attacks Japanese convoy, 07°45'N, 134°09'E.

1943 Navy fighter aircraft damage Japanese cargo vessel Giyu Maru, Matchin Bay, Bougainville, 05°28'S, 154°45'E.

1943 USAAF B-25s sink Japanese cargo ship Chinko Maru, Swatow harbor, China, 23°20'N, 116°50'E; Chinko Maru carries down with her 100,000,000 Yuan in Central Reserve Bank notes.

1943 USAAF B-24s damage Japanese cargo vessel Nissho Maru, in company with destroyer IJN Amatsukaze, 00°20'N, 150°40'E.

1943 Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 30 is sunk by aircraft off Palau Islands, 06°10'S, 155°35'E.

1944 Japanese air attacks on Saipan and Tinian.

1944 Submarines USS Bream, USS Guitarro and USS Ray attack Japanese convoy off western Luzon, all three team up to sink transport Kagu Maru off Dasol Bay, 15°55'N, 119°44'E. USS Guitarro torpedoes landing ship T.111, 15°56'N, 119°44'E.

1944 Submarine USS Sailfish damages Japanese destroyer IJN Harukaze and landing ship T.111 in Luzon Strait, 20°08'N, 121°43'E. Although damaged by aerial bombs, 20°09'N, 121°43'E, the submarine remains on patrol; Patrol Boat No.38 takes the damaged IJN Harukaze in tow and brings her into port.

1944 British submarine HMS Terrapin attacks Japanese convoy in Malacca Strait, and sinks minesweeper W.5, 03°14'N,99°50'E.

1944 U.S. freighter Frank J. Cuhel is damaged by friendly fire while anchored off Tacloban, Leyte; the explosion of a shell wounds one of the 500 troops being transported by the ship, and 2 of the 28-man Armed Guard. During Japanese air attack shortly thereafter, freighter Cape Constance is damaged when a kamikaze, having been hit by the heavy fire being put up by the Armed Guard gunners, explodes over the ship and scatters wreckage. Only the Armed Guard officer is wounded during the attack; there are no other casualties among the 41-man merchant complement and the 28-man Armed Guard.

1944 Destroyers USS Benson and USS Woolsey bombard German gun emplacements in Cap Ampeglio area.

1948 Col Katherine Towle became the first director of women Marines as regulars and not reservists.

1950 US troops retreat from Pyongyang, North Korea

1952 Dwight Eisenhower elected 34th US President beating Adlai Stevenson

1956 Israel captures Straits of Tiran and reach Suez Canal, Egypt

1956 200,000 Russian troops begin suppression of (anti-Stalinist) Hungarian Revolution in Budapest

1957 2nd Soviet Earth-satellite launched

1958 Former Sergeant of Infantry Angelo Roncalli crowned Pope John XXIII

1966 Arno River floods Florence, Italy. 113 die, countless treasures destroyed

1967 Landing craft from USS Navarro rescue 43 men from British SS Habib Marikar aground on a reef at Lincoln Island in the Tonkin Gulf.

1971 USS Nathanael Greene launches a Poseidon C-3 missile in first surface launch of Poseidon missile.

1976 The first US Marine Corps Marathon kicked off in Washington, DC.

1978 Iranian troops fire on anti-Shah student protesters by Tehran U

1979 500 Iranian "students" seize US embassy, take 90 hostages (held by Islamic revolutionarys for 444 days)

1980 Ronald Reagan defeated President Jimmy Carter by a landslide to become US President

1990 Iraq says it is preparing for a "dangerous war"

1990 Secretary of State James Baker visits US troops in Saudi Arabia

1991 Mid East peace conference ends in Madrid Spain

By Cap. Teancum:

1853 - Battle of Oltenitza. Turks overwhelm Russians at Wallachia. First Turkish victory over Russians in more than 100 years.

1864 - Battle of Johnsonville, Tennessee. Confederate General Nathan Bedford Forrest subjects a Union supply base at Johnsonville, Tennessee, to a devastating artillery barrage that destroys millions of dollars in materiel.

This action was part of a continuing effort by the Confederates to disrupt the Federal lines that supplied General William T. Sherman's army in Georgia. In the summer of 1864, Sherman captured Atlanta, and by November he was planning his march across Georgia. Meanwhile, the defeated Confederates hoped that destroying his line would draw Sherman out of the Deep South. Nobody was better at raiding than Forrest, but Union pursuit had kept him in Mississippi during the Atlanta campaign.

In the fall, Forrest mounted an ambitious raid on Union supply routes in western Tennessee and Kentucky. Johnsonville was an important transfer point from boats on the Tennessee River to a rail line that connected with Nashville to the east. When Sherman sent part of his army back to Nashville to protect his supply lines, Forrest hoped to apply pressure to that force. Forrest began moving part of his force to Johnsonville on October 16, but most of his men were not in place until early November. Incredibly, the Union forces, which numbered about 2,000, seem to have been completely unaware of the Confederates just across the river. Forrest brought up artillery and began a barrage at 2 p.m. on November 5. The attack was devastating. One observer noted, "The wharf for nearly one mile up and down the river presented one solid sheet of flame." More than $6 million worth of supplies were destroyed, along with four gunboats, 14 transports, and 20 barges. General George Thomas, commander of the Union force at Nashville, had to divert troops to protect Johnsonville.

After the raid, Forrest's reputation grew, but the raid did not deter Sherman from embarking on the March to the Sea, his devastating expedition across Georgia.

1942 - With only 30 serviceable tanks, Rommel begins withdrawal from El Alamein.

1944 - On this day in 1944, British Gen. John Dill dies in Washington, D.C., and is buried in Arlington Cemetery, the only foreigner to be so honored.

Born on Christmas Day, 1881, in County Armagh, Ireland, Dill was a military man from his earliest years, serving in the South African War at age 18, then in World War I. He was promoted to the office of director of military operations and intelligence of the British War Office in 1934 and knighted for service to the empire in 1937.

When the Second World War broke out he was already serving as chief of the imperial general staff and renowned for his gifts as a strategist. It was his decision to reinforce the British position in Egypt with 150 tanks in August 1940, despite a shortage of such armaments back home. And in March 1941, he championed Britain's defense of Greece against the Axis invasion.

But such early strategic successes were followed up by more cautious decision-making, which disturbed Prime Minister Winston Churchill, who favored more aggressive maneuvers against the enemy. Consequently, Churchill removed Dill from his post and transferred him to the United States, to become chief British military representative to Washington. It was there that Dill developed a close personal friendship with George C. Marshall, the U.S. chief of staff, which resulted in a closer U.S.-British alliance.

Upon Dill's death, it was Marshall who intervened to have Dill buried at Arlington National Cemetery, normally reserved only for Americans who had served their nation during wartime. Dill's plot is also marked by only one of two equestrian statues in the cemetery.

1969 - South Vietnamese battle communists along the Cambodian border. In the biggest battle in four months, South Vietnamese infantry, supported by U.S. planes and artillery, clash with North Vietnamese troops for 10 hours near Duc Lop near the Cambodian border. Eighty communist troops were reported killed. South Vietnamese losses included 24 killed and 38 wounded.

1970 - U.S. hands over air base to the Vietnamese Air Force. The United States hands over an air base in the Mekong Delta to the Vietnamese Air Force (VNAF) as part of the Vietnamization program. President Richard Nixon initiated this program in 1969 to increase the fighting capability of South Vietnam so they could assume more responsibility for the war. It included the provision of new equipment and weapons and an intensified advisory effort. Secretary of the Air Force Robert Seamans and Gen. Creighton Abrams, commander of Military Assistance Command Vietnam, attended the ceremony. The air base became the home of two South Vietnamese helicopter squadrons, with the United States providing 62 aircraft, 31 of which were turned over along with the air base. By 1973, after additional equipment and aircraft transfers had been made to VNAF, the air base had a fleet of 1,700 aircraft, including more than 500 helicopters.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1334  
Old 04 Nov 06, 13:52
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Today's event:

1760 Battle of Torgau: Frederick the Great defeats the Austrians

Today's book:

Frederick the Great: A Life in Deed and Letters by Giles MacDonogh

Book Review:

In a society stuffed with anglophiles and, more recently, celticphiles, we have little history available on Middle Europe and its grandeur. We know that it produced the most terrible army of the 20th Century. We also know of colorful snippets about how 18th Century German mercenaries lent a hand in Britain's fruitless effort to keep 13 American colonies from becoming an indepent nation.
The book gives a much deserved look at how Middle Europe's nations evolved through marriage, annexing and (naturlich) war. Frederick is taken off of his pedestal for us to take a closer look, and the authors shows us Frederick's warts and all. His family, especially his father, plays a vitol role in the book, which the author infers that this is a key element in driving Frederick to succeed.

If there is a shortcoming in the book, it would be the battles. Though the book was not published to be a historical guide on tactics and strategics, I would like to know more on how the protagonist became so land rich at Prussia's zenith.


http://www.amazon.com/Frederick-Grea...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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  #1335  
Old 05 Nov 06, 13:48
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November 5



By Admiral:

Born...

1818 Benjamin F. Butler, Union general who knew how to treat Southern "ladies", d. 1893

1825 Julius H Stahel-Szamvald, Maj Gen, U.S.

1832 William Woods Averell, Maj Gen, U.S.,, d. 1900

1895 Will Durant, historian ("The Story of Civilization");

1902 Strom Thurmond, D-Day veteran, segregationist

Died...

1370 King Casimir III the Great of Poland (1333-70), at 61

1989 Barry Sadler, soldier, singer (Green Berets)

1990 Meir Kahane, radical Jewish nationalist, assassinated

Event...

1605 Gunpowder Plot; Convinced that the Spanish would not help the English Catholics, Robert Catesby concieved the plot, enlisting Christopher and John Wright and Thomas Winter, and later Guy Fawkes and Thomas Percy in an attempt to try to blow up English Parliament. The plot was discovered & thwarted. Catesby was later tracked down & shot in company of other conspirators as they resisted. His head was sent to London and stuck upon the roof of the House of Commons.


1666 A French invasion force of 1200 men returned to Quebec after a punitive expedition against Mohawk settlements. There were no casualties from battle although 8 men drown while crossing Lake Champlain.

1688 King William III lands in England, initiating the "Glorious Revolution"

1757 Seven Years' War: Frederick the Great's victory at Rossbach

1775 Commodore Esek Hopkins appointed Commander in Chief of the Continental Navy.

1811 El Salvador rises against Spain for the first time.

1814 American troops occupying Ft. Erie finished mining the structure and blew it up. They then re-crossed the Niagara River to Buffalo, ending yet another fruitless invasion of Canada.

1838 Honduras declares independence from the Central American Federation

1860 Piedmontese-Italian forces occupy Itri

1862 Ambrose Burnside replaces McClellan as head of Army of the Potomac

1865 CSS Shenandoah surrenders in Britain, nine months after Appomattox.

1872 Susan B Anthony fined $100 for trying to vote for Ulysses S Grant.

1875 Susan B Anthony arrested for attempting to vote again.

1901 US Marines participated in the Battle of Sohotan River, Samar, during the Philippine Insurrection.

1911 Italy attacks Turkey, takes Tipoli & Cyrenaica

1912 Woodrow Wilson beats Theodore Roosevelt & President Taft for US Presidency.

1913 Ludwig III crowned king of Bavaria

1914 Britain, France, & Russia declare war on Turkey. Britain annexes Cyprus.

1914 British 6th Indian Div lands at Basra, Iraq to secure oil fields.

1915 In AB-2 flying boat, LCDR Henry C. Mustin makes first underway catapult launch from a ship, USS North Carolina, at Pensacola Bay, FL.

1915 US Marines under Major Smedley D. Butler captured the stronghold at Fort Capois, Haiti.

1916 Germany and Austria-Hungary proclaim the "independent" Kingdom of Poland.

1917 German submarine torpedoes USS Alcedo off the French coast.

1917 General Pershing & US troops see action on Western Front for 1st time

1923 Tests designed to prove the feasibility of launching a small seaplane from a submarine occur at Hampton Roads Naval Base. A Martin MS-1, stored disassembled in a tank on board USS S-1, was removed and assembled. Then the submarine submerged allowing the plane to float free and take off.

1939 U.S. freighter Black Condor is detained by British authorities at Weymouth, England; freighter Scanmail is detained by the British at Kirkwall, Orkneys. Part of her cargo is seized; steamship President Polk is detained by the British at Port Said, Egypt, and certain items of her cargo confiscated for inquiry; freighter Black Eagle, detained by the British since 26 October, is released.

1940 FDR won unprecedented 3rd term, beating Wendell Willkie for Presidency.

1941 Oiler Laramie was rammed by Panamanian freighter Montrose, Tunugdliark Fjord, Narsarssuak, Greenland, but suffers no damage in the accidental encounter caused by stormy weather.

1941 Search for German raider reported by British RFA oiler Olwen the previous day continued; Commander-in-Chief South Atlantic (Vice Admiral Algernon U. Willis, RN) informed British ships of the unsuccessful efforts by the five U.S. ships (two light cruisers and three destroyers) involved in the search the previous day.

1941 Rear Admiral Francis W. Rockwell relieved Captain Herbert J. Ray as Commandant, Sixteenth Naval District and Commander, Philippine Naval Coastal Frontier. Ray had been acting in that capacity due to the illness of Rear Admiral Harold M. Bemis.

1942 British submarine HMS Seraph, under the temporary command of U.S. Navy Captain Jerauld Wright, embarked General Giraud and a party of French officers in the Gulf of Lyons. The general transfered to a Catalina on the 7th for further transportation to Gibraltar.

1942 PBY (VP 84) sinks German submarine U-408 off Iceland, 67°40'N, 18°32'W.

1942 U.S. tanker Meton, enroute to Cienfuegos, Cuba, in convoy TAG 18, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-129 at 12°25'N, 69°20'W; one merchant seaman dies in the attack. Dutch motor torpedo boat MTB 23 rescues the survivors (37 merchant seamen and the 12-man Armed Guard).

1942 Madagascar: Vichy French surrender to the British at Fort Dauphin.

1943 USAAF B-24s sink Japanese fishing vessel No.1 Kanto Maru seven miles north of Kieta, 06°15'S, 155°25'E.

1943 PB4Ys (VB 107) and USAAF B-25s sink German submarine U-848, 480 miles southwest of Ascension Island, 10°09'S, 18°00'W.

1943 TF 38 aircraft attack Rabaul. Planes from carrier USS Saratoga and small carrier USS Princeton bomb Japanese warships damage heavy cruisers IJN Atago, IJN Takao, IJN Maya, IJN Chikuma, and IJN Mogami; light cruisers IJN Noshiro and IJN Agano; and destroyers IJN Fujinami and IJN Amagiri.

1943 U.S. Submarine USS Halibut damages Japanese carrier IJN Junyo, enroute to Truk, in the Bungo Channel, 32°19'N, 132°58'E; heavy cruiser IJN Tone tows the damaged ship to Kure.

1944 TF 38 begins two days of carrier strikes on Luzon, targeting Japanese aircraft, airfields, and shipping. TG 38.3 attacks warships and auxiliaries in Manila Bay, where planes from carriers USS Lexington and USS Essex, and small carrier USS Langley sink heavy cruiser IJN Nachi five nautical miles west of Corregidor. F6Fs from TG 38.3 sink Patrol Boat No.107 [ex-U.S. tug Genessee (AT-55)] off Lubang Island, 14°23'N, 120°25'E. Navy carrier-based planes (TG 38.3 hitting targets in Manila Bay, TG 38.1 targets off Santa Cruz) damage destroyer IJN Akebono and escort destroyer IJN Okinawa, landing ship T.111, motor sailship Tanoguchi Maru and cargo ships Toyo Maru and Showa Maru. During Japanese retaliatory air strikes, kamikaze damages carrier USS Lexington, 16°20'N, 123°59'E.

1944 Motor torpedo boat PT-320 is damaged by aerial bomb off Leyte, 11°11'N, 125°05'E.

1944 Japanese merchant ship No.11 Bakshu Maru is sunk by mine off Penang.

1944 USAAF B-29s fly from Chinese bases to bomb Singapore, damaging Japanese fleet tanker Notoro while she lies in drydock at Selatar, 01°18N, 103°52'E.

1945 Ensign Jake C. West (VF-41) makes first jet landing on board a carrier, USS Wake Island. He experienced a failure of his piston engine & was forced to land on his auxillary jet engine

1949 First enlisted pilots to fly "Shooting Star" begin training at El Toro.

1952 French Mystere 4 flies 1,100 kph

1956 Operation Musketeer: Britain & France capture Port Said and the northern entrance to the Suez Canal. It was the first assault landing by helicopter-borne troops.

1964 US launches Mariner 3 toward Mars; no data returned.

1967 ATS-3 launched by US to take 1st pictures of full Earth disk.

1978 Iranian PM Jaafar Sharif-Emami resigns to Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlavi.

By Cap. Teancum:

1556 - Mughal victory assures Akbar's ascension. Fifty miles north of Delhi, a Mughal army defeats the forces of Hemu, a Hindu general who was trying to usurp the Mughal throne from 14-year-old Akbar, the recently proclaimed emperor. The Mughals, whose culture blended Perso-Islamic and regional Indian elements, established an empire in the north of India in the early 16th century. Victory at Panipat assured Akbar's ascension, but the empire he inherited from his father was greatly diminished after decades of Mughal defeats against the Hindus and Afghans.

Under a series of able regents and then under his own brilliant leadership, Akbar brought the Mughal empire to unprecedented glory, extending Mughal power over most of the Indian subcontinent. Akbar the Great, as he is known, was as capable an administrator as he was a general, and he twice married Hindu princesses to ensure the unity of his empire. Although he never renounced Islam, he took an active interest in other religions and his court was a center of learning and culture. Akbar died in 1605. The Mughal Empire declined in the 18th century.

1854 - Battle of Inkerman. In dense fog, Russians attacked British but were beaten off incurring large losses.

1862 - Lincoln removes McClellan. A tortured relationship ends when President Lincoln removes General George B. McClellan from command of the Army of the Potomac. McClellan ably built the army in the early stages of the war but was a sluggish and paranoid field commander who seemed unable to muster the courage to aggressively engage General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia.

McClellan was a promising commander who served as a railroad president before the war. In the early stages of the conflict, troops under McClellan's command scored several important victories in the struggle for western Virginia. Lincoln summoned "Young Napoleon," as some called the general, to Washington to take control of the Army of the Potomac a few days after its humiliating defeat at the Battle of First Bull Run in July. Over the next nine months, McClellan capably built a splendid army, drilling his troops and assembling an efficient command structure. He also developed extreme contempt for the president, and he often dismissed Lincoln's suggestions out of hand. In 1862, McClellan led the army down Chesapeake Bay to the James Peninsula, southeast of the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia. During this campaign, he exhibited the timidity and sluggishness that later doomed him. During the Seven Days' battles, McClellan was poised near Richmond but retreated when faced with a series of attacks by Lee. McClellan always believed that he was vastly outnumbered, though he actually had the numerical advantage. He spent the rest of the summer camped on the peninsula while Lincoln began moving much of his command to General John Pope's Army of Virginia.

After Lee defeated Pope at the Second Battle of Bull Run in late August, he invaded Maryland. With the Confederates crashing into Union territory, Lincoln had no choice but to turn to McClellan to gather the reeling Yankee forces and stop Lee. On September 17, 1962, McClellan and Lee battled to a standstill along Antietam Creek near Sharpsburg. Lee retreated back to Virginia and McClellan ignored Lincoln's constant urging to pursue him. For six weeks, Lincoln and McClellan exchanged angry messages, but McClellan stubbornly refused to march after Lee. In late October, McClellan finally began moving across the Potomac in feeble pursuit of Lee, but he took nine days to complete the crossing. Lincoln had seen enough. Convinced that McClellan could never defeat Lee, Lincoln notified the general on November 4 of his removal. A few days later, Lincoln named General Ambrose Burnside to be the commander of the Army of the Potomac.

After his removal, McClellan battled with Lincoln once more-for the presidency in 1864. McClellan won the Democratic nomination but was easily defeated by his old boss.

1912 - Battle of Monastir. Combined Serbian , Greek victory over Turks in Macedonia.

1970 - U.S. combat deaths down. U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam reports the lowest weekly death toll in five years. Twenty-four Americans died in combat during the last week of October, the fifth consecutive week that the U.S. death toll was under 50. Although the numbers of American dead were down, 431 were wounded during the reported period, mostly from mines, booby traps, and mortar and sniper fire.

The reduced number of U.S. casualties reflected the gradual transfer of the responsibility for the war to the South Vietnamese under President Nixon's Vietnamization program. While U.S. troops were still conducting combat operations, more and more of them were being withdrawn from Vietnam and the nature of their operations became more defensive.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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