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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1276  
Old 06 Oct 06, 11:04
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Real Name: Luis Manuel Ribeiro Alves dos Reis
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1884 Naval War College is established in a former poor house at Newport, RI, (General Order 325)

Today's book:

The Naval War College, Ri by Lionel D. Wyld

First Sentence:

The Naval War College was the first professional senior naval educational center of its kind in the world.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1277  
Old 07 Oct 06, 08:42
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
October 7



By Admiral:

Born...

1728 Caesar Rodney, signed Declaration of Independence, d. 1784

1748 King Charles XIII of Sweden (1809-18) and Norway (1814-18)

1817 Bushrod Rust Johnson, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1880

1821 Richard Heron Anderson, Lt Gen, C.S.A., d. 1879

1821 William Sill, Stationmaster on the Underground Railroad

1826 William Brimage Bate, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1905

1841 King Nicolai Petrovic Njegos of Montenegro (1910-1918)

1854 Christiaan R de Wet, Boer General

1879 Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary leader/writer (Diary in Exile), idealistic mass murderer

1906 James E Webb head of NASA (1961-68)

1931 Desmond Tutu, Nobel Peace Prize (1982)

1934 Ulrike Meinhof, German leftwing terrorist

1943 Oliver L North, Colonel, USMC, Reagans man at arms

Died...

929 King Charles III of France (893-929)

1777 Simon Fraser, English general, KIA

1780 Maj Patrick Ferguson, British military reformer, KIA, King's Mountain

1800 Gabriel, rebel slave leader hanged in Virginia

1849 Edgar Allen Poe, West Point drop out, at 40

Event...

1571 Turkish fleet defeated by Spanish & Italians in the Battle of Lepanto

1690 English attack Quebec

1759 Ex-King Carlo III sails from Naples to become Carlos III of Spain

1765 The Stamp Act Congress convenes in NY

1777 Americans win the Second Battle of Saratoga (Bemis Heights)

1780 British defeated by American militia near King's Mountain, SC

1846 Marines of the USS Savannah recaptured San Pedro, California, during the Mexican War

1864 Battle of Darbytown Road, VA

1864 Naval Engagement at Bahia, Brazil, USS Wachusett disables & captures CSS Florida

1908 Crete revolts against Turkey & aligns with Greece

1908 Serbia & Montenegro sign anti-Austria-Hungarian pact

1924 Rigid airship Shenandoah commences transcontinental flight

1926 Italian Fascist Grand Council meets for the first time

1938 Germany demands all Jewish passports stamped with the letter J

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops and boards British freighter Ashlea in the South Atlantic at 09°00'S, 03°00'W, and after transferring her crew to Newton Beech, sinks Ashlea with demolition charges

1939 U.S. freighter Black Heron is detained by British authorities at Weymouth, England

1940 Admiral James O. Richardson arrives in Washington for conferences with the President and Navy and State Department officials concerning the retention of the U.S. Fleet in Hawaiian waters as a deterrent to Japan. He will depart to return to the fleet on 11 October

1940 Heavy cruiser USS Louisville arrives at Recife, Brazil, as she begins her goodwill cruise to Latin American ports

1941 TU 4.1.1 assumes escort duty for convoy ON 22 at the MOMP. Although there are no U-boat attacks on the convoy, ships of TU 4.1.1 carry out depth charges attacks on suspicious contacts

1942 Submarine USS Amberjack sinks Japanese supply ship Senkei Maru, southern Carolines, 01°55'N, 153°01'E

1942 Submarine USS Sculpin sinks Japanese army transport Naminoue Maru off Rabaul, 03°14'S, 150°01'E

1942 Japanese merchant cargo ship Midori Maru founders and sinks above Woosung, China

1942 U.S. freighter Chickasaw City is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-172 approximately 85 miles south-southwest of Cape Town, South Africa, 34°00'S, 17°16'E; 5 of the 37-man crew, 1 of the 11-man Armed Guard and the sole passenger perish in the attack

1942 U.S. freighter John Carter Rose is attacked by German submarine U-201; one dud torpedo fails to damage the merchantman and Armed Guard gunfire drives off the ship's assailant

1943 U.S. carriers and cruisers again raid Wake Island

1944 Japanese complete evacuation of Vella Lavella, Solomons

1944 Light cruiser USS Concord is damaged by on-board explosion (leaking gasoline tank) off Nukahiva Island, Marquesas

1944 Submarine S-44 is sunk by Japanese escort destroyer IJN Ishigaki north-northeast of Araito Island, east of the Kamchatka Peninsula, Kuriles

1944 Japanese guardboat No.20 Inari Maru is destroyed by fire off Wake Island

1944 Japanese transport Kikukawa Maru is destroyed by fire at Truk

1944 Tank landing craft LCT-215 and LCT-216 sink after breaking in half in heavy seas off coast of North Africa; LCT-196 breaks in half in heavy seas off coast of North Africa; the after section is scuttled by British surface ship but the forward section is towed to Bizerte, Tunisia.

1944 U.S. freighter Yorkmar, in convoy SC 143, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-645 at 56°48'N, 20°30'W. Of the 39-man merchant complement, 11 drown in the abandonment; 2 of the 28-man Armed Guard perish as well. Canadian corvette HMCS Kamloops and British frigate HMS Duckworth rescue the survivors

1944 Uprising at Birkenau concentration camp

1944 No.6 Group, the RCAF's bomber force in Britain, contributes 7 Pathfinders and 293 regular bombers to a raid on Dortmund: the largest assembly of Canadian bombers in the war. The raid as a whole is deemed a success with substantial damage to the city and the loss of only two Canadian aircraft over the target

1944 US aircraft from Morotai begin raids on Japanese in the Philippines.

1949 Soviets establish the German Democratic Republic

1950 US forces enter Korea by crossing the 38th parallel

1955 Aircraft carrier USS Saratoga launched in Brooklyn

1959 Far side of Moon seen for 1st time, compliments of USSR's Luna 3

1975 US President Gerald Ford signs law allowing admission of women into service academies (Public Law 94-106)

1985 PLO terrorists seize Italian cruise liner Achille Lauro, on the birthday of the American Colonel that would later arrange their capture (Ollie North)

1988 Latvian flag raised in Riga for 1st time since annexation by USSR

1990 Gulf War: Israel begins handing out gas masks to its citizens

2001 Operation Enduring Freedom begins with US carrier air strikes, and naval Tomahawk strikes

By Avalon:

Australian

1941 John Curtin becomes Prime Minister of Australia.

1951 Fighting continues at Maryang-San, Korea. The 3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, drives towards 'The Hinge' on Hill 317, the final obstacle to throwing the Chinese from the feature, and fends off strong counter-attacks.

By Cap. Teancum:

1870 - Battle of Bellevue. French attempt and fail to escape from the besieged fortress of Metz.

1940 - German troops enter Romania. On this day in 1940, Hitler occupies Romania as part of his strategy of creating an unbroken Eastern front to menace the Soviet Union.

As early as 1937, Romania had come under the control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany's, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania's king, Carol II, dissolved the government a year later because of a failing economy and installed Romania's Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch's death and a peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany-only to be invaded by its "ally" as part of Hitler's strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

King Carol abdicated on September 6, 1940, leaving the country in the control of fascist Prime Minister Ion Antonescu and the Iron Guard. While Romania would recapture the territory lost to the Soviet Union when the Germans invaded Russia, it would also have to endure the Germans' raping its resources as part of the Nazi war effort. Nevertheless, with German troops now occupying his nation, Antonescu would go on to sign the Tripartite (Axis) Pact in November, tying Romania to the military machinations of not only Germany, but Italy and Japan as well.

1943 - Japanese execute nearly 100 American prisoners on Wake Island. On this day in 1943, Rear Adm. Shigematsu Sakaibara, commander of the Japanese garrison on the island, orders the execution of 96 Americans POWs, claiming they were trying to make radio contact with U.S. forces.

In late December 1941, the Japanese reinforced existing forces on Wake Island, part of a coral atoll west of Hawaii, in massive numbers after being unable to wrest the island from a small number of Americans troops earlier in the month. The Japanese strength was now overwhelming, and most of those Americans left alive after the battle were taken by the Japanese off the island to POW camps elsewhere. Ninety-six remained behind to be used as forced labor. The Allied response was periodic bombing of the island--but no more land invasions, as part of a larger Allied strategy to leave certain Japanese-occupied islands in the South Pacific to basically starve in isolation.

The execution of those remaining American POWs, who were blindfolded and shot in cold blood, remains one of the more brutal episodes of the war in the Pacific.

1960 - Kennedy and Nixon debate Cold War foreign policy. In the second of four televised debates, Democratic presidential nominee John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard Nixon turn their attention to foreign policy issues.

Three Cold War episodes, in particular, engendered spirited confrontations between Kennedy and Nixon. The first involved Cuba, which had recently come under the control of Fidel Castro. Nixon argued that the island was not "lost" to the United States, and that the course of action followed by the Eisenhower administration had been the best one to allow the Cuban people to "realize their aspirations of progress through freedom." Kennedy fired back that it was clear that Castro was a communist, and that the Republican administration failed to use U.S. resources effectively to prevent his rise to power. He concluded that, "Today Cuba is lost for freedom."

The second point of contention revolved around the downing of an American U-2 spy plane over the Soviet Union and the subsequent canceling of the U.S.-Soviet summit set for May 1960. Kennedy argued that the United States was "not in accordance with international law" in the case, and should have expressed its regrets to the Soviet Union in an attempt to keep the summit on track. Nixon fired back that Kennedy was simply wrong: the Soviets never really wanted the summit to take place and simply used the incident as an excuse.

The two candidates continued their discussions of foreign policy in the next two debates, but the lines had clearly been drawn. Kennedy's strategy was to paint the Republican administration in which Nixon served as timid, indecisive, and given to poor strategizing in terms of the Cold War. Nixon, on the other hand, wanted to portray Kennedy as naive and much too willing to compromise with the Soviets and communist Chinese. Whether the debates really changed any voters' minds is uncertain. While many speech experts argue that Nixon really won the debates, media analysts claim that Kennedy's telegenic presence swayed enough voters for him to win the extremely close 1960 election.

1969 - Wheeler announces progress in the Vietnamization effort. At his departure from Saigon following a four-day inspection of South Vietnam, General Earle Wheeler, Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, reports that "progress in Vietnamization is being steadily and realistically achieved," but that U.S. forces will have to assist the South Vietnamese "for some time to come."

President Nixon had announced his intention to "Vietnamize" the war at the Midway Conference in June, saying that it was time that the South Vietnamese assumed more responsibility for the war. Accordingly, he announced that as the South Vietnamese improved in combat capability, U.S. forces would be withdrawn and returned to the United States. Supposedly, these withdrawals would be predicated on the rate of improvement in the South Vietnamese armed forces and the level of combat on the battlefield. However, once the U.S. troop withdrawals began in the fall of 1969, the schedule achieved a life of its own and the subsequent increments were withdrawn with very little consideration of the original criteria. By January 1972, less than 75,000 U.S. troops remained in South Vietnam.

1970 - Nixon announces a new peace proposal. In a televised speech, President Richard Nixon announces a five-point proposal to end the war, based on a "standstill" cease-fire in place in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He proposed eventual withdrawal of U.S. forces, unconditional release of prisoners of war, and political solutions reflecting the will of the South Vietnamese people. Nixon said that the Communist proposals for the ouster of Nguyen Van Thieu, Nguyen Cao Ky, and Tran Thiem Van Thieu were "totally unacceptable" and rejected them. These proposals were well received at home, but were rejected by the Communists a few days later.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1278  
Old 07 Oct 06, 09:05
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Today's event:

1571 Turkish fleet defeated by Spanish & Italians in the Battle of Lepanto

Today's book:

Confrontation at Lepanto: Christendom vs. Islam by T. C. F. Hopkins

Book Description:

Like an angry lion, the Turkish menace growled at the frontiers of Europe. In 1453, the last remnant of the mighty Roman Empire was obliterated when Turkish forces overran Constantinople. Western civilization was being threatened by medieval Islam. By 1570, a huge Turkish fleet had begun to turn the Mediterranean into a Muslim lake. A year later Pope Pius V created an anti-Ottoman alliance known as the Holy LeagueChristendoms answer to Jihad. One morning in October 1571, the fleet of the Holy League met the Ottoman Turks in the waters at the mouth of the Gulf of Patros. The future of a despairing, fragmented Europe was about to be decided. . . . By four oclock that afternoon the naval battle had become a mle, and the sea had literally turned from blue to red. When the smoke cleared, the Turkish fleet had been broken. In sheer numbers of casualties there has never been a more costly naval battle than Lepanto. The Crusaders lost 17 ships and 7,500 men; the Muslims lost more than 200 warships and nearly 20,000 men. For the first time in more than a century, West had defeated East. The Christians had successfully taken the offensive. Lepanto was one of the greatest turning points in history, though the centuries to come would see many more battles in the continuing conflict between Christianity and Islam. Confrontation at Lepanto is a fascinating account of that decisive battle on a very human level. Drawing on meticulous research, the author brings to life personalities, tactics, and details, making the narrative as fascinating and compelling as a novel. The result is a book whose lessons resonate today.

http://www.amazon.com/Confrontation-...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1279  
Old 08 Oct 06, 09:39
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
October 8



By Admiral:

Born...

1826 Matt Whitaker Ransom, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1904

1838 John Milton Hay, presidential secretary, draft dodger, d. 1905

1890 Eddie Rickenbacker, American "Ace of Aces" in WW I

1895 Juan Peron, Argentine soldier, putschist, president (1946-55, 1973-74)

1895 King Zog I of Albania (1928-1939)

1956 Janice E Voss, astronaut (SK:STS 57)

Died...

1656 Johan Georg I of Saxony (1611-56), at 71

1869 Franklin Pierce, Mexican War veteran, president (1853-1857), at 64

1967 Ernesto "Che" Guevara, professional revolutionary, executed

1985 Disabled veteran Leon Klinghoffer, murdered by Palestinian hijackers of the Achille Lauro. The terrorists cast him off the vessel in his wheelchair

Event...

1775 In response to threats of an American invasion, the governor of Trois-Rivières calls out the local militia. In a show of tacit neutrality, no one reports for duty

1812 Boat party under Lt. Jesse D. Elliott captures HMS Detroit and HMS Caledonia in Niagara River

1827 Naval Battle of Navarino, secures Greek independence from the Ottomans

1840 1st Hawaiian constitution proclaimed

1842 Commodore Lawrence Kearny in super frigate USS Constitution addresses a letter to the Viceroy of China, urging that American merchants in China be granted the same treaty privileges as the British. His negotiations were successful

1862 Battle of Perryville: Confederate invasion of Kentucky halted

1863 Britain seizes the "Laird Rams," being illicitly built for the Confederacy

1871 The Great Chicago Fire begins (to the 11th), 250 die, a third of the city burns;

1871 Forest fire destroys Peshtigo, Wsc, 1,100 die

1899 A force of 376 Marines captured the insurgent town of Novaleta, Philippines

1912 First Balkan War begins: Montenegro declares war on Turkey

1916 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo begins (to Oct 10)

1916 A second attempt by Canadian troops to remove the Germans from their strongholds in Regina Trench near Courcelette fails with more than 1300 casualties

1917 Leon Trotsky named chairman of the Petrograd Soviet

1918 Sgt Alvin York kills 25 & captures 132 German soldiers

1939 Cutter USCG Campbell joins U.S. passenger liner Iroquois, followed later by destroyers USS Davis and USS Benham. The four ships proceed in company to New York

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee takes on board crews of British freighters Ashlea and Newton Beech in the South Atlantic and sinks the latter with demolition charges

1939 Germany annexes Western Poland

1940 Legislation approved authorizes the appointment to commissioned rank in the Line of the Regular Navy of those Naval Reserve officers who receive their commissions upon graduation from the Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps

1940 United States advises American citizens to leave the Far East

1940 Japan protests U.S. embargo on aviation gasoline and scrap metal

1940 German troops enter Romania

1941 Oiler Salinas, with convoy [???}, is damaged by heavy seas, and is convoyed to Iceland by destroyer USS Broome

1942 U.S. troop convoy, consisting of transports McCawley (AP-10) and Zeilin (AP-9) and eight high speed transports sails from Nouméa, New Caledonia, for Guadalcanal with the U.S. Army 164th Infantry Regiment embarked

1942 Small reconnaissance seaplane from Japanese submarine I-7 reconnoiters Espiritu Santo.

1942 Submarine USS Drum sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Yawatasan Maru, 33°27'N, 136°01'E

1942 U.S. freighter Coloradan is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-159 approximately 214 miles southwest of Cape Town, South Africa, 35°47'S, 14°34'E; six crewmen are killed in the attack. Survivors (who include 33 merchant seamen and the 15-man Armed Guard) divide themselves between two lifeboats; the men in lifeboat no.1 are questioned by the Germans and are given a course to Cape Town

1942 Battle on the Matanikau, Guadalcanal

1943 Submarine USS Gato damages Japanese cargo ship Amagisan Maru with dud torpedo, 05°34'N, 152°10'E, and survives ensuing hunter-killer operations by escorting torpedo boat IJN Hiyodori

1943 Submarine USS Guardfish sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kashu Maru, 00°20'S, 146°17'E

1943 Submarine USS Gurnard sinks Japanese army cargo ship Taian Maru and transport Dainichi Maru off northern tip of Luzon, 18°48'N, 119°21'E

1943 USAAF B-24 damages Japanese transport Heian Maru en route to Truk, 02°37'N, 150°46'E

1944 Land-based aircraft from the Marianas increase tempo of air strikes on Iwo Jima.

1944 Submarine USS Becuna damages Japanese seaplane carrier Kimikawa Maru in South China Sea, 14°05'N, 115°38'E.

1944 Submarine USS Hoe sinks Japanese army transport Kohoku Maru and damages Coast Defense Vessel No.8 in South China Sea east of Hainan, 18°32'N, 116°13'E.

1944 Destroyer USS Eberle, with spot provided by aircraft from light cruiser USS Brooklyn, bombards vessels in Maurizio harbor; enemy shore battery fire is accurate in return.

1944 Destroyer USS Jouett is attacked by six small, fast craft, but suffers no damage in the encounter. The next morning Jouett will sink several floating mines

1945 Truman announced atomic bomb secret shared with Britain & Canada. Many Canadians are unaware that they have been privy to the secret since nearly the beginning

1950 1st Marine Division commences embarkation at Inchon for landings at Wonsan, Korea

1950 5th Air Force controlled the 1st Marine Air Wing in Korea

1952 Chinese offensive in Korea

1957 Turkish & Syrian border guards exchange fire

1961 USS Tulare and USS Princeton rescue seamen from an American and a Lebanese merchant ship, which were aground on Kita Daita Jima

1962 N Korea reports 100% election turnout, 100% vote for Workers' Party

1963 Sultan of Zanzibar cedes his mainland possessions to Kenya

1982 Poland bans Solidarity

1990 Israeli police kill 17 Palestinian rioters

By Avalon:

Australian

1915 Gen William Birdwood receives notification to evacuate Gallipoli.

1942 25th Brigade, 7th Division, contacts Japanese rear-guard at Tempelton's Crossing, New Guinea. The pursuit of the Japanese retreating along the Kokoda Trail involved hard fights. Templeton's Crossing was named after an officer of the 39th Battalion, lost without trace in the retreat from Kokoda.

By Cap. Teancum:

1789 - Turks surrender Belgrade after a brief siege.

1919 - First transcontinental air race. The first transcontinental air race in the United States begins, with 63 planes competing in the round-trip aerial derby between California and New York. As 15 planes departed the Presidio in San Francisco, California, 48 planes left Roosevelt Field on Long Island, New York.

Lieutenant Belvin Maynard, flying a Havilland-4 with a Liberty motor, won the 5,400-mile race across the continent and back. Maynard reached the Presidio in just over three days, rested and serviced his plane for another three days, and then returned to Roosevelt Field in just under four days. Maynard won for the lowest total elapsed time, but in actual flight time--24 hours, 59 minutes, and 49 seconds--three others accomplished the round-trip journey faster.

1941 - Germans overrun Mariupol, in southern Russia. On this day in 1941, the German invasion of the Soviet Union begins a new stage, with Hitler's forces capturing Mariupol. The Axis power reached the Sea of Azov.

Despite the fact that Germany and Russia had signed a "pact" in 1939, each guaranteeing the other a specific region of influence without interference from the other, suspicion remained high. Despite warnings from his advisers that Germany could not fight the war on two fronts (as Germany's experience in World War I proved), Hitler became convinced that England was holding out against repeated German air assaults, refusing to surrender, because it had struck a secret deal with Russia. Fearing he would be "strangled" from the East and the West, he created, in December 1940, "Directive No. 21: Case Barbarossa"--the plan to invade and occupy the very nation he had actually asked to join the Axis only a month before. On June 22, 1941, after having postponed the invasion of Russia when Italy's attack on Greece forced Hitler to bail out his struggling ally in order to keep the Allies from gaining a foothold in the Balkans, three German army groups struck Russia hard by surprise. The Russian army was larger than German intelligence had anticipated, but they were demobilized. Stalin had shrugged off warnings from his own advisers, even Winston Churchill himself, that a German attack was imminent. By the end of the first day of the invasion, the German air force had destroyed more than 1,000 Soviet aircraft. And despite the toughness of the Russian troops, and the number of tanks and other armaments at their disposal, the Red Army was disorganized, enabling the Germans to penetrate up to 300 miles into Russian territory within the next few days.

Hitler's battle for Stalingrad and Moscow still lay ahead, but the capture of Mariupol, at the sea's edge, signaled the beginning of the end of Russia-as least as far as Hitler's propaganda machine was concerned. "Soviet Russia has been vanquished!" Otto Dietrich, Hitler's press chief, announced to foreign journalists the very next day.

1968 - U.S. and South Vietnamese navies commence Operation Sealords. Operation Sealords is launched in the Mekong Delta by U.S. and South Vietnamese forces.

This operation was ordered by newly appointed Commander Naval Forces Vietnam, Vice-Admiral Elmo R. Zumwalt, Jr., who established Task Force 194 to operate along the canals and less-traveled waterways of the Mekong Delta to interdict Viet Cong infiltration routes from Cambodia. Additionally, TF 194 was to harass Communist forces in the area and, with the assistance of ground and air forces, pacify the Delta region. Under Zumwalt's direction, U.S. and South Vietnamese naval forces worked together to secure the waterways of the Mekong Delta. When the Vietnamization program began in 1969, the U.S. Navy instituted ACTOV (Accelerated Turnover to Vietnam), the Navy's Vietnamization plan, and by April 1971, all Sealords operations had been turned over to the South Vietnamese Navy.

1970 - Communists reject Nixon's peace proposal. The Communist delegation in Paris rejects President Richard Nixon's October 7 proposal as "a maneuver to deceive world opinion." Nixon had announced five-point proposal to end the war, based on a "standstill" cease-fire in place in South Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia. He proposed eventual withdrawal of U.S. forces, unconditional release of prisoners of war, and political solutions reflecting the will of the South Vietnamese people. The U.S. Senate had adopted a resolution expressing support for President Nixon's initiative, calling the proposals "fair and equitable," and there was hope that the Communists would respond accordingly. However, the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong negotiators refused to even consider Nixon's proposal, reiterating their previous and long-standing demand for an unconditional and total withdrawal of U.S. forces from Indochina and the overthrow of the "puppet" leaders in Saigon. U.S. officials publicly urged the Soviet Union to use its "considerable influence" with the Communists to persuade them to accept President Nixon's new proposals, but the North Vietnamese stood their ground.

1972 - Possible breakthrough at Paris peace talks. Rumors arise that there is a breakthrough in the secret talks that had been going on in a villa outside Paris since August 1969. Henry Kissinger, President Richard Nixon's national security advisor, and North Vietnamese negotiators conducted the peace talks. Le Duc Tho, who had taken over as chief negotiator for Hanoi from Xuan Thuy, presented a draft peace agreement proposing that two separate administrations remain in South Vietnam to negotiate general elections. This proposal accepted in substance earlier U.S. terms, and by doing so dropped previous Communist demands for a political solution to accompany a military one.

Tho, believing that the Americans were eager for peace in Vietnam before the elections, proposed that the United States and North Vietnam arrange a cease-fire, governing all military matters between themselves. The proposal also suggested leaving the political questions to be settled by the Vietnamese sides, who would be governed by a "National Council of Reconciliation" until a final settlement could be reached. Hanoi and Saigon would continue to occupy the territory each presently held until then. Kissinger, who considered Hanoi's offer a breakthrough, cabled South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu "to seize as much territory as possible." In light of this new development in Paris, President Nixon ordered the commencement of Operation Enhance Plus, a program designed to provide South Vietnam with $2 billion worth of military equipment to replace what was lost during the heavy fighting of the 1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1280  
Old 08 Oct 06, 09:44
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Today's event:

1862 Battle of Perryville: Confederate invasion of Kentucky halted

Today's book:

Battle of Perryville, 1862: Culmination of the Failed Kentucky Campaign by Robert P. Broadwater

Book Description:

In 1862, the Confederacy launched a campaign to sway the indecisive border state of Kentucky. Full of blunders and missed opportunities, this operation served only to convince the Kentuckians of what they suspected all along: The Confederacy, for all its braggadocio, was incapable of holding the state against determined Union forces. Among the bloodiest battles of the Civil War, Perryville was also one of the most decisive regarding Southern hopes to take the war into Union territory.
Compiled from firsthand sources such as letters, diaries and regimental histories, this book tells the story of the South's ill-fated attempt to bring Kentucky into the Confederacy. From planning to completion, it details the military movements of both Union and Confederate forces, including the battles of Richmond and Mumfordsville. The main focus of the work, however, is the biggest battle of the campaignPerryville. Here, inexperience on both sides and the lack of cohesive Confederate action turned what could easily have been a Southern victory into a disheartening retreat, forever relegating General Braxton Bragg, who had the makings of a Confederate hero, to the annals of military mediocrity. Appendices include detailed lists of Confederate and Union commands, strategic placement of the inexperienced regiments and Perryville casualties. Contemporary photographs and an index are also included.


http://www.amazon.com/Battle-Perryvi...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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October 9



By Admiral:

Born...

1261 King Diniz of Portugal (1279-1325)

1547 Miguel de Cervantes, marine, novelist ("Don Quixote")

1757 King Charles X of France (1824-30), deposed, d. 1836

1771 Duke Frederick William of Brunswick (1813-15), kia, Quatre Bras

1782 Lewis Cass, politician and secretary of war

1815 Giuseppe Verdi, Italian nationalist composer ("I Lombardi")

1819 Samuel McGowan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897

1822 George Sykes, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1880

1859 Alfred Dreyfus, French officer

1899 Bruce Catton, historian ("A Stillness at Appomattox")

1924 Robert Rushworth, pilot (X-15)

Died...

1390 King Juan I of Castille (1379-90)

1934 French politician Louis Barthou, assassinated at Marseilles

1934 King Alexander of Yugoslavia, assassinated at Marseilles by Croatian terrorist Georgief

1943 Jan Dieters and Lou Jansen, Dutch resistance fighters, executed by Nazis

1958 Pope Pius XII (1939-1958)

1967 Che Guevara executed in Bolivia (???)

1974 Oskar Schindler, saved many Jews from death during WWII

Event...

680 Husain ibn 'Ali, Shi'ia religious leader, enters martyrdom

1002 Leif Erikson first reaches Vinland, (Discovers Newfoundland?)

1779 Luddite Riots begin in Manchester

1635 Colonial American Separatist Roger Williams was banished from Massachusetts for preaching that civil government had no right to interfere in religious affairs. (Williams was seeking to establish freedom of worship through the separation of church and state.)

1820 Guayaquil, Ecuador declares its freedom from Ecuador

1835 Texians occupy Goliad

1861 Combat at Santa Rosa, Fl

1861 Skirmish at Hillsborough, Ky

1864 Battle of Fisher's Hill

1864 Battle of Tom's Brook

1873 LT Charles Belknap calls a meeting at the Naval Academy to establish the U.S. Naval Institute for the purpose of disseminating scientific and professional knowledge throughout the Navy

1876 1st 2-way telephone conversation over outdoor wires

1899 A force of 376 Marines captured the insurgent town of Novaleta, Philippines

1914 Germans capture Antwerp, as Belgians & British withdraw

1915 Belgrade, Serbia, surrenders to Austro-German forces

1918 Canadian and British troops enter Cambrai after almost a month of fighting towards the city. They find the street deserted except for a few German snipers. For the first time in four years the men feel that victory is within their grasp

1939 President Roosevelt, in memorandum for the Acting Secretary of the Navy, expresses displeasure with "the slowness of getting the East Coast, Caribbean, and Gulf Patrol under way," the "lag between the making of contacts and the follow-up of the contact," and the weakness of the liaison between the Navy, the Coast Guard and the State Department. The Chief Executive emphasizes that "in this whole patrol business time is of the essence and loss of contact with surface ships will not be tolerated." Roosevelt urges that patrol planes and naval or Coast Guard ships "may report the sighting of any submarine or suspicious surface ship in plain English"

1939 DKM Deutschland seizes U.S. freighter City of Flint, en route from New York to the United Kingdom, as "contraband carrier" and places a prize crew on board

1939 British Northern Patrol continues operations between the Shetlands, Faeroes, and Iceland; light cruiser HMS Belfast captures German passenger ship Cap Norte

1942 Japanese oiler Shiretoko is damaged, cause and location unspecified.

1942 Japanese army cargo ship Shinju Maru is damaged, cause unspecified, northeast of Kasa Island.

1942 German submarine U-505 is damaged by aircraft off Trinidad, B.W.I.

1942 U.S. freighter Examelia is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-68 20 miles south of the Cape of Good Hope, 34°52'S, 18°30'E; U-boat officers question the survivors before the enemy submersible leaves the area. U.S. freighter John Lykes subsequently rescues the survivors (30 of 38 merchant sailors and 10 of the 13-man Armed Guard)

1942 Guadalcanal: Marines encircle Japanese 4th Inf Regt

1942 Japanese destroyers land elements of their 2nd Div on Guadalcanal.

1942 First three schools for enlisted WAVES open at Stillwater, OK (Yeoman), Bloomington, IN (Storekeepers), and Madison, WI (Radiomen).

1943 Submarine USS Kingfish torpedoes Japanese oiler Hayamoto in Sibitu Channel, 05°09'N, 119°18'E.

1943 Submarine USS Rasher sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kogane Maru 28 miles from Ambon, 03°30'S, 127°45'E.

1943 Submarine USS Wahoo sinks Japanese cargo ship Hankow Maru off Oga Peninsula, 37°18'N, 129°33'E.

1943 Destroyer USS Buck is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-616 in Gulf of Salerno, 39°57'N, 13°28'E.

1944 In an operation timed to precede a fast carrier task force operations against Okinawa, three heavy cruisers and six destroyers of TG 30.2 conduct a diversionary bombardment of Japanese installations on Marcus Island. Enemy return fire is intense and accurate at the outset, with Japanese gunners repeatedly straddling U.S. ships. In related operations, Saipan-based Navy PB4Ys, on interdiction patrols in the path of TF 58 as it approaches the Ryukyus, damage Japanese auxiliary submarine chaser Sankyo Maru off Okinawa.

1944 Special Air Task Force (STAG 1) operations continue in Southwest Pacific as four TDRs are launched against Matupi Bridge, Simpson Harbor, Rabaul. Antiaircraft fire, however, downs three of the TDRs; one is lost enroute to the target.

1944 One company of the U.S. Army 321st Infantry is landed on Garekayo Island, north of Ngesebus, and quickly overruns the island.

1944 In wide-ranging U.S. submarine operations against Japanese shipping in the South China Sea, USS Becuna damages tanker San Luis Maru, 12°45'N, 118°00'E; and teams with USS Hawkbill to sink merchant tanker Tokuwa Maru, 12°43'N, 118°05'E; USS Croaker sinks merchant cargo ship Shinki Maru west of Kyushu, 32°08'N, 129°51'E; USS Sawfish sinks merchant tanker Tachibana Maru at 19°33'N, 116°38'E.

1944 Destroyer USS Eberle bombards ammunition dump and buildings, later USS Eberle and destroyer USS Jouett, and planes from light cruiser USS Brooklyn destroy several floating mines in the vicinity.

1944 Elements of Third Fleet shell Marcus Island.

1944 Soon after midnight troops from the 9th Canadian Infantry Brigade begin crossing Braakman inlet, north of Ghent. The men reach the beach around 2:00 this morning, take the German defenders completely by surprise, and establish a firm bridgehead

1944 German occupiers turn off the electricity in Amsterdam

1945 Parade in New York City honors FADM Chester W. Nimitz and 13 other Navy and Marine Corps Medal of Honor winners

1950 5th Air Force controlled the 1st Marine Air Wing in Korea

1961 Tanganyika becomes independent within the British Commonwealth

1961 USS Princeton rescues 74 survivors of two shipwrecks (SS Pioneer Muse and SS Shiek) from the island of Kita Daito Shima

1962 Algerian-Moroccan border fighting, 130 die

1962 NASA civilian test pilot John B McKay takes X-15 to 39,200 m

1963 Uganda becomes a republic within the British Commonwealth

1963 French Air Force gets nuclear weapons

1968 Government seizes oil fields in Peru

1970 Khmer Republic (Cambodia) declares independence

1975 Andrei Sakharov, Soviet bomb-maker, awarded the Nobel Peace Prize

1977 Soyuz 25 launched to Saluyt 6, but returned after failing to dock

1983 Four ROK cabinet ministers assassinated in Rangoon, by North Koreans

1990 Saddam Hussein threatens to hit Israel with a new missile.

By Avalon:

Australian

1918 Diggers in Battle of Passchendaele, Belgium. The Battle of Passchendaele, otherwise known as the Third Battle of Ypres, was one of the major battles of World War I, fought by British, ANZAC, and Canadian soldiers against the German army near Ypres (Ieper in Flemish) in West Flanders, southwestern Belgium over the control of the village of Passchendaele.

By Cap. Teancum:

1705 - British under the Earl of Peterborough capture Barcelona, Spain.

1805 - Marshal Ney's forces captured three bridges over the Danube near Gunzberg.

1940 - During the Battle of Britain, the German Luftwaffe launches a heavy nighttime air raid on London. The dome of St. Paul's Cathedral was pierced by a Nazi bomb, leaving the high altar in ruin. It was one of the few occasions that the 17th-century cathedral suffered significant damage during Germany's nearly ceaseless bombing raids on London in the fall of 1940.

According to tradition, a Roman temple to the goddess Diana once stood on Ludgate Hill at the site of St. Paul's Cathedral. In 604 A.D., King Aethelberht I dedicated the first Christian cathedral there to St. Paul. That cathedral burned, and its replacement was destroyed by Vikings in 962. A third cathedral was destroyed by fire in 1087 and was replaced by a grand Norman structure that was completed in the 13th century. In the 16th century, the fourth cathedral fell into disrepair and was damaged by fire, and further harm was done during the English civil wars of the 17th century. In the 1660s, the English architect Sir Christopher Wren was enlisted to repair the cathedral, but the Great Fire of London intervened, destroying Old St. Paul's Cathedral in 1666.

In the aftermath of the fire, Wren designed a new St. Paul's Cathedral, with dozens of smaller new churches ranged around it like satellites. The cathedral was Wren's masterpiece, featuring a baroque design and a prominent, stately dome. Wren himself set down the foundation block in 1675 and in 1710 put the final stone in place. When the architect died in 1723, he was buried with great ceremony in St. Paul's. An inscription near his tomb reads, Lector, si monumentum requiris, circumspice--Latin for "Reader, if you seek a monument, look about you." Many other notable British citizens later joined him in St. Paul's crypts, including the military heroes Lord Nelson and the Duke of Wellington.

St. Paul's Cathedral became an inspiration to the British people during World War II. In the Battle of Britain, the Luftwaffe attempted to bomb Britain into submission by pounding London and other major cities, but St. Paul's miraculously escaped major bomb damage, even as historic buildings nearby were reduced to rubble. Images of St. Paul's framed by smoke and fire became a symbol of Britain's indomitable spirit. Civilian defense brigades, including the St. Paul's Fire Watch, protected the structure from fire, and at one point an unexploded bomb was removed at great risk from the roof of the cathedral. Despite the damage caused on the night of October 9, 1940, the cathedral survived the Blitz largely intact. In 1944, St. Paul's bells rang out to celebrate the liberation of Paris, and in 1945 services marking the end of the war in Europe were attended by 35,000 people.

1944 - Churchill and Stalin confer. On this day in 1944, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin begin a nine-day conference in Moscow, during which the war with Germany and the future of Europe are discussed.

Germany's defeat now seemed inevitable, and Stalin was prepared to commit the USSR to intervening in the war against Japan once Germany had formally surrendered. This optimistic outlook enabled a significant portion of the talks to center on the relative spheres of influence of the two superpowers in a postwar European environment. Churchill ceded the disposition of Romania, which Stalin's troops were liberating from German control even as the conference commenced, to the Soviet Union. But the British prime minister was keen on keeping the Red Army away from Greece. "Britain must be the leading Mediterranean power." They made a deal: Romania for Greece.

Churchill was more accommodating elsewhere, willing to divvy up the spoils of war. Yugoslavia could be cut down the middle, east for Russia, west for the West. Churchill also laid out a plan by which the German populations of East Prussia and Silesia would be moved into the interior of Germany, with East Prussia split between the USSR and Poland, and Silesia handed over to Poland as compensation for territories Stalin already occupied and intended to keep.

But Churchill was insistent on one issue that would be harder to negotiate in 50-50 terms-freedom. Churchill wanted every nation to be free to select the government most amenable to its people, especially smaller, more vulnerable nations. "Let them work out their own fortunes during the years that lie ahead." Churchill was frank about the West's fear of expansionist communism. But none of what was discussed was carved in stone or even put on paper--a fact that would be all too obvious as the Cold War commenced.

1969 - The National Guard breaks up protests at home. In the United States, the National Guard is called in as demonstrations continue in Chicago protesting the trial of the "Chicago Eight."

The trial had begun on September 24 and involved charges against David Dellinger, Rennie Davis, Thomas Hayden, Abbie Hoffman, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, John Froines, and Bobby Seale for conspiracy to cross state lines with intent to cause a riot. These charges stemmed from the violent antiwar demonstrations in Chicago during the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

When the trial finally ended in February 1970, Judge Julius Hoffman found the seven defendants (Seale had been separated from the others for a separate trial due to his courtroom antics) and their lawyers guilty of 175 counts of contempt and sentenced them to terms of two to four years. Although the jury found the defendants not guilty on the conspiracy charge, the jury did find all except Froines and Weiner guilty of intent to riot. Those found guilty were sentenced to five years and a $5,000 fine, but none served time. In 1972, a Court of Appeals overturned the criminal convictions and eventually most of the contempt charges were also dismissed.

Laird describes new orders to U.S. commanders in Vietnam U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, reporting on Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff General Earle Wheeler's trip to Vietnam at a news conference in Washington, announces that U.S. commanders in Vietnam have been given new orders aimed at placing the "highest priority" on shifting the burden of the fighting to the South Vietnamese forces.

Laird described the new tactics as "protective reaction," but said that the new orders did not forbid U.S. commanders from seeking out and attacking enemy troops that posed threats. This was all part of the Vietnamization program announced by President Richard Nixon at the Midway Conference with South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu in June.

1970 - Khmer Republic proclaimed in Cambodia. The Khmer Republic is proclaimed in Cambodia. In March, a coup led by Cambodian General Lon Nol had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in Phnom Penh. Between 1970 and 1975, Lon Nol and his army, the Forces Armees Nationale Khmer (FANK), with U.S. support and military aid, fought the Communist Khmer Rouge for control of Cambodia. During those five years of bitter fighting, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia's 7 million people died. When the U.S. forces departed South Vietnam in 1973, both the Cambodians and South Vietnamese found themselves fighting the Communists alone. Without U.S. support, Lon Nol's forces succumbed to the Khmer Rouge in April 1975. The Khmer Rouge promptly evacuated Phnom Penh and set about to reorder Cambodian society, which resulted in a killing spree and the notorious "killing fields." Under the brutal rule of the Khmer Rouge, hundreds of thousands of Cambodians were murdered or died from exhaustion, hunger, and disease.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1282  
Old 09 Oct 06, 15:31
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Portuguese_Monarchy
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1943 Submarine USS Rasher sinks Japanese army cargo ship Kogane Maru 28 miles from Ambon

Today's book:

Red Scorpion: The War Patrols of the USS Rasher by Peter Sasgen

Book Description:

She was one of the most feared American submarines in World War II.

The U.S. Navy named her the USS Rasher. But she was called...

RED SCORPION

During the War in the Pacific, one submarine and its sailors made history with their aggressive tactics, relentless pursuit of the Japanese fleet, and astounding combat record: the USS Rasher. During eight war patrols, she sank eighteen Japanese ships -- the second-highest tonnage of the war -- and went on to earn a Presidential Unit Citation. In one of the Rasher's most daring attacks, she sank four enemy vessels, including an aircraft carrier, in a single night action off the Philippines.

Here, Navy veteran Peter Sasgen -- whose father served aboard the Rasher -- details the gripping true account of this storied warship, her dogged commanders, and the brave crewmen who made the "Red Scorpion" a legend in the annals of submarine warfare.


http://www.amazon.com/Red-Scorpion-P...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1283  
Old 10 Oct 06, 04:15
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Cap. Teancum Cap. Teancum is offline
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Posts: 5,983
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
October 10



By Admiral:

Born...

1261 King Diniz of Portugal (1279-1325)

1547 Miguel de Cervantes, marine, novelist ("Don Quixote")

1731 Henry Cavendish, English physicist/chemist (discovered hydrogen)

1757 King Charles X of France (1824-30), deposed, d. 1836

1771 Duke Frederick William of Brunswick (1813-15), kia, Quatre Bras

1782 Lewis Cass, politician and secretary of war

1819 Samuel McGowan, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897

1822 George Sykes, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1880

1825 Paulus Kruger, Pres of South African Republic (1883), Boer leader

1830 Queen Isabella II, Queen of Spain (1833-68)

1859 Alfred Dreyfus, French officer

1899 Bruce Catton, historian ("A Stillness at Appomattox")

Died...

413 Nikias, Athenian politician and general, at the siege of Syracuse

1914 King Karol I von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen of Romania (1881-1914)

1959 Prince Friedrich of Liechtenstein

Event...

732 Battle of Tours: Islamic invaders beaten off by the Franks

769 Icon of the Madonna installed, Santuario della Civitate, Itri, Italy

1471 Battle of Brunkeberg, Stockholm

1578 Count Johan Casimir occupies Ghent with 500 horsemen

1615 Samuel de Champlain, several arquebusiers and 500 native warriors attack a fortified Onondaga settlement (present day Nichols Pond, south of Lake Oneida, N.Y.). The raiders are rebuffed and forced to withdraw, carrying a wounded Champlain with them

1776 Continental Congress frees Canadian prisoners captured during the recent failed invasion of Quebec

1780 Great Hurricane of 1780 kills 20,000 to 30,000 in Caribbean

1845 Naval School, later US Naval Academy opens at Annapolis Md. with 50 midshipmen and seven faculty

1868 Cuba revolts for independence against Spain, Declaration of the plan of Yara

1874 Fiji becomes a British possession

1880 John Phillip Sousa becomes the leader of the Marine Corps Band

1905 Ensign Ernest J. King weds Martha L. Egerton, Cadet Chapel, West Point!!!

1911 Sun Yat-sen & his revolutionaries overthrow the Manchu Dynasty (Taiwan Nat'l Day)

1913 Gamboa Dam in Panama blown up; Atlantic & Pacific waters mix

1914 German forces route Belgians in Antwerp

1916 Eighth Battle of the Isonzo ends (from Oct 8)

1918 Allenby enters Jerusalem

1920 Italy annexes South Tirol (Alto Adige)

1923 First American-built rigid airship, Shenandoah, is christened. It used helium gas instead of hydrogen

1924 Ibn Saud captures Mecca

1935 League of Nations denounces Italian invasion of Abyssinia

1938 Germany completed annexation of Czechoslovakia's Sudetenland

1939 DKM Admiral Graf Spee stops and puts prize crew on board British freighter Huntsman in the South Atlantic at 08°30'S, 05°15'W.

1939 U.S. freighter Patrick Henry is detained by British authorities.

1939 British authorities remove from freighter Black Gull (detained since 6 October) 293 sacks of American mail addressed to Rotterdam, Holland, and 10 to Antwerp, Belgium. This is among the first instances of the British removing mail addressed to neutral countries and opening and censoring sealed letter mail sent from the United States.

1939 U.S. freighter Syros, detained by French authorities since 14 September, is released.

1939 Norwegian freighter Brott, detained at Sivinemünde, Germany, since early October with a cargo of wood pulp/wood pulp products, is released by German authorities to proceed on her voyage to the United States.

1941 TG 14.3, comprising carrier USS Yorktown, battleship USS New Mexico, heavy cruiser USS Quincy, light cruiser USS Savannah, and Destroyer Divisions 3 and 16, sails from Argentia, Newfoundland, for Casco Bay, Maine. Encountering heavy weather en route, USS Yorktown, USS New Mexico, USS Quincy, USS Savannah, and destroyers USS Rhind, USS Hammann, USS Anderson, USS Sims, USS Mayrant, USS Rowan, USS Hughes, and USS Trippe all suffered damage before the force reached Casco Bay on 13 October.

1942 Submarine USS Amberjack damages Japanese transport Tenryu Maru and auxiliary Tonan Maru off Kavieng, 02°36'S, 150°48'E.

1942 Submarine USS Seadragon sinks Japanese transport Shigure Maru off Samarinda, Borneo, 01°01'S, 117°22'E.

1942 Submarine USS Wahoo sinks Japanese collier Kamoi Maru off Bougainville, Solomons.

1942 Japanese submarine chaser Ch 14 is damaged by USAAF B-24s and B-17s, accompanied by P-38s, bomb shipping in Trout Lagoon and off South Head off Kiska, Aleutians.

1942 U.S. tanker Camden, torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-25 on 4 October, catches fire and sinks off the mouth of the Columbia River, 46°46'38"N, 124°31'15"W

1943 Chiang Kai-shek takes oath of office as president of China

1943 Japanese planes attack three Lambu Lambu-based U.S. motor torpedo boats north of Vella Lavella, damaging PT-168 and PT-179.

1943 Submarine USS Bonefish sinks Japanese army cargo ship Isuzugawa Maru and merchant transport Teibi Maru off Cam Ranh Bay, French Indochina, 14°49'N, 110°10'E.

1943 Submarine USS Kingfish lays mines off Cape Pepe, Makassar Strait, Celebes.

1943 USAAF B-24 sinks Japanese army cargo ship No.5 Hino Maru 20 miles southwest of Buka passage.

1944 The Royal Canadian Regiment gains a foothold on the thin isthmus leading to the South Beveland peninsula

1944 In the first occasion since the Marianas campaign in which all four carrier task groups operate together as one unit, (17 carriers) TF 38 under Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher pounds Japanese shipping and installations on Okinawa and other islands in the Ryukyus as a prelude to Leyte. TF 38 planes sink submarine depot ship Jingei, landing ship T.158, minelayer Takashima and auxiliary submarine chaser Cha 87, north-northwest of Okinawa, 26°39'N, 127°52'E. In or near Naha harbor, Navy carrier-based aircraft sink auxiliary minesweeper Shimpo Maru, 26°13'N, 127°40'E, and No.6 Hakata Maru, guardboats No.26 Nansatsu Maru and No.5 Daisei Maru, 26°13'N, 127°41'E; guardboat Yuki Maru and motor torpedo boats Gyoraitei No.493, Gyoraitei No.496, Gyoraitei No.498, Gyoraitei No.500, Gyoraitei No.805, Gyoraitei No.806, Gyoraitei No.810, Gyoraitei No.812, Gyoraitei No.813, Gyoraitei No.814, Gyoraitei No.820 and Gyoraitei No.820, 26°30'N, 128°00'E; army cargo ship Horai Maru, 26°38'N, 127°54'E; merchant cargo ships Taikai Maru, Fukura Maru, Koryu Maru, and Tetsuzan Maru, 26°13'N, 127°39'E. Elswhere in the vicinity, Navy planes sink auxiliary minesweeper No.1 Takunan Maru off Okino Daito Jima, 25°30'N, 131°00'E, and army cargo ship Hirota Maru off Miyako Jima, 24°26'N, 125°20'E, and merchant cargo ship Nanyo Maru off Kume Jima. TF 38 planes damage Coast Defense Ship No.5 and submarine chaser Ch 58 off Okinawa; and guardboat No.6 Daisei Maru, cargo ship Toyosaka Maru, and merchant cargo ship No.7 Takashima Maru outside Koniya harbor. A busy day!

1944 Submarine USS Barb sinks Japanese transport Gokuku Maru northwest of Hirado Jima, Kyushu, 33°31'N, 129°10'E.

1944 Submarine USS Lapon sinks Japanese army transport Ejiri Maru in South China Sea west of Luzon, 16°10'N, 119°44'E.

1944 Dutch submarine Zwaardvisch sinks Japanese guardboat Koei Maru southwest of Bawean Island, N.E.I., 05°57'S, 112°29'E.

1944 Soviet forces isolate German troops in the Baltic States

1960 Navy assigned responsibility for program management and technial direction of Project SPASUR, the first U.S. universal satellite detection and tracking network

1962 Federal troops secure entry of black veteran James Meredith to "Ole Miss";

1963 Treaty banning atmospheric nuclear tests signed by US, UK, USSR

1966 Operation "Kent," Vietnam

1968 The 1stMarDiv and 1st MAW were awarded the Presidential Unit Citation, Da Nang, Vietnam

1970 Fiji gains independence from Britain

1974 Israel formally signed Sinai accord with Egypt

1979 Panama assumes sovereignty over Canal Area (ie Canal Zone)

1980 Very Large Array (VLA) radio telescope network dedicated

1981 Anwar Sadat's funeral was held in Cairo

1985 F-14s from the carrier USS Saratoga force Egyptian airliner, with the terrorist hijackers of the cruise ship Achille Lauro & murderers of Leon Klinghoffer aboard, to Italy, where the hijackers were taken into custody

1988 Mikhail Gorbachev becomes President of the USSR

By Avalon:

Australian

1917 Battle of Poelcappelle, Western Front. Australian divisions continued to attack in the third battle of Ypres. The attack on Poelcappelle, launched amid heavy rain, was to cost 1250 casualties for no gain of ground.

1999 Sgt Jason Logue becomes the first Army reporter to come under fire, Motain, East Timor.

By Cap. Teancum:

1531 - Battle of Kappel. In defiance of orders, Zurich troops attack Swiss and were resoundingly defeated.

1794 - Battle of Matchevitz. Russians totally defeat Poles, severely wounding Polish leader, Kosciosko.

1806 - Battle of Saalfeld. French backed Prussians up against the walls of Saalfeld and defeated them handily.

1862 - John Bankhead Magruder sent to Texas. Confederate General John Bankhead Magruder is given command of the Trans-Mississippi Department.

A Maryland native, Magruder attended West Point and graduated in 1830. He distinguished himself during the Mexican War when he commanded a company during General Winfield Scott's campaign from Vera Cruz to Mexico City. He was promoted to lieutenant colonel for meritorious service. After the war, he served in a variety of military positions, including a stint as an observer in France. Magruder garnered a reputation as a playboy prone to heavy drinking and lavish entertainment and became known as "Prince John."

When the war broke out in 1861, Magruder resigned his commission and joined the Confederate army. He was placed in charge of defenses between the York and James Rivers. On June 10, 1861, Union General Benjamin Butler attacked Magruder's force at Big Bethel. The Confederates repulsed the assault in what is considered the first land battle of the war. Although the credit actually belonged to junior officers John Bell Hood and Daniel Harvey Hill, Magruder made the most of the modest victory, and the Southern press inflated the stories to make him an early Confederate hero.

The next year, Magruder brilliantly defended the James Peninsula during Union General George McClellan's campaign against the Confederate capital at Richmond. Magruder dammed streams, flooded lowlands, placed painted logs called "Quaker guns" at strategic points to fool the Yankees, and marched parts of his 13,000-man army back and forth to give the illusion of greater strength. McClellan fell for the ruse and spent more than a month outside of Yorktown while the Confederates moved more troops into place.

Magruder's reputation soon unraveled. At the Seven Days' battle, Magruder was tentative and sluggish as a field commander. He seemed to crack under pressure, but this was probably the result of an allergic reaction to morphine, which was part of a medication he was taking for acute indigestion. At the Battles of Fair Oaks, Savage's Station, and Malvern Hill, Magruder made a series of costly mistakes. Confederate commander General Robert E. Lee expressed his disappointment with Magruder for his slow reaction to attacking the retreating Yankees, even though General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson exhibited a similar sluggishness during the same engagements and Lee said nothing about him. As a result, President Jefferson Davis reassigned Magruder to command Confederate forces in Texas.

Magruder enjoyed some success in Texas and partly restored his reputation when he captured Galveston in 1863. He spent the rest of the war in the West before fleeing to Mexico after the collapse of the Confederacy. He returned to the United States in 1867 and died in 1871.

1877 - Custer's funeral is held at West Point. On this day in 1877, the U.S. Army holds a West Point funeral with full military honors for Lieutenant-Colonel George Armstrong Custer. Killed the previous year in Montana by Sioux and Cheyenne Indians at the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Custer's body had been returned to the East for burial on the grounds of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, New York, where Custer had graduated in 1861-at the bottom of his class.

Even before the Battle of the Little Big Horn, Custer had won national fame as a bold-and some said foolhardy-Civil War commander who eventually became the youngest major general in the U.S. Army. A handsome man, famous for his long blond hair (though he cut it short while in the field), Custer, even after the Civil War, continued to attract the appreciative attention of newspapers and the nation as a lieutenant colonel in the 7th Cavalry, a unit recently created to fight in the western Indian wars. Reports that Custer treated deserters of the 7th with unnecessary cruelty and overworked his soldiers led to a court-martial and conviction in 1867. But Custer redeemed himself, at least in the eyes of some, with his subsequent attack on a winter camp of Cheyenne in on the Washita River. Others, though, faulted Custer for attacking a peaceful band of Cheyenne and leaving behind some of his men when he withdrew from the battle under cover of night.

Though Custer was controversial in his day, his spectacular death at the Little Big Horn transformed him into a beloved martyr in the eyes of many Americans, especially those who were calling for wholesale war against the Indians. Some newspapers began to refer to Custer as the "American Murat," a reference to a famous martyr of the French Revolution, and they called for decisive retaliation against the "treacherous Indians" who had murdered the golden-haired general. Others refused to believe that Custer's own tactical mistakes could alone explain the disaster at Little Big Horn, and they instead sought to place the blame on the shoulders of other commanders who had been at the battle. (Tellingly, no one suggested that clever tactics and leadership by the Indians might have been the cause for Custer's defeat.) Custer's widow, Elizabeth, also worked to transform her husband into a legend by writing several adulatory books chronicling his career. Hundreds of other books and movies, many of them more fiction than history, helped cement the image of Custer as the great fallen leader of the Indian wars in many American minds.

Custer's status as a national hero and martyr only began to be seriously questioned in the 1960s, and since then he has often been portrayed as a vain and glory-seeking man whose own ineptitude was all the explanation needed for the massacre at Little Big Horn. The truth about George Custer is probably somewhere in between these two extremes.

1943 - Allies enter Naples, Italy.

1944 - Eight hundred children are gassed to death at Auschwitz. On this day in 1944, 800 Gypsy children, including more than a hundred boys between 9 and 14 years old are systematically murdered.

Auschwitz was really a group of camps, designated I, II, and III. There were also 40 smaller "satellite" camps. It was at Auschwitz II, at Birkenau, established in October 1941, that the SS created a complex, monstrously orchestrated killing ground: 300 prison barracks; four "bathhouses," in which prisoners were gassed; corpse cellars; and cremating ovens. Thousands of prisoners were also used as fodder for medical experiments, overseen and performed by the camp doctor, Josef Mengele ("the Angel of Death").

A mini-revolt took place on October 7, 1944. As several hundred Jewish prisoners were being forced to carry corpses from the gas chambers to the furnace to dispose of the bodies, they blew up one of the gas chambers and set fire to another, using explosives smuggled to them from Jewish women who worked in a nearby armaments factory. Of the roughly 450 prisoners involved in the sabotage, about 250 managed to escape the camp during the ensuing chaos. They were all found and shot. Those co-conspirators who never made it out of the camp were also executed, as were five women from the armaments factory-but not before being tortured for detailed information on the smuggling operation. None of the women talked.

Gypsies, too, had been singled out for brutal treatment by Hitler's regime early on. Deemed "carriers of disease" and "unreliable elements who cannot be put to useful work," they were marked for extermination along with the Jews of Europe from the earliest years of the war. Approximately 1.5 million Gypsies were murdered by the Nazis. In 1950, as Gypsies attempted to gain compensation for their suffering, as were other victims of the Holocaust, the German government denied them anything, saying, "Gypsies have been persecuted under the Nazis not for any racial reason but because of an asocial and criminal record." They were stigmatized even in light of the atrocities committed against them.

1965 - 1st Cavalry Division commences operations. In the first major operation since arriving the previous month, the U.S. 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) joins with South Vietnamese Marines to strike at 2,000 North Vietnamese troops 25 miles from An Khe in the Central Highlands.

The 1st Cavalry Division was a new kind of division, which was built around the helicopter and the airmobile concept. The division contained 434 helicopters and had the capability to move one-third of its combat power at one time into terrain inaccessible to normal infantry vehicles. During its first major mission, faulty U.S.-South Vietnamese coordination prevented their forces from entrapping the North Vietnamese Army 325th Infantry Division, but they managed to reopen Route 19, between Pleiku and An Khe, the main east-west supply route in the region. During the course of its employment in South Vietnam, the "First Team," as the 1st Cavalry Division came to be known, would prove to be one of the most effective U.S. combat units in the war.

1969 - U.S. Navy transfers vessels to South Vietnamese. The U.S. Navy transfers 80 river-patrol boats to the South Vietnamese Navy in the largest single transfer of naval equipment since the war began. This was part of the ongoing Vietnamization program, which had been announced by President Richard Nixon at Midway in June. Under this program, the United States sought to turn over responsibility for the fighting to the South Vietnamese so that U.S. troops could be withdrawn from Vietnam. The plan included a massive transfer of equipment and weapons to the South Vietnamese and a stepped-up training program by U.S. advisers designed to prepare the South Vietnamese armed forces to stand alone against their Communist opponents. The transfer of vessels by the U.S. Navy was only part of the effort that also included a modernization of the South Vietnamese Air Force and new tanks, artillery pieces, and other weapons and equipment for the Army of South Vietnam.

Also on this day: South Vietnamese armed forces assume responsibility for the defense of Saigon as the last U.S. combat contingent in the city was moved to an area 20 miles away. As the Vietnamization progressed, more U.S. forces were withdrawn and by January 1972, less than 70,000 American troops were in South Vietnam.

1970 - October Crisis in Canada. During the October Crisis, the Quebec Liberation Front (FLQ), a militant separatist group, kidnaps Quebec labor minister Pierre Laporte in Montreal. Five days earlier, FLQ terrorists had seized British trade commissioner James Richard Cross. In exchange for the lives of the men, the FLQ demanded the release of two dozen FLQ members convicted of various charges, including kidnappings, bombings, and arms theft.

Believing the situation to be out of control, the Quebec government asked the Canadian federal government to send troops to the French-Canadian province to help maintain order. Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau responded by proclaiming the War Powers Act, under which the FLQ was banned, some civil liberties were suspended, and thousands of troops were sent to Montreal. In a series of police raids, more than 400 Quebec separatists were taken into custody and held without charges. On October 18, the body of Pierre Laporte was found in the trunk of a car near Saint-Hubert Airport. The apartment building holding Cross and his kidnappers was discovered in late November. After a tense standoff, the kidnappers agreed to release Cross in return for safe passage to Cuba for themselves and their families. Cross was freed on December 4 after the group arrived in Cuba. Laporte's kidnappers were later arrested and convicted of kidnapping and murder.

The October Crisis was a rare period of violence during Quebec's Quiet Revolution, an otherwise peaceful effort by Quebecois politicians to gain greater autonomy within the English-dominated federation of Canada.
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Today's event:

1615 Samuel de Champlain, several arquebusiers and 500 native warriors attack a fortified Onondaga settlement (present day Nichols Pond, south of Lake Oneida, N.Y.). The raiders are rebuffed and forced to withdraw, carrying a wounded Champlain with them.

Today's book:

Voyages of Samuel de Champlain, 1604-1618: With a map and two plans by Samuel de Champlain

Book Description:

During these altercations, it was impossible for me, as the time of my departure was very near at hand, to do anything for the habitation at Quebec, for repairing and enlarging which I desired to take out some workmen. It was accordingly necessary to go out this year without any farther organization. The passports of Monseigneur le Prince were made out for four vessels, which were already in readiness for the voyage, viz. three from Rouen and one from La Rochelle, on condition that each should furnish four men for my assistance, not only in my discoveries but in war, as I desired to keep the promise which I had made to the Ochataiguins [29] in the year 1611, to assist them in their wars at the time of my next voyage.

http://www.amazon.com/Voyages-Samuel...e=UTF8&s=books
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October 11

1521 Leo X conferred the title "Fidei Defensor" (Defender of the Faith) upon England's Henry VIII. Three popes and 13 years later, Henry severed all ties with Rome to establish the Church of England.

1669 Peter the Great becomes tsar of Russia

1737 Earthquake kills 300,000 & destroys Calcutta, India

1746 *Battle of Rocourt. French victorious over Charles of Lorraine winning the province of Brabant.

1776 Benedict Arnold halts British at Valcour I, Lake Champlain.

1776 *A fleet of 10 British vessels engages 15 American ships blockading Lake Champlain. The battle off Valcour Island ends with the sinking of several American boats and the British pursuit of the remaining rebel ships. The action gives the British control of the lake.

1797 British naval forces defeat Dutch off Camperdown, Netherlands

1805 *Battle of Haslach. 6,000 French led by DuPont hold off attack by 25,000 Asutrians and take 4,100 prisoners.

1824 Marquis de Lafayette (Continental General) visits the Washington Navy Yard during his year long tour of America. He returned to the yard the next day, October 12, to continue his visit.

1860 New York's "Fighting 69th" refuses to parade for the Prince of Wales.

1861 Battle of Dumfries/Quantico Creek, Va

1862 *Stuart hits Pennsylvania. Confederate cavalry leader General J.E.B. Stuart loots Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on a daring raid in the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam.

Stuart left Virginia on October 9 with 1,800 cavalrymen. At the time, the Union Army of the Potomac was still camped in western Maryland. Its commander, George McClellan, was reluctant to pursue General Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomac after Antietam on September 17.

Stuart was trying to gather information on McClellan's army and harass his supply lines. As the Rebels rode through Maryland, they captured any male travelers they saw in order to keep their activities secret, though Stuart refused to detain women. On the evening of October 10, the Confederate troopers entered Chambersburg. About half of the supplies for the Union army came through the rail center, and Stuart planned to destroy a railway bridge in the town. Local officials fled, and there were no Federal troops to be found when Stuart's men rode in on the evening of October 10. On the morning of October 11, they began cutting telegraph lines, seizing horses and any supplies they could carry, and destroying everything else. The railway bridge proved to be more than the Rebels could handle. Attempts to destroy the steel structure failed, and Stuart ordered his men to turn back to Virginia by the afternoon of October 11.

Stuart's men headed back through Emmitsburg, Maryland, where he learned that a Federal cavalry force was waiting for him at Frederick, 20 miles south. Stuart used backroads and wove between two Union forces before crossing the Potomac River on October 12. The three-day raid covered nearly 130 miles, netted 1,200 horses, and captured 30 local officials to be exchanged for Confederate civil prisoners. Stuart also destroyed many machine shops at the rail center in Chambersburg. His force suffered just one man wounded and two missing.

1865 President A. Johnson paroles CSA VP Alexander Stephens

1890 Daughters of the American Revolution was founded

1899 *Boer troops move into British territory in South Africa, opening a war which will involve Canada in its first imperial conflict.

1914 During World War I, the Cathedral of Notre Dame suffered minor damage during an air raid on Paris. The most famous of the Gothic cathedrals of the Middle Ages, Notre Dame is distinguished for both its size and antiquity.

1915 Bulgarians begin offensive against Serbia

1922 Turkey & Greece sign ceasefire

1939 U.S. passenger liner Iroquois arrives safely in New York harbor, having been accompanied for three days by the cutter USCG Campbell and destroyers USS Davis and USS Benham . Iroquois will later be acquired by the Navy on 22 July 1940 and will be converted to a hospital ship. As Solace (AH-5) she played a significantly important role at Pearl Harbor on 7 December, 1941.

1942 Japanese transport force, formed around seaplane carriers IJN Chitose and IJN Nisshin and six destroyers, reaches Tassafaronga, Guadalcanal, to disembark elements of the Japanese Army's 2d Infantry Division. Three heavy cruisers, with flag in IJN Aoba, and two destroyers are to provide cover by shelling Henderson Field. The Battle of Cape Esperance commences shortly before midnight, however, as naval surface force TG 64.2 bars Rear Admiral Goto's way. Heavy cruiser USS Salt Lake City (CA-25) and light cruiser USS Boise are damaged, but combine to cripple Japanese heavy cruiser IJN Furutaka; destroyers USS Duncan and USS Farenholt are also damaged by Japanese gunfire, the latter possibly by friendly fire from either USS Boise or USS Helena. American cruiser and destroyer gunfire sinks Japanese destroyer IJN Fubuki (09°06'S, 159°38'E) and damages heavy cruiser IJN Aoba (Rear Admiral Goto is killed on board his flagship) and destroyer IJN Hatsuyuki. USS Duncan was the sole American vessel sunk.

1942 Japanese submarine I-25, homeward bound from her deployment off the U.S. West Coast, torpedoes and sinks Russian submarine L 16 bound from Dutch Harbor to San Francisco.

1942 Submarine USS Searaven torpedoes German blockade runner Regensburg in Sunda Strait, N.E.I.

1942 British destroyer HMS Active rescues 23 survivors from No.2 lifeboat from U.S. freighter Coloradan, which had been torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-159 on 9 October 1942

1942 U.S. freighter Steel Scientist, en route to Paramaribo, British Guiana, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-514, 05°48'N, 51°39'W; one crewman is killed in the attack. Survivors, who include 37 merchant seamen and the 9-man Armed Guard, take to a gig and three lifeboats

1943 Advanced Amphibious Training Base, Falmouth, Cornwall, England, is established.

1943 Submarine USS Skipjack damages Japanese transport Matsutani Maru five miles off Kwajalein, 06°25'N, 171°40'E.

1943 Submarine USS Wahoo is sunk by Japanese naval aircraft, submarine chasers Ch 15 and Ch 43, and minesweeper W.18, in La Perouse Strait, 45°13'N, 141°56'E.

1943 Japanese planes attack U.S. shipping off Koli Point, Guadalcanal, torpedoing freighters George H. Himes and John H. Couch; tug Menominee (AT-73) beaches George H. Himes (which suffers no casualties among the 41-man merchant complement, 27-man Armed Guard, and 20 CB stevedores) to save the ship's cargo of lumber, shells and bombs. Three men perish on board John H. Couch (a merchant seaman, one Armed Guard sailor and a CB stevedore), whose cargo of gasoline and diesel oil catches fire at the initial explosion. Firefighting efforts by two destroyer escorts prove as unsuccessful as the crew's in putting out the blaze and the ship is abandoned by the 42 merchant seamen, 25 Armed Guards, 28 troop passengers and 99 stevedores.

1943 USAAF B-25s attack small Japanese cargo vessels off Bougainville, sinking Sanwa Maru and damaging Muyo Maru with a near-miss.

1944 *Australians land at Jacquinot Bay, New Britain. The Australians' arrival opened the successful New Britain campaign in which a small Militia force successfully contained the large Japanese garrison holding Rabaul.

1944 Japan announces it will "fight to the last man, woman, child, weapon, and piece of equipment."

1944 In preparation for operations against Formosa, TG 38.1 under Vice Admiral John S. McCain and TG 38.4 under Rear Admiral Ralph E. Davison attack Japanese airfields and other facilities on the north coast of Luzon; task group planes damage escort destroyer IJN Yashiro off San Vicente and cargo vessel No.6 Banei Maru off Aparri.

1944 Submarine USS Tang sinks Japanese merchant cargo ships Joshu Go and Oita Maru in Formosa Strait, 25°00'N, 121°00'E.

1944 Submarine USS Trepang sinks Japanese landing ship T.105 off Honshu, 33°18'N, 137°42'E.

1944 Tank landing craft LCT-293 founders and sinks in heavy weather in English Channel.

1945 Chinese civil war begins, Chiang Kai-Shek vs Mao Tse-Tung

1945 Typhoon hits Okinawa, damaging many Navy ships.

1950 Task Force 77 aircraft destroy North Korean vessels off Songjin, Wonsan, and north of Hungham.

1951 HMR-161 in Korea transported 3/7 in the first battalion size combat helolift.

1951 Operation "Bumblebee" Northeast of Yanggu, Korea.

1954 *Viet Minh take control in the north. The Viet Minh formally take over Hanoi and control of North Vietnam.

The Vietnam Doc Lap Dong Minh (Vietnam Independence League), or Viet Minh as it would become known to the world, was a Communist front organization founded by Ho Chi Minh in 1941 to organize resistance against French colonial rule and occupying Japanese forces.

With the end of the Japanese occupation in 1945, the French attempted to reimpose colonial rule. The Viet Minh launched a long and bloody guerrilla war against French colonial forces in what came to be known as the First Indochina War. Ultimately, the Viet Minh, under the leadership of General Vo Nguyen Giap, decisively defeated the French at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu in May 1954. On August 1, the armistice ending the war went into effect. The triumphant Viet Minh marched into Hanoi as the French prepared to withdraw their forces.

Under the provisions of the agreement signed at the Geneva Conference in July, Vietnam was to be temporarily split into approximately equal halves. The two halves were to be separated by a Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) running along the 17th parallel. The northern half was to be governed by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, which had been proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh, and the southern half would be governed by the noncommunist State of Vietnam until 1956, at which time the two zones were to be reunified following internationally supervised elections. Ngo Dinh Diem, who had become premier of the State of Vietnam in June, was a Catholic and staunchly anticommunist. Diem disliked the Geneva Accords and set about to consolidate his power in the south. By the middle of 1955, Diem had effectively gained control of most of South Vietnam, and in July of that year, he declared his refusal to permit the elections called for at Geneva. This announcement led to a stepped-up insurgency in the south and ultimately to the Second Indochina War, when North Vietnamese regular units were committed in the south and U.S. forces arrived. Vietnam was not reunited until April 1975, when North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon.

1958 2nd US Moon probe, Pioneer 1, reaches 113,810 km, falls back

1961 USAF Major Robert M White takes X-15 to 66,100 m

1961 *Kennedy ponders the Vietnam situation. At a meeting of the National Security Council, President John F. Kennedy is asked by his advisers to accept "as our real and ultimate objective the defeat of the Vietcong." The Joint Chiefs of Staff estimated that 40,000 U.S. troops could clean up "the Vietcong threat" and another 120,000 could cope with possible North Vietnamese or Chinese Communist intervention. Kennedy wanted to prevent the fall of South Vietnam to the Communist insurgents, but decided to send General Maxwell Taylor to Vietnam to study the situation. Ultimately, Kennedy would send advisers, helicopters, and other military support to South Vietnam to aid President Ngo Dinh Diem in his fight against the Viet Cong.

1967 Operation Coronado VI began in Rung Sat Zone

1968 Launch of Apollo 7, the first U.S. 3-man space mission, commanded by CDR Walter Schirra, JR. USN. Eisele as Command Module pilot, MAJ Ronnie Cunningham, USMCR served as Lunar Module pilot. The mission lasted 10 days and 20 hours. Recovery was by HS-5 helicopters from USS Essex

1968 Panama revolts

1969 Soyuz 6 launched; Soyuz 7 & 8 follow in next 2 days

1977 Soyuz 25 returns to Earth

1980 Cosmonauts Popov & Ryumin set space endurance record of 184 days.

1982 English warship Mary Rose, which sank during an engagement with France in 1545, was raised at Portsmouth, England. She lives ever still!

1986 *Reagan and Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik. Following up on their successful November 1985 summit meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet in Reykjavik, Iceland, to continue discussions about curbing their intermediate missile arsenals in Europe. Just when it appeared that agreement might be reached, the talks fell apart amid accusations and recriminations, and U.S.-Soviet relations took a giant step backwards.
The sticking point arose when Gorbachev requested that the talks concerning the missiles be expanded to include limitations on America's Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI). Referred to as the "Star Wars" initiative by opponents, SDI was one of Reagan's pet projects. A multi-billion-dollar program, SDI was supposed to use space technology to provide a "shield" from nuclear attacks.

Not surprisingly, Reagan refused to consider Gorbachev's suggestion, and the talks ended the next day, October 12, with no agreement in hand. Reagan charged the Soviet leader with bad faith in trying to expand the parameters of the talks; back in the Soviet Union, Gorbachev reported that Reagan seemed to be lying about his desire for serious negotiations concerning arms limitations. Talks on the missile issue did not resume until December 1987, when the two leaders met for a third summit in Washington, and Gorbachev dropped his insistence on including SDI in the negotiations.

(*) Contributed by Avalon.

(*)Contributed by Cap. Teancum.

(*) Contributed by Dannybou.
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Last edited by Admiral; 11 Oct 06 at 20:05..
  #1286  
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Today's event:

1862 - Stuart hits Pennsylvania. Confederate cavalry leader General J.E.B. Stuart loots Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, on a daring raid in the aftermath of the Battle of Antietam.

Today's book:

I Rode With Jeb Stuart: The Life and Campaigns of Major General J.E.B. Stuart by H. B. McClellan, Burke Davis

Book Review:

More than McClellan's memoir, this is an early Stuart biography, and later biographies such as Davies' and Thomas' rely heavily upon it. McClellan became Stuart's AG in May '63, but his account starts with Stuart's youth.
This is a vital account in showing exactly what Stuart's cavalry did during the war: scouting, raiding, screening movements, fighting rearguard actions, gathering information, etc. One thing I didn't know was that Stuart's horse artillery, often under the command of the general himself and sometimes with regular batteries added, would take up a flank position during infantry battles and fire into the Federal ranks. The perpetual, obviously exhausting, activity of the cavalry also becomes obvious.

McClellan was present for the Gettysburg campaign, and his account is invaluable for this somewhat controversial issue. His writing becomes more personal at this point, and he recounts several anecdotes of interest. He continues his detailed recounting of ANV cavalry activity until Stuart's death; McClellan was present at the deathbed and ends his book there. This should be required reading for anyone interested in the cavalry.


http://www.amazon.com/Rode-Jeb-Stuar...e=UTF8&s=books
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October 12

1285 180 Jews are set on fire for refusing baptism, Munich, Germany

1492 Columbus arrives in the Bahamas; the real Columbus Day

1702 *Battle of Vigo Bay. Combined British-Dutch fleet entered Vigo harbor and defeated French-Spanish fleet, destroying 11 ships, capturing 10 warships and 11 merchantmen loaded with silver.

1722 Isfahan falls to Mir Mahmoud of Afghanistan, after a 7 month siege

1776 British troops begins guarding the Throgg's Neck Road in the Bronx

1828 *Turkish garrison of Varna surrendered to the Russians after a spirited three-month defense.

1851 New York's "Fighting 69th" is founded.

1860 British & French troops capture Peking

1861 Confederate ironclad CSS Manassas attacks USS Richmond on the Mississippi

1861 Skirmish at Bayless Cross Roads, La

1861 Skirmish at Cameron, Mo

1861 Skirmish at Upton Hill, Ky

1862 JEB Stuart completes his "Second ride around McClellan"

1862 Maj Gen Earl Van Dorn takes command of Confederate troops in Mississippi

1914 First Battle of Ypres begins

1914 The collier USS Jupiter (AC-3) was the first Navy ship to complete transit of Panama Canal. (Renamed USS Langley (CV-1) in April 1920, she recommissioned two years later as the first aircraft carrier in the US Navy's seagoing air fleet)

1915 English nurse Edith Cavell executed as a spy by the Germans in Belgium

1917 The 1st Marine Aviation Squadron and 1st Marine Aeronautic Company formed at Philadelphia.

1939 German submarines attack convoys of French and British shipping; U 48 shells and sinks French motor tanker Emile Miguet (from convoy KJ 2S) at 50°15'N, 14°50'W, and later torpedoes and sinks British freighter Heronspool (convoy OB 17S) at 50°13'N, 14°48'W. U.S. merchantmen rescue the survivors: freighter Black Hawk rescues Emile Miguet's crew, passenger liner President Harding rescues Heronspool's.

1939 British seizure of U.S. mail continues: authorities at the contraband control station at Weymouth remove 94 sacks addressed to Rotterdam, 81 to Antwerp and 184 to Germany, from U.S. freighter Black Tern, which had been detained the day before; authorities at the Downs remove 77 sacks of parcel post, 33 sacks of registered mail, and 156 sacks of regular mail addressed to the Netherlands, in addition to 65 sacks of mail addressed to Belgium, 4 to Luxembourg, 3 to Danzig, and 259 to Germany, from Dutch motorship Zaandam.

1940 Commander Atlantic Squadron (Rear Admiral Hayne Ellis), in destroyer USS Rhind visits Port-au-Prince, Haiti. The timely goodwill visit came in the wake of an extensive cabinet shakeup by the Haitian president the previous day. Rear Admiral Ellis later wrote that USS Rhind's visit had a "very soothing effect on the minds of the people" in the Haitian port.

1940 Carrier USS Wasp, off the Virginia capes, launches 24 USAAC P-40s and 9 O-47s to gather data on comparative take-off runs of naval and army aircraft. For the first time US Army planes are flown off a US Navy carrier.

1941 Russian government moves from Moscow to Volga as Nazis close in on Moscow

1942 Japanese sub enters the Gulf of Oman.

1942 Battle of Cape Esperance continues as TG 64.2 engages Japanese cruiser and destroyer force. As the result of damage received in the battle, Japanese heavy cruiser IJN Furutaka sinks, 09°02'S, 159°34'E; destroyers IJN Murakumo and IJN Shirayuki rescue survivors of Rear Admiral Goto's ships sunk in the engagement with TG 64.2. Despite efforts of a salvage party from destroyer USS McCalla, destroyer USS Duncan sinks as a result of damage received off Cape Esperance. USS McCalla also conducts unsuccessful attempt to sink Japanese submarine I-2 off Guadalcanal.

1942 Destroyers USS Gwin, USS Nicholas, and USS Sterett shell Japanese artillery positions on Guadalcanal.

1942 SBD (VS 71) sinks Japanese destroyer IJN Natsugumo off Savo Island; destroyer IJN Murakumo, after being damaged by TBF (VT 8), Navy and Marine SBDs (VS 3, VS 71, VMSB 141) and Marine F4Fs (VMF 121, VMF 212, and VMF 224) off New Georgia, Solomons, is scuttled by destroyer IJN Shirayuki.

1942 Submarine USS Nautilus is damaged by depth charges off northern Honshu, 41°05'N, 141°58'E, but remains on patrol.

1942 Motor torpedo boats PT-38, PT-46, PT-48 and PT-60 arrive at Tulagi, having been towed from Espiritu Santo to a point 300 miles south of that place by high speed minesweepers USS Southard and USS Hovey.

1942 Transport Mount Vernon (AP-22) is stranded by storm, Sydney, Australia, harbor, but is not damaged in the accidental grounding.

1942 U.S. freighter Pan Gulf, in convoy TAG 18S, blunders into U.S. minefield at 10°01'N, 61°50'16"W; she returns to Trinidad under her own power. There are no casualties among the 38-man merchant complement and 21-man Armed Guard.

1943 *RAAF Beaufighters attack Japanese positions at Rabaul. Fifth Air Force begins heavy bombardment raids.

1943 USAAF B-24s, B-25s, and P-38s, and RAAF Beaufighters, raid Rabaul, pounding Japanese shipping, town, harbor, and airfields in the vicinity, sinking transports Keisho Maru and Kosei Maru, cargo lighters No.1 Wakamatsu Maru and Kurogane Maru, and guardboat Mishima Maru; and damaging destroyers IJN Mochizuki, IJN Minazuki and IJN Tachikaze, submarines I-177, I-180 and RO 105, special service ship Tsukushi, oiler Naruto, and auxiliary sailing vessels Tenryu Maru and Koan Maru.

1943 Submarine USS Cero (SS-225) torpedoes Japanese stores ship Mamiya off Chichi Jima, 28°39'N, 137°28'E; collier Asakaze Maru tows the damaged vessel to Saeki, Japan.

1943 Aircraft (VC 9) from escort carrier USS Card break up another German U-boat refueling rendezvous when they attack U-488 about 600 miles north of Flores Island, Azores and damage U-731.

1944 TF 38 (Vice Admiral Marc A. Mitscher) hurls heavy air strikes against Japanese shipping, aerodromes, and industrial plants on Formosa, regarded as the strongest and best-developed base south of the homeland proper, and on northern Luzon. Strikes draw heavy Japanese aerial counterattacks off Formosa during which destroyer USS Prichett is damaged by friendly fire, 22°08'N, 123°19'E. TF 38 planes sink transport Asaka Maru, cargo ship Shirotai Maru, army cargo ship Mitsuki Maru, and merchant tankers No.6 Horai Maru, No.23 Nanshin Maru, and No.26 Nanshin Maru off the Pescadores, 23°30'N, 119°34'E; and transports Bujo Maru and Joshu Maru, army cargo ship Yamahagi Maru, merchant cargo ships Gyoun Maru, Hakko Maru, No.11 Tenjin Maru, and No.1 Takatomi Maru, and merchant tankers No.5 Nanshin Maru, No.11 Nanshin Maru and No.20 Nanshin Maru, dredge Niitaka Maru, and damage tanker Eiho Maru and army cargo ship Shinto Maru off Takao, 22°37'N, 119°34'E. Also damaged at Takao is German ship Havenstein, Japanese cargo vessels Taisho Maru, Taihoku Maru, and, at Keelung, Hakozaki Maru. TF 38 planes also sink merchant cargo ship Shinan Maru in Putai harbor, 23°22'N, 120°10'E. Destruction of Japanese air power on Formosa paves way for USAAF B-29 bomber strikes on aircraft plant and airfield facilities on the island on 14 and 16 October 1944. Air strikes on the Formosa area sink Japanese transport Josho Maru, and army cargo ship Yamahagi Maru, off Takao; army ship Mitsuki Maru and merchant tanker No.6 Horai Maru, off Mako; Japanese cargo ship Shirotai Maru is sunk by mine off Mako.

1944 Motor torpedo boat PT-368, damaged by grounding, western New Guinea, 01°59'N, 127°57'E, is scuttled by demolition charges.

1944 Submarine USS Ray sinks Japanese transport Toko Maru near Cape Cavalite, Mindoro, 13°32'N, 120°21'E, and survives counterattack by IJN Hiyodosi and Coast Defense Vessel No.2.

1944 Submarine USS Trepang damages Japanese destroyer IJN Fuyuzuki off Omaesuki, 33°56'N, 138°09'E.

1944 Submarine HMS Strongbow sinks Japanese cargo ship Manryo Maru in Strait of Malacca, 02°50'N, 100°50'E.

1944 German army withdraws from Athens

1945 *Conscientious objector wins Medal of Honor. Private First Class Desmond T. Doss of Lynchburg, Virginia, is presented the Congressional Medal of Honor for outstanding bravery as a medical corpsman, the first conscientious objector in American history to receive the nation's highest military award.

When called on by his country to fight in World War II, Doss, a dedicated pacifist, registered as a conscientious objector. Eventually sent to the Pacific theater of war as a medical corpsman, Doss voluntarily put his life in the utmost peril during the bloody battle for Okinawa, saving dozens of lives well beyond the call of duty.

1960 Nikita Khrushchev pounds his shoe at UN General Assembly session

1962 US/USSR sign joint space effort in telecommunications & meteorology

1964 Launch of Voskhod 1, 1st 3 man crew (Komarov, Feokistov, Yegorov)

1965 End of Project Sealab II where teams of naval divers and scientists spent 15 days in Sealab moored 205 feet below surface near La Jolla, California

1966 Operation "Teton," RVN.

1967 *Dean Rusk criticizes Congress while fighting continues in South Vietnam. At a news conference, Secretary of State Dean Rusk makes controversial comments in which he says that congressional proposals for peace initiatives--a bombing halt or limitation, United Nations action, or a new Geneva conference--were futile because of Hanoi's opposition.

Without the pressure of the bombing, he asked, "Where would be the incentive for peace?" He added that the Vietnam War was a test of Asia's ability to withstand the threat of "a billion Chinese...armed with nuclear weapons." Critics claimed that he had invoked the familiar "yellow peril" of Chinese power.

1968 Equatorial Guinea gains independence from Spain

1969 Soyuz 7 is launched

1970 *Nixon announces another round of troop withdrawals. Nixon announces that the United States will withdraw 40,000 more troops before Christmas. He had first announced his intention to withdraw U.S. troops from South Vietnam in June at the Midway Conference with President Nguyen Van Thieu. The first U.S. troops, from the 9th Infantry Division, had left Saigon in August. The troop withdrawals continued as the "Vietnamization" program turned fighting responsibility over to the South Vietnamese. By January 1972, there were less than 75,000 U.S. troops remaining in South Vietnam.

1972 Race riot in aircraft carrier USS Kitty Hawk, 46 injured

1972 Mariner 9 takes pictures of Martian north pole

1976 Hua Guo-feng succeeds Mao Tse-tung as chairman of Communist Party

1978 Representatives of Israel & Egypt open talks in Washington

1980 USS Guadalcanal and other ships of Amphibious Forces, Sixth Fleet begin assistance to earthquake victims in Al Asnam, Algeria

1984 IRA bombs hotel where Margaret Thatcher is staying

2000 Terrorists in a small boat make a suicide attack on USS Cole while the ship refuels in the port of Aden, Yemen. Seventeen Sailors were killed.

(*) Contributed by Avalon.

(*) Contributed by Cap. Teancum.
__________________
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ACG History Today

BoRG
  #1288  
Old 12 Oct 06, 13:52
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Today's event:

1914 First Battle of Ypres begins

Today's book:

First Ypres 1914: The Graveyard of the Old Contemptibles by Ed Dovey

Book Description:

In the autumn of 1914 the original British Expeditionary Force faced a heavily reinforced German drive. Field Marshal Sir John French, the British Commander-in-Chief, had sent his men north in an attempt to take the fight into Flanders, so they could fight across open ground. History tells us that this was not to be the case. David Lomas chronicles the first of the trench-warfare battles, where lines that would remain almost static for the rest of the war were established. Although the Germans failed to reach the channel ports, the death knell had rung for the BEF, which was virtually wiped out in this brave defence.

http://www.amazon.com/First-Ypres-19...e=UTF8&s=books
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  #1289  
Old 13 Oct 06, 12:40
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October 13



By Admiral:

Born...

1808 Henry Haywood Bell, naval officer, U.S., d. 1868

1810 James Shedden Palmer, naval officer, U.S., d. 1867

1826 Lafayette Curry Baker, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1868

1925 Margaret Thatcher, PM of Great Britain, (1979-90)

1952 Michael Richard Clifford, Army, Astronaut (STS 53, SK:59)

Died...

54 Claudius, Roman Emperor, likely poisoned

1093 Count Robert I of Flanders

1660 King Charles X Gustaf of Sweden (1654-60)

1795 William Prescott, American revolutionary

1812 Isaac Brock, English General, KIA, Queenstown Heights

1815 Joachim Murat, Marshal of France, King of Naples (1808-15), executed

1825 King Maximilian I Josef of Bavaria

1909 Francisco Ferrer, Spanish anarchist, executed

1990 Le Duc Tho

2000 Gus Hall, President, CPUSA (1959-2000), still believing, at 90

2002 Stephen Ambrose, historian ("Band of Brothers," "Citizen Soldiers," etc.)

Event...

539 -BC- The Persian armies of Cyrus the Great captured Babylon. (Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar, was the former military scourge which had taken Judah into exile in 586 BC (2 Kings 25).

1775 US Congress orders construction of a naval fleet, establishes the Continental Navy, later the US Navy.

1812 British repulse the Americans at the Battle of Queenstown Heights

1845 Texas ratifies a state constitution

1861 Combat at Lime Creek, Mo

1861 Skirmish at Beckwith Farm/Bird's Point

1861 Combat at Henrytown/West Glaze, Mo

1862 Bismarck's "Blood & Iron" speech

1864 Battle of Dalton, GA

1864 John Mosby raids of Harpers Ferry

1914 Belgian government relocates to Le Havre, France

1914 Pro-German Boer insurrection in South Africa picks up steam

1939 German submarine U 47 penetrates defenses of British fleet base at Scapa Flow, Orkney Islands, shortly before midnight and attacks. Her initial spread of torpedoes causes no damage to battleship HMS Royal Oak and aircraft repair vessel HMS Pegasus

1940 Surveying ship Bowditch (AG-30) arrives at Placentia Harbor, Newfoundland, to make hydrographic surveys, having transported army engineers who will make a shore requirements survey.

1942 1st Marine Division is reinforced by 164th Infantry Regiment of Americal Division, the first major U.S. Army unit to reach Guadalcanal.

1942 Japanese submarine I-30 is sunk by mine, three miles east of Singapore.

1942 German torpedo bombers attacking convoy PQ.18

1942 U.S. freighter Susana, in convoy SC 104 and bound for Cardiff, Wales, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-221, 53°41'N, 41°23'W; 27 of the 42-man crew perish with the ship, as do 10 of the 16-man Armed Guard. British rescue ship Gothland rescues the six Armed Guard survivors and the 15 merchant seamen who survive Susana's loss.

1942 U.S. freighter West Humhaw rescues 18 survivors of freighter John Carter Rose, sunk by U-201 and U-202 on 8 October 1942. Argentinean tanker Santa Cruz picks up the remainder of those who survive the merchantman's loss.

1942 Japanese air, artillery, and naval bombardment of Marines on Guadalcanal - 918 rounds.

1942 U.S. destroyers shell Japanese positions on Guadalcanal during the day

1943 Japanese planes attack four Lambu Lambu-based U.S. motor torpedo boats southwest of Choiseul; PT-boaters shoot down attacking Japanese floatplane, an event that proves "the greatest lift" to the sailors who tangle almost nightly with nocturnal enemy aircraft in that theater.

1943 Submarine USS Rasher attacks Japanese convoy proceeding from Ambon to Kendari, sinking cargo ship Kenkoku Maru, 03°47'S, 127°41'E.

1943 Tug Pawnee (AT-74) tows gutted U.S. freighter John H. Couch, torpedoed by Japanese planes on 11 October 1943 off Koli Point, Guadalcanal, to a point two miles east of Koli Point, where the merchantman capsized.

1943 USAAF B-25 aircraft bomb Japanese shipping in Amoy, China, harbor, sinking auxiliary submarine chaser Kongo Maru.

1943 Japanese auxiliary minesweeper Wa 101 is damaged by mine near Madoera Island, N.E.I., 07°11'S, 112°45'E.

1943 TBF (VC 9) from escort carrier USS Card sinks German submarine U-402, North Atlantic, 48°56'N, 29°41'E.

1943 Destroyer USS Bristol is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-371, 70 miles west-northwest of Bone, Algeria, 37°25'N, 06°20'E.

1943 Italy declares war on former ally Germany

1944 During Japanese aerial counterattacks in the wake of TF 38 strikes on Formosa , carrier USS Franklin is damaged when a kamikaze slides across her flight deck and crashes nearby, 22°55'N, 123°12'E; heavy cruiser USS Canberra, in TG 38.1, is damaged by aerial torpedo only 85 miles from Formosa, 22°48'N, 123°01'E. While heavy cruiser USS Wichita takes USS Canberra in tow, Cruiser Division 13, four destroyers from TG 38.3, and two from TG 38.1 are detached to provide cover. Fleet tug Munsee (ATF-107) relieves USS Wichita of towing USS Canberra and the group sets course for Ulithi.

1944 Submarine USS Bergall sinks Japanese merchant tanker Shinshu Maru off Nha Trang, French Indochina, 11°52'N, 109°20'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Sturdy sinks Japanese merchant coasters Kosei Maru and Hansei Maru in Gulf of Boni, south of Celebes.

1944 Peleliu Island, Palaus, is secured.

1944 Red Army liberates Riga from the Germans

1944 US carriers on 2nd day of raids against Japanese on Formosa.

1944 US 1st Army began the battle of Aachen

1954 USS Saipan begins relief and humanitarian aid to Haitians who were victims of Hurricane Hazel. The operation ended 19 October.

1960 Opponents of Fidel Castro executed in Cuba

1964 Khrushchev ousted as Soviet leader by Brezhnev & Kosygin

1964 Voskhod 1 crew returns

1965 Marine Attack Squadron 211 was awarded the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces Gallantry Cross for Vietnam service, 13 October 1965 - 13 July 1966.

1969 Soyuz 8 is launched

1978 Tiros N, US's 1st 3rd generation weather satellite, is launched

1987 First wartime use of dolphins by the US Navy, in the Persian Gulf

By Avalon:

Australian

1944 Australian naval squadron departs Hollandia for Leyte.

1969 HMAS Brisbane returns to Sydney. This was the end of the Brisbane's first deployment to Vietnam. A turret from HMAS Brisbane is on display outside the Memorial.

By Cap. Teancum:

1837 - French capture fortress of Condorcanqui, Algeria.

1863 - Ohio voters reject Vallandigham. The voters of Ohio send Clement Vallandigham to a resounding defeat in the fall gubernatorial election. As leader of the Copperheads, or antiwar Democrats, Vallandigham was an important and highly visible critic of the Republican's war policy, particularly the emancipation of slaves.

Vallandigham was elected to the House of Representatives in 1858. He was a Democrat and disapproved of slavery, but he admired Southern society and disagreed with starting a war over the issue of slave emancipation. He advocated states rights and generally agreed with most Southern political views. When the war began, he became a vociferous critic of both the method and war aims of the Republicans. As the war turned bloodier and it became clear that a Union victory would take years, Vallandigham began to gather supporters, and he became recognized as the leader of the Peace Democrats, or Copperheads. When the Lincoln administration began to curtail civil liberties, Vallandigham's criticism placed him in increasing jeopardy. In spring 1863, General Ambrose Burnside issued Order No. 38, which stated that public criticism of the war would not be tolerated. Vallandigham defied the order, and he was arrested on May 8. He was tried on charges of "expressing treasonable sympathy" with the enemy, and he was found guilty by a military tribunal in Cincinnati. He was banished to the Confederacy on May 25, 1862.

After a short stay there, Vallandigham relocated to Windsor, Ontario, and, despite his exile, mounted a campaign to become the Ohio governor. Elections were a barometer of the Northern war effort. In 1862, voters expressed dissatisfaction with President Lincoln by sending many Democrats to Congress. However, in 1863, after key Union successes at Vicksburg and Gettysburg, the voters increased Republican control of both houses. In Ohio, Vallandigham lost by more than 100,000 votes out of a half million ballots cast. He returned to the United States in 1864 and continued his criticism of "King Lincoln," as he called the president. Lincoln ignored him, but Vallandigham helped write the 1864 Democratic platform. By insisting that a statement be included declaring the war a failure and calling for an immediate end to fighting, Vallandigham helped ensure a Democratic defeat.

After the war, he practiced law and tried to get back into Ohio Democratic politics, but Democratic leaders rejected him as a senatorial candidate. In the early 1870s, he became an advocate of bridging the gap between Democrats and Republicans, a movement that spawned the Liberal Republican Party. Vallandigham died in 1871 when he accidentally killed himself showing a friend how a murder had been committed (he was defending the accused murderer).

1966 - McNamara claims that war is progressing satisfactorily. Defense Secretary Robert S. McNamara declares at a news conference in Saigon that he found that military operations have "progressed very satisfactorily since 1965."

McNamara had arrived in Saigon on October 11 for his eighth fact-finding visit to South Vietnam. He conferred with General William Westmoreland, the senior U.S. military commander; Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge; various military leaders; and South Vietnam's Premier Nguyen Cao Ky and President Nguyen Van Thieu. McNamara said he was pleased with the overall progress in South Vietnam, but he later revealed to President Lyndon Johnson in private that he thought progress was "very slow indeed" in the pacification program.

McNamara wrote after the war that he realized early on "the complexity of the situation and the uncertainties of our ability to deal with it by military means." Though he did understand the obstacles, he was dedicated to the U.S. commitment to preventing Communist takeover of South Vietnam. By the end of 1965, however, even McNamara had begun to doubt that a military solution in Southeast Asia could be achieved. Still, as late as July 1967, he told President Johnson that the U.S. and South Vietnamese forces were making headway in the war. Johnson tired of McNamara's vacillation and eventually replaced him with Clark Clifford in February 1968.

1970 - Sir Robert Thompson advises President Nixon. In a report prepared at the request of President Nixon, counterinsurgency expert Sir Robert Thompson explains that smashing the Viet Cong is a prerequisite for solving the political troubles of South Vietnam. After a five-week secret mission to Saigon in September and early October at the request of the president, Thompson reported that U.S. and Allied intelligence and police efforts had failed to destroy the Communist subversive apparatus in South Vietnam. His report concluded that success in other areas of pacification could not solve the basic political problems of South Vietnam after the withdrawal of the bulk of U.S. forces as long as the Viet Cong apparatus remained virtually intact.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1290  
Old 13 Oct 06, 12:48
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

539 -BC- The Persian armies of Cyrus the Great captured Babylon. (Babylon, under Nebuchadnezzar, was the former military scourge which had taken Judah into exile in 586 BC (2 Kings 25).

Today's book:

Cyrus the Great by Jacob Abbott

Book Description:

The Iranians regarded him as "The Father", Babylonian as "The Liberator", Hellenes as 'Law-Giver' and the Jews as 'The Anointed of the Lord'.
I am an Iranian. A descendant of Cyrus The Great. The very emperor who proclaimed at the pinnacle of power 2500 years ago that "... he would not reign over the people if they did not wish it." And [he] promised not to force any person to change his religion and faith and guaranteed freedom for all. The Charter of Cyrus The Great is one of the most important documents that should be studied in the history of human rights
"We promise to preserve forever the traditions of humanism and goodwill, with which you founded the Persian Empire: traditions which made our people be the carrier of message transmitted everywhere, professing fraternity and truth."
The book has 12 chapters ,first chapter is very interesting and the author writes about Xenophon and Herodotus and explains about their origins and reliability of information given by Herodotus, second and third chapters are about the birth of Cyrus the Great and his visit to Media as a young prince when his grandfather Astyages was king of Media(main source of information ,Herodotus).
Chapter 4-8 describes his accession to the throne and conquest of Lydia, Babylon and liberation of Jews. Chapter 10 is about Susian captive Panthea and she was treated with dignity and respect and was reunited with her Assyrian husband Arbadates(an Assyrian general), and finally chapter 12 is about the death of the legend (most information taken from Herodotus)
This is a very good book and very easy to read.


http://www.amazon.com/Cyrus-Great-Ja...e=UTF8&s=books
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Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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