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Go Back   Armchair General and HistoryNet >> The Best Forums in History > Historical Events & Eras > Warfare Through the Ages

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Warfare Through the Ages Roman, Greek, Japanese, etc. Topics cover all manner of pre-modern warfare and empire-building and crushing.

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  #1486  
Old 12 Jan 07, 17:20
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January 12

Born
1893 Mikhail Gurevich, Soviet aircraft designer, founder (with Artem Mikoyan) of MiG military aviation bureau. (December 31 o.s.)
1907 Sergey Korolyov, the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during "the Space Race" (December 30 o.s.)

Events
1720 The Military Collegium, predecessor of Russian Ministry of Defence, officially started its work (January 1 o.s.)
1876 Battle of Balykchanskie Zavaly: Russian troops (under Maj.Gen. M.Skobelev) defeated army of Kokand Khanate. (December 31 o.s.)
1935 USSR: NKO order #9 about renaming of Far East Sea Forces to Pacific Ocean Fleet, Black Sea and Azov Sea Forces to Black Sea Fleet, Baltic Sea Forces to Baltic Fleet.
1943 Operation Spark (Iskra) of the Red Army started, with the aim to break the siege of Leningrad.
1945 Soviets started Vistula-Oder Offensive.
1992 First agreement between Russia and Ukraine about division of Soviet Black Sea Fleet.

Last edited by Rambow; 13 Jan 07 at 08:57.. Reason: Sorry, Pacific Fleet of course (not Far East Fleet)
  #1487  
Old 13 Jan 07, 05:08
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January 13


By Admiral:

Born...

1505 Joachim II Hector of Brandenburg

1807 Napoleon Bonaparte Buford, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1883

1812 Humphrey Marshall, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1872

1815 William Henry French, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1881

1869 Emanuele F, Duke of Aosta, Italian General, WW I, /fascist

1904 Richard Addensell, composer ("Warsaw Concerto"/"Suicide Squadrons")

1949 Rakesh Sharma, India, Cosmonaut, Soyuz T-11

Died...

86 -BC- Marius, two weeks into his seventh consulship

858 Aethelwolf, King of Wessex (Battle at Aclea)

888 Charles III, the Fat One, King of Franconia/Roman Emperor

1049 Derrick IV(Dirk), Count of Holland (1039-49), KIA

1929 Wyatt Earp, U.S. Marshal, at 80

1971 Bernard "Heinz" Lammerding, Germ SS-General/contractor (Tulle), at 65

1988 Ching-Kao Chiang, Chinese Nationalist leader, at 81

Event...

888 Duke Odo becomes King of West-France

1099 Crusaders set fire to Mara, Syria

1559 Elizabeth crowned Queen in Westminster Abbey

1689 Mary II and her husband William III ascended the throne of England

1776 Major-General Schuyler, commander at Albany, N.Y., writes separate letters to the Continental Congress and to General Washington requesting immediate reinforcements for the rebels laying seige to Quebec.

1830 Great fire in New Orleans blamed on slave conspiracy

1862 Marines landed and burned Confederate stores at Cedar Keys, Florida.

1863 Thomas Crapper pioneers one-piece pedestal flushing toilet. And the world has not been the same since.

1865 Amphibious attack on Fort Fisher, NC, falls Jan 15

1874 US troops land in Honolulu to protect the King

1881 Chileans defeat Peruvians at Chorillas, opening the way to Lima

1894 Revolution in Sicily crushed by government troops

1898 Emile Zola's famous defense of Capt Alfred Dreyfus published in Paris

1927 US & Mexico battle over oil interests

1935 Plebiscite in Saar, indicates a desire (90.3%) to join Nazi Germany

1940 U.S. freighter Narbo, bound for Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece, is detained at Gibraltar by British authorities. Freighter Tripp, detained at Gibraltar by the British since 11 January, is released, but not before some items of her cargo are seized as contraband.

1942 Elements of British 18th Div reach Singapore, as Japanese close in

1942 Heavy fighting on Bataan, as Philippine troops counterattack.

1942 German U-boats begin harassing shipping on U.S. east coast

1942 Interallied war trial conference publishes St. James Declaration

1943 Transport Arthur Middleton damaged when she runs aground at western end of Constantine Harbor, Amchitka, Aleutians.

1943 Submarine USS Triton damages Japanese oiler Maru north of the St. Matthias Island group, 00°26'S, 148°40'E.

1943 Submarine USS Whale sinks Japanese collier Iwashiro Maru about 40 miles north of Kwajalein, 09°54'N, 167°07'E.

1943 PBY-5As (VP 83) sink German submarine U-507 off Brazil, 01°38'S, 39°52'W.

1943 Hitler declares "Total War"

1943 Russian offensive at Don under General Golikov

1943 British PM Winston Churchill arrives in Casablanca

1943 Guadalcanal: 25th Div, in a daring attack, occupies the Galloping Horse Ridge

1943 The 2ndMarDiv launched a westward coastal attack at Guadalcanal.

1943 Submarine USS Guardfish torpedoes a Japanese patrol vessel off New Ireland.

1944 Submarine USS Swordfish is damaged by depth charges off central Honshu, 33°16'N, 139°30'E, but remains on patrol.

1944 USAAF B-24 (5th Air Force) sinks Japanese transport Haguro Maru 35 miles northwest of New Hanover, 02°43'N, 149°25'E.

1944 Thai ship Valaya is sunk by mine in Menam River, Thailand.

1944 Brazilian minelayer Camocim while escorting convoy JT 19, picks up the last 34 survivors (26 German and 8 Italian) of the three German blockade runners sunk on 3, 4, and 5 January.

1944 Northern Burma: Chinese forces secure the Tarung river line.

1945 Luzon: Heavy fighting

1945 Japanese kamikaze attacks against Lingayen Gulf invasion shipping culminate in suicide plane crashing and damaging escort carrier USS Salamaua, 17°09'N, 119°21'E.

1945 Destroyer escort USS Fleming sinks Japanese submarine I 362 320 miles north-northeast of Truk, 12°08'N, 154°27'E.

1945 Open lighter YC-912 founders in heavy weather, North Pacific Ocean.

1945 Ex-USAAF aircraft rescue boat P 584, under administrative control of Office of Strategic Services (OSS) and manned by a navy crew, is destroyed by explosion at Leghorn, Italy, injuring 11 sailors.

1950 Operation Sweetbrier is in full swing in Canada's north. Five thousand Canadian and American troops are testing their Arctic warfare abilities in an exercise simulating a Soviet incursion over the polar icecap into North America.

1951 German General F Christian freed early from Dutch prison

1953 Marshal Josip Tito becomes president of Yugoslavia

1954 Miltary rule in Egypt; 318 Mohammedan Brotherhood arrested

1958 9,000 scientists of 43 nations petition UN for nuclear test ban

1964 USS Manley evacuates 54 American and 36 allied nationals after Zanzibar government is overthrown

1966 U.S. performs nuclear test at Nevada Test Site

1967 Military coup in Togo

1968 Beginning of Tet Offensive in Vietnam

1986 Bloody coup overthrows government of South Yemen

1989 Ruins of Mashkan-shapir (occupied 2050-1720 BC) found in Iraq

1991 U.N. Secretary General Javier Perez de Cuellar meets with SadDam Hussein in Baghdad - trying to avert Desert Storm

By Cap. Teancum:

1842 - On January 13, 1842, a British army doctor reaches the British sentry post at Jalalabad, Afghanistan, the lone survivor of a 16,000-strong Anglo-Indian expeditionary force that was massacred in its retreat from Kabul. He told of a terrible massacre in the Khyber Pass, in which the Afghans gave the defeated Anglo-Indian force and their camp followers no quarter.

In the 19th century, Britain, with a goal of protecting its Indian colonial holdings from Russia, tried to establish authority in neighboring Afghanistan by attempting to replace Emir Dost Mohammad with a former emir known to be sympathetic to the British. This blatant British interference in Afghanistan's internal affairs triggered the outbreak of the first Anglo-Afghan War in 1839.

Dost Mohammad surrendered to British forces in 1840 after the Anglo-Indian army had captured Kabul. However, after an Afghan revolt in Kabul the British had no choice but to withdraw. The withdrawal began on January 6, 1842, but bad weather delayed the army's progress. The column was attacked by swarms of Afghans led by Mohammad's son, and those who were not killed outright in the attack were later massacred by the Afghan soldiers. A total of 4,500 soldiers and 12,000 camp followers were killed. Only one man, Dr. William Bryden, escaped to recount the details of the military disaster.

In retaliation, another British force invaded Kabul in 1843, burning a portion of the city. In the same year, the war came to an end, and in 1857 Emir Dost Mohammad, who had been restored to power in 1843, signed an alliance with the British. In 1878, the Second Anglo-Afghan War began, which ended two years later with Britain winning control of Afghanistan's foreign affairs.

1962 - In the first Farm Gate combat missions, T-28 fighter-bombers are flown in support of a South Vietnamese outpost under Viet Cong attack.

By the end of the month, U.S. Air Force pilots had flown 229 Farm Gate sorties. Operation Farm Gate was initially designed to provide advisory support to assist the South Vietnamese Air Force in increasing its capability. The 4400th Combat Crew Training Squadron arrived at Bien Hoa Airfield in November 1961 and began training South Vietnamese Air Force personnel with older, propeller-driven aircraft. In December, President John F. Kennedy expanded Farm Gate to include limited combat missions by the U.S. Air Force pilots in support of South Vietnamese ground forces.

By late 1962, communist activity and combat intensity had increased so much that President Kennedy ordered a further expansion of Farm Gate. In early 1963, additional aircraft arrived and new detachments were established at Pleiku and Soc Trang. In early 1964, Farm Gate was upgraded again with the arrival of more modern aircraft. In October 1965, another squadron of A-1E aircraft was established at Bien Hoa. Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara approved the replacement of South Vietnamese markings on Farm Gate aircraft with regular U.S. Air Force markings. By this point in the war, the Farm Gate squadrons were flying 80 percent of all missions in support of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). With the build up of U.S. combat forces in South Vietnam and the increase in U.S. Air Force presence there, the role of the Farm Gate program gradually decreased in significance. The Farm Gate squadrons were moved to Thailand in 1967, and from there they launched missions against the North Vietnamese in Laos.

1972 - President Nixon announces that 70,000 U.S. troops will leave South Vietnam over the next three months, reducing U.S. troop strength there by May 1 to 69,000 troops.

Since taking office, Nixon had withdrawn more than 400,000 American troops from Vietnam. With the reduction in total troop strength, U.S. combat deaths were down to less than 10 per week. However, Nixon still came under heavy criticism from those who charged that he was pulling out troops but, by turning to the use of air power instead of ground troops, was continuing the U.S. involvement in Vietnam rather than disengaging from the war. The last American troops would be withdrawn in March 1973 under the provisions of the Paris Peace Accords.
__________________
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  #1488  
Old 13 Jan 07, 05:14
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Today's event:

1898 Emile Zola's famous defense of Capt Alfred Dreyfus published in Paris

Today's book:

The Dreyfus Affair: "J`accuse" and Other Writings by Emile Zola, Alain Pages (Editor), Eleanor Levieux (Translator)

Book Description:

When French authorities accused Jewish Army captain Alfred Dreyfus of espionage in 1894, the resulting anti-Semitic controversy bitterly divided France and its intellectual world. This book is the first complete edition in English of the pivotal contribution of French novelist Emile Zola to the Dreyfus affair. His impassioned writings represent a classic defense of human rights and a searing denunciation of fanaticism and prejudice, as significant today as when they were written.

http://www.amazon.com/Dreyfus-Affair...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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  #1489  
Old 14 Jan 07, 12:16
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January 14


By Admiral:

Born...

1730 William Whipple, judge/merchant/patriot, Signer of Declaration of Independence, d. 1785.

1741 Benedict Arnold, General, hero and traitor

1806 Matthew Fontaine Maury, Naval Commander, C.S.N.

1819 Frederick Steele, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1868

1831 John Bullock Clark Jr, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1903

1836 Hugh Judson Kilpatrick, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1881

1850 Pierre Loti, [Julien Viaud], French sea officer/writer (Pêcheur)

1861 Mehmed VI of Turkey (1918-22), Last Sultan of the Ottoman Empire

1892 Martin Niemöller, German Protestant clergyman, opponent of & imprisoned by Hitler

1899 Fritz Bayerlein, German Lt-General, WW I, Poland, Libya, St-Lo

1901 Carlos P Romulo, Philippine General and statesman

1943 Shannon Lucid, born in Shanghai, China, Astronaut, STS 51G, 34, 43, 58, 76/79

Died...

1163 King Ladislaus I Arpad of Hungary (1162-63)

1301 King Andreas III Arpad of Hungary (1290-1301)

1595 Archduke Ferdinand of Austria

1766 King Frederik V of Denmark and Norway (1746-66)

1909 Sinovi P Rozhestvensky, Russian Admiral, at 60

1948 Ans Van Dike, Dutch Nazi-collaborator, executed

1966 Sergei Korolev, Russian space station constructor

1972 Frederik IX, [Christiaan FFMKW], king of Denmark (1947-72), at 72

1977 Abdul Razak bin Hussain, PM of Malaysia (1970-77), at 53

1977 Sir Anthony Eden, sometime PM of Britain (1955-1957)

1988 Georgy M Malenkov, PM of U.S.S.R. (1953-55), at 86

1991 Sallah Kharaf [Abu Iyad], co-founder of Al-Fatah, assassinated

Event...

1526 Charles V & Francis I sign Treaty of Madrid; Francis I forced to give up claims in Burgundy, Italy & Flanders

1641 United East Indian Company conquerors city of Malakka, 7,000 killed

1659 Battle at Elvas: Portuguese beat Spanish

1697 Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville and his men leave St. John's (Nfld.), which they have just captured from the English, and set out to raid fishing villages between Trinity Bay and Conception Bay.

1724 Spanish King Philip V abdicates throne

1746 Bonnie Prince Charlie's army leaves Glasgow

1776 General Benedict Arnold reports to General Washington on the poor state of morale in the rebel army laying seige to Quebec.

1784 Revolutionary War ends; Congress ratifies the Treaty of Paris

1799 King of Naples flees to Sicily before invading French armies

1799 Eli Whitney receives government contract for 10,000 muskets

1807 HMS Ajax (74) burns off the Dardanelles, 250 of 681 crewmembers die

1813 US Frigate USS Chesapeake captures British brig HMS Hero

1814 The King of Denmark cedes Norway to the King of Sweden by treaty of Kiel

1815 HMS Endymion, HMS Tenedos, and HMS Pomone capture USS President

1847 Conspiracy in New Mexico against US Control

1858 French Emperor Napoleon III escapes attempt on his life by Felice Orsini, an Italian patriot who was later executed

1861 Ft Pickens captured by Florida state troops

1863 US Navy GO No 4, The Emancipation Proclamation is announced to the fleet

1863 Battle between gunboats at Bayou Teched LA

1864 Battle of Cosby Creek, TN

1864 General Sherman begins his march to the South

1867 Alfred Nobel makes the first public demonstration of dynamite

1902 S.S. Manhattan sails out of Halifax harbour, en route to South Africa, with the Second Regiment, Canadian Mounted Rifles.

1918 Artillery Regiment, 10th Marines organized at Quantico.

1920 Caco insurrectionists were defeated by elements of the USMC in Port-au-Prince, Haiti.

1929 Afghan King Amanullah forced to resign

1939 Auxiliary Bear reaches Bay of Whales, Antarctica. Along with Interior Department motorship North Star, Bear will establish the two bases to be used in the U.S. Antarctic Service's 1939-1941 expedition under Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, USN (Ret.).

1939 British Minister in Panama Charles Dodd transmits response of British government to note sent by the President of Panama on behalf of the 21 American Republics concerning the violation of American neutrality that occurred in the Battle of the River Plate. The British "reserve their full belligerent rights in order to fight the menace presented by German action and policy and to defend that conception of law and that way of life, which they believe to be as dear to the peoples and Governments of America as they are to the peoples and Governments of the British Commonwealth of Nations".

1939 U.S. freighter Narbo detained at Gibraltar by British authorities the previous day, is released to continue her voyage to Italy, Yugoslavia, and Greece, but not before some items from her cargo are removed as contraband.

1942 Arcadia Conference ends.

1942 Bataan: Heavy fighting

1942 Malaya: Japanese capture Malacca.

1942 Borneo: Japanese troops land at Balikpapan in quest for oil in Borneo

1943 Heinrich Himmler tours Warsaw

1943 Guadalcanal: "Tokyo Express" lands reinforcements and supplies

1943 Casablanca (SYMBOL) Conference begins. President Roosevelt, Prime Minister Churchill, and their staffs meet over ten days to plan future operations against the Axis powers.

1943 Submarine USS Gudgeon lands men and equipment near Catmon Point, Negros, P.I. It is the first such mission conducted by American sub.

1943 Submarine USS Nautilus hits Japanese Toa Maru with dud torpedo off Bougainville, 05°13'S, 155°09'E.

1943 Submarine USS Pike is damaged by bombs and depth charges off Ichie Saki, southern Honshu; she is forced to terminate her patrol.

1943 Submarine USS Searaven attacks Japanese convoy northwest of the Palaus, sinking the sole escort, auxiliary submarine chaser No.1 Ganjitsu Maru, and army cargo ship Shiraha Maru, 09°12'N, 130°38'E.

1943 Motor torpedo boat PT-28, previously damaged, is abandoned, Dora Harbor, Unimak Island, Aleutians.

1943 Japanese naval auxiliary Shoan Maru is damaged by aircraft off Saipan.

1943 SOCs (VCS Detachment RINGBOLT) locate and illuminate Japanese destroyers for PT-boats; the planes also bomb and strafe the enemy ships.

1944 Soviet army begins offensive at Oranienbaum/Wolchow

1944 Fuel oil barge (self-propelled) YO-159, under tow of U.S. tanker Gulf Star, is torpedoed by Japanese submarine RO-42, 250 miles east of Espiritu Santo, New Hebrides, 15°27'S, 171°28'E.

1944 Submarine USS Scamp attacks Japanese convoy about 400 miles east-southeast of the Palaus, sinking fleet tanker Nippon Maru south of Sorol Island, 05°02'N, 140°50'E; USS Albacore, nearby, sinks destroyer IJN Sazanami, 05°30'N, 141°34'E; USS Guardfish sets upon same convoy attacked earlier by USS Scamp and sinks fleet tanker Ken'yo Maru 520 miles southeast of Palau, 05°23'N, 141°57'E.

1944 Submarine USS Seawolf attacks Japanese convoy approximately 300 miles northeast of Okinawa, sinking fleet tanker Yamazuru Maru, 25°00'N, 132°00'E.

1944 Submarine USS Swordfish attacks Japanese convoy, sinking transport Yamakuni Maru off Hachijo Jima, south of Honshu, 33°16'N, 139°30'E.

1944 SBDs and TBFs, supported by Allied fighters, bomb Japanese shipping in Simpson Harbor, Rabaul, damaging destroyer IJN Matsukaze and fleet tanker IJN Naruto.

1944 PBY-5 (VP 72) shot down attacking Jabor on 12 January is located and its crew rescued about 40 miles southwest of Jaluit.

1944 USAAF B-25s strike Japanese shipping and installations at Wotje atoll, Marshalls, sinking guardboat Tama Maru.

1944 USAAF B-24s (14th Air Force) sink army cargo ship Gyoei Maru in South China Sea, 20°35'N, 113°44'E.

1944 Destroyers USS Bulmer and USS Parrott damage German submarine U-382, 560 miles west-northwest of Cape Finisterre, Spain.

1945 Submarine USS Cobia sinks Japanese minelayer IJN Yurijima off east coast of Malaya, 05°45'N, 103°13'E.

1945 Motor torpedo boat PT-73, damaged by grounding, 13°50'N, 120°10'E, is beached and abandoned.

1945 Army freight supply vessel FS 41 breaks loose from her moorings at Amchitka, Alaska, in heavy weather, and demolishes 300 feet of an Army dock; fleet tug Sarsi is sent from Adak to go to the ship's assistance.

1945 USAAF P-51s (14th Air Force) sink Japanese army cargo ship Akatsuki Maru in the Yangtze between Wuhu and Kiukiang, 29°00'N, 116°00'E.

1945 U.S. freighter Martin Van Buren, in Nova Scotia-bound convoy BV 141, is torpedoed by German submarine U-1232 at 44°27'N, 63°26'W; 3 of the 27-man Armed Guard (members of a 5-inch gun crew) perish when blown overboard. Despite salvage efforts, the ship subsequently drifts ashore and is written off as a total loss.

1945 U.S. freighter Michael de Kovats is damaged by explosion of German V-2 rocket bomb at Antwerp, Belgium; none of the 27-man Armed Guard are casualties.

1945 Burma: Japanese counterattack British on the Irawaddy River.

1950 US recalls all consular officials from China

1953 Yugoslavia elects it's 1st president (Marshal Tito)

1956 Jordan government refuses to join Pact of Baghdad

1960 Elvis Presley attains the rank of Sergeant in the US Army

1967 NY Times reports Army is conducting secret germ warfare experiments

1969 Disastrous fire on USS Enterprise, off Vietnam, 28 killed, 344 injured

1990 UN GS Perez de Cuellar says he has lost all hope for peace in Gulf

By Cap. Teancum:

1964 - Lt. Gen. William Westmoreland is appointed deputy to Gen. Paul Harkins, chief of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam (MACV). It was generally accepted that Westmoreland would soon replace Harkins, whose insistently optimistic views on the progress of the war had increasingly come under criticism.

On June 20, 1964, Harkins departed and Westmoreland did assume command of MACV. His initial task was to provide military advice and assistance to the government of South Vietnam. However, with the commitment of U.S. ground troops, General Westmoreland assumed the added responsibility of commanding America's armed forces in combat in Vietnam.

One of the Vietnam War's most controversial figures, Westmoreland received many honors (including being named Time Man of the Year in 1965) when the fighting was going well, but many Americans blamed him for the problems in Vietnam when the war turned sour. Having provided continually optimistic reports about the war, Westmoreland came under particularly heavy criticism in 1968, when the communists launched the massive surprise Tet Offensive on January 30. In July 1968, Westmoreland was appointed Chief of Staff of the Army, and General Creighton W. Abrams Jr. replaced him as commander of MACV.

1968 - U.S. joint-service Operation Niagara is launched to support the U.S. Marine base at Khe Sanh.

The Khe Sanh base was the westernmost anchor of a series of combat bases and strongholds that stretched from the Cua Viet River on the coast of the South China Sea westward along Route 9 to the Laotian border. Intelligence sources revealed that the North Vietnamese Army was beginning to build up its forces in the area surrounding Khe Sanh. Operation Niagara was a joint U.S. Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps air campaign launched in support of the marines manning the base. Using sensors installed along the nearby DMZ and reconnaissance flights to pinpoint targets, 24,000 tactical fighter-bomber sorties and 2,700 B-52 strategic bomber sorties were flown between the start of the operation and March 31, 1968, when it was terminated. This airpower played a major role in the successful defense of Khe Sanh when it came under attack on January 21 and was subsequently besieged for 66 days until finally broken on April 7.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1490  
Old 14 Jan 07, 12:19
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Today's event:

1526 Charles V & Francis I sign Treaty of Madrid; Francis I forced to give up claims in Burgundy, Italy & Flanders

Today's book:

Peace Treaties and International Law in European History: From the Late Middle Ages to World War One by Randall Lesaffer (Editor)

Book Description:

Specialists from every European country analyze peace treaty practice from the late fifteenth century to the 1919 Peace of Versailles in this collection. Emphasizing the doctrinal debate about peace treaties and the influence of older, Roman and medieval, concepts on modern practices, the book recalls the reader to before the epochal Peace Treaties of Westphalia of 1648. Its broader perspective allows for a reassessment of the role of the sovereign state in the modern international legal order.

http://www.amazon.com/Peace-Treaties...e=UTF8&s=books
__________________
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  #1491  
Old 15 Jan 07, 13:11
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January 15


By Admiral:

Born...

1432 Afonso V "the African", King of Portugal, 1438-1481

1716 Philip Livingston, New York merchant, Signed the Declaration of Independence, d. 1778.

1815 Henry Morris Naglee, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1886

1817 Lewis Golding Arnold, Brig Gen, U.S.., d. 1871

1821 Lafayette McLaws, Maj Gen, C.S.A., d. 1897

1821 John C. Breckinridge, Vice-President (1857-1861), Confederate general

1902 Abd al-Aziz ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Faisal al-Saud, King of Saudi Arabia

1908 Edward Teller, in Budapest Hungary, Manhattan Project, fathered H-Bomb

1918 Gamal Abdel Nasser, President of Egypt (1954-1971)

1920 John J. O'Connor, Vicar-General of the Armed Forces, Archbishop of NY

1923 Lee Teng-hui, President of ROC, Taiwan, head of KMT

Died...

69 Servius Sulpicius Galba, 6th Roman Emperor (68-69), killed by Praetorian guard in the Forum, at 70

1896 Matthew Brady, Civil War photographer

1919 Karl Liebknecht, Marxist revolutionary, murdered in Berlin

1919 Rosa Luxemburg, Marxist revolutionary, murdered in Berlin

1926 John Harling, last survivor of the Charge of the Light Brigade, 1854.

1955 Yves Tanguy, French/American sailor/surrealistic painter

1968 Leopold Infeld, Polish nuclear physcist (Motion and Relativity), at 69

1988 Sean MacBride, Ireland, commander of Irish Republican Army, at 83

Event...

946 Caliph al-Mustaqfi blinded/ousted

1346 Emperor Louis IV of Bavaria gives his wife Margaretha, Holland/Zealand

1495 French besiege Gaeta (to Feb 16), held for Ferrante II of Naples

1535 Henry VIII declares himself head of the Church in England, to marry Anne Boylen

1541 The King of France, Francis I, signs a commission to begin colonizing North America.

1552 France signs secret treaty with German Protestants

1582 Russia cedes Livonia & Estonia to Poland. Losses access to the Baltic

1586 Battle at Boxum: Spanish troops under Tassis beat state army

1680 French explorer Sieur de la Salle builds Ft Crevecoeur

1777 People of New Connecticut (Vermont) declare independence from England

1799 Two French soldiers slain by guerrillas near Itri, Naples.

1833 HMS Beagle anchors at Goeree Tierra del Fuego

1838 Upper Canadian militia units occupy Navy Island (Niagara River) after it is abandoned by William Lyon Mackenzie and his "Patriot Army of the North-West".

1851 General Arista replaces Mexican President Herrera

1865 In largest amphibious operation of the Civil War, Union forces capture Ft. Fisher, Wilmington, NC, by joint amphibious force.

1895 French fleet reaches Majunga, Madagascar

1915 Japan claims economic control of China

1919 Semana Tragica (Tragic Week): Bloodbath in Buenos Aires

1919 Pianist and statesman Ignace Paderewski becomes 1st PM of Poland

1922 Irish Free State forms; Michael Collins becomes 1st PM

1940 German U-Boot torpedoes Dutch trade ship Arendskerk (Eagle's Church)

1940 Joint amphibious exercise begins in the Monterey, California, area, to provide training for the Army and Navy in planning and executing Joint operations, to train Army troops in embarking and disembarking, and to afford an opportunity for elements of the GHQ Air Force and Navy patrol squadrons to work together and with ground forces. Commander Battle Force conducts the Navy portion of the exercise.

1940 Japanese fishing schooner No. 1 Seiho Maru is stranded on reef off southeast coast of Guam, M.I. A detail of Guam Militia (12th Company) renders necessary assistance during salvage operations.

1941 Adm Husband Kimmel writes "Surprise raid on Pearl Harbor . . . possible."

1942 Cubs, drop plans to install lights at Wrigley due to WW II

1942 FDR asks commissioner to continue baseball during WW II

1942 Brigadier General H. R. Larsen (USMC) becomes the 1st military Governor of American Samoa.

1942 Third Conference of Foreign Ministers of the American Republics convenes at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to secure a unanimous and binding resolution for the American republics to sever relations with the Axis powers.

1942 American-British-Dutch-Australian (ABDA) Supreme Command is established at the Grand Hotel, Lembang, Java. General Sir Archibald Wavell, British Army, assumes supreme command of all forces in area; Lieutenant General George H. Brett, USAAF, is deputy commander; Admiral Thomas C. Hart is to command naval forces.

1942 Storm with wind velocity of more than 80 knots and gusts of over 100 knots hits Hvalfjordur, Iceland; heavy cruiser USS Wichita is damaged in collisions with U.S. freighter West Nohno and British trawler HMS Ebor Wyke, and in grounding near Hrafneyri light. Storm conditions last until 19 January and cause heavy damage among patrol planes based there and tended by seaplane tender USS Albemarle.

1942 Chinese halt a Japanese offensive near Changsha in Hunan Province.

1942 Malaya: Japanese "end run" landings dislocate the British left.

1942 Japanese Southern Army invades Burma from Thailand.

1942 Bataan: Japanese troops penetrate US/Philippine defenses.

1943 Marine Captain Joe Foss bagged three Japanese planes for a record total of 26 kills.

1943 SBDs from Henderson Field, Guadalcanal, and USAAF B-17s, escorted by F4Fs and USAAF P-39s, attack nine Japanese destroyers northeast of New Georgia, Solomons, and damage four: IJN Arashi, IJN Tanikaze, IJN Urakaze, and IJN Hamakaze.

1943 Japanese attempt to reinforce their troops in the Solomons begins as first group of ships--Section A-- three transports accompanied by destroyer IJN Shigure, departs Truk for Bougainville. The soldiers are being transferred from China.

1943 USAAF B-24s bomb Japanese convoy, sinking army cargo ship Nichimei Maru and damaging army cargo ship Moji Maru, about 200 miles south-southwest of Rangoon, Burma, 13°30'N, 97°30'E. Unknown to the aviators, Nichimei Maru is transporting Allied POWs, 500 of whom are lost.

1943 Papua: Allied forces make limited gains near Sanananda

1943 Battleship IJN Musashi arrives at Truk.

1943 Guadalcanal: US forces make only limited gains.

1943 The Pentagon is completed with the final installation of its air conditioning

1944 Service Squadron 10 is activated at Pearl Harbor to provide mobile logistics support for a projected advanced major fleet anchorage in the Central Pacific Area.3

1944 Fuel oil barge (self-propelled) YO-159, torpedoed the previous day by Japanese submarine RO-42, is scuttled by gunfire of submarine chaser PC-1138.

1944 Submarine USS Crevalle lays mines east of Saigon, French Indochina.

1944 Submarine USS Thresher, in attack on Japanese convoy, sinks army cargo ship Toho Maru and merchant tanker Tatsuno Maru about 75 miles north of Luzon, 20°00'N, 120°51'E.

1944 British submarine HMS Tally Ho sinks Japanese army cargo ship Ryuku Maru south of Port Blair, Andaman Islands, 10°03'N, 93°05'E.

1944 USAAF B-25 sinks Vichy French coast patrol craft Ping Sung off Hongay, French Indochina.

1944 New Guinea: Australians reach north coast of Huon Peninsula, near Sio.

1944 European Advisory Commission decides to divide Germany

1945 District patrol craft YP-73 sinks after running aground 1,000 yards east of Spruce Cape signal station, Kodiak, Alaska. Tender USCG Bittersweet rescues survivors.

1945 Escort carrier USS Hoggatt Bay is damaged by accidental explosion of bombs as aircraft (VC 88) lands on board as the ship operates off west coast of Luzon, 17°01'N, 119°20'E.

1945 TF 38 attacks Japanese shipping and aircraft off Formosa and the China coast. Carrier planes sink destroyer IJN Hatakaze and fast transport T.14 at 22°37'N, 120°15'E; fleet tanker Mirii Maru and army cargo ship Enoshima Maru off Takao; destroyer IJN Tsuga off Mako, 23°33'N, 119°33'E; and damage auxiliary minelayer IJN Maroshima off Formosa and army cargo ships Beiju Maru and Yoshun Maru off Keelung.

1945 TF 38 planes sink Japanese salvage ship Horei Maru, San Fernando, Luzon.

1945 Japanese auxiliary minesweeper No.1 Kyo Maru is sunk by mine (laid by British submarine HMS Porpoise on 9 January), south of Penang, Malaya, 05°18'N, 100°20'E;

1945 Japanese merchant cargo ship No.5 Kujyo Maru is sunk by aircraft southwest of Paramushiro Island Kurils.

1945 Japanese river gunboat IJN Narumi is damaged by USAAF aircraft near Hankow, China.

1945 Destroyer USS Swanson bombards Rota Island; she repeats the operation the following day.

1945 Destroyers USS Boyle and USS McLanahan support British and American light craft, including U.S. motor torpedo boats, in a night interdiction operation aimed at enemy coastwise shipping.

1945 RAF Spitfire sights one large and one small enemy destroyer west of Portofino, Italy; PT-313 and British MTB 378 engage a southbound convoy of five flak lighters, sinking one and damaging another. The presence of the destroyers, however, results in the operation being discontinued.

1945 Japanese offensive in China advances on the U.S. airbase in Sichuan.

1945 Red Army liberates the Krakow-Plaszow concentration camp

1949 Mao's Red army conquers Tien-tsin

1955 U.S.S.R. ends state of war with German Federal Republic

1962 New Guinea: Dutch & Indonesian naval battle in Etna Bay, New Guinea

1969 Soyuz 5 launched by Soviet Union

1969 Nuclear test in the Pacific Ocean, but who???

1970 Israeli archaeologists reported uncovering the first evidence supporting the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 A.D. by military forces of the ancient Roman Empire.

1973 President Nixon suspends all U.S. offensive action in North Vietnam

1975 Portugal signs accord for Angola's independence

1976 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakhstan/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R.

1976 US-German Helios B solar probe launched into solar orbit

1976 Sara Jane Moore sentenced to life for attempting to shoot President Ford

1985 Civil rights activist Tancredo Neves becomes 1st elected President of Brazil in 21 years

1988 Arab uprising in Israel begins

1991 UN deadline for Iraq to withdraw from Kuwait passes (SadDam didn't!)

1992 EC recognizes Slovenian and Croatian independence

1997 American Cosmonaut(truly), Navy physician Captain Jerry Lineger joined the crew of the MIR space station after being launched on Atlantis during space Shuttle Mission STS-81. Prior to the mission, he was trained in Star City, Russia for over a year.

1998 NASA announces (Senator) John Glenn, 76, will fly in space again. (He did!)

By Cap. Teancum:

1962 - Asked at a news conference if U.S. troops are fighting in Vietnam, President Kennedy answers "No." He was technically correct, but U.S. soldiers were serving as combat advisers with the South Vietnamese army, and U.S. pilots were flying missions with the South Vietnamese Air Force. While acting in this advisory capacity, some soldiers invariably got wounded, and press correspondents based in Saigon were beginning to see casualties from the "support" missions and ask questions.

1973 - Citing "progress" in the Paris peace negotiations between National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho of North Vietnam, President Richard Nixon halts the most concentrated bombing of the war, as well as mining, shelling, and all other offensive action against North Vietnam. The cessation of direct attacks against North Vietnam did not extend to South Vietnam, where the fighting continued as both sides jockeyed for control of territory before the anticipated cease-fire.

On December 13, North Vietnamese negotiators had walked out of secret talks with Kissinger. President Nixon issued an ultimatum to Hanoi to send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours "or else." The North Vietnamese rejected Nixon's demand and the president ordered Operation Linebacker II, a full-scale air campaign against the Hanoi area. This operation was the most concentrated air offensive of the war.

During the 11 days of the attack, 700 B-52 sorties and more than 1,000 fighter-bomber sorties dropped roughly 20,000 tons of bombs, mostly over the densely populated area between Hanoi and Haiphong. On December 28, after 11 days of intensive bombing, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the talks. When the negotiators met again in early January, they quickly worked out a settlement. The Paris Peace Accords were signed on January 23 and a cease-fire went into effect five days later.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


  #1492  
Old 15 Jan 07, 13:23
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Today's event:

1680 French explorer Sieur de la Salle builds Ft Crevecoeur

Today's book:

Sieur de la Salle by Don Nardo

Book Review:

Know more about this adventurer, that became the first european to travel down the Mississippi.
__________________
All warfare is based on deception.
Sun Tzu - Art of war - Chapter One - Laying Plans


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Old 16 Jan 07, 09:21
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Real Name: Kyrill
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Location: Calgary, AB
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January 15
born
1725 Peter Rumyantsev-Zadunaisky, Field Marshal, Russia (January 4 o.s.).
1911 Pavel Rychagov, Lieut. Gen. of Aviation, Hero of the Soviet Union, USSR, took a part in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1937), the Sino-Japanese War (1937-1938), Khasan and Khalhin Gol incidents. In 1940 - Head of Chief Directorate of Air Forces of RKKA (29 years old). 1941: February - Deputy People Commissar (Minister) of Defence of the USSR; April - dismissed for criticism against Stalin policy; June 24 - Arrested; October 28 - executed by shooting (January 2 o.s.)
1913 Alexander Marinesko, Captain 3rd rank, USSR, captain of the S-13 submarine, "the Hitler's Most Hated Man" (January 2 o.s.).

died
1818 Matvey Platov, Cav. Gen., Ataman of the Don Cossack Host, Russia (January 3 o.s.).

events
1878 Battle of Plovdiv started (Russo-Turkish War of 1877-1878)(January 3 o.s.).
1804 Caucasus: Russians captured Gandzha fortress (January 3 o.s.)
1990 Soviet troops entered in Azerbaijan to prevent nationalistic anticommunist movement.

Last edited by Rambow; 16 Jan 07 at 10:23.. Reason: Adding some records
  #1494  
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Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600] Cap. Teancum is simply cracking [600]
January 16


By Admiral:

Born...

1807 Charles Henry Davis, Rear Adm, U.S., d. 1877

1815 Henry Halleck, Maj Gen, U.S., d. 1872; "Old Brians" or "Woodenhead"

1834 Albert Lindley Lee, Brig Gen, U.S., d. 1907

1837 James Phillip Simms, Brig Gen, C.S., d. 1887

1885 Wladyslaw Raczkiewicz, President of Poland, 1939-40

1901 Fulgencio Batista, Dictator of Cuba (1933-44, 1952-59)

1910 David McCampbell, U.S. pilot/capt, WW II-Pacific-downed 34 Japanese aircraft

1933 Oleg Grigoryevich Makarov, U.S.S.R., Cosmonaut, Soyuz 12, 18A, 27, T-3

1955 Jerry M Linenger Mt Clemens MI, PhD/Commander USN/Astronaut (STS 81/84)

Died...

1343 King Robert "the Good" of Arles and Naples

1595 Sultan Murad III of Turkey (1574-1595)

1794 Edward Gibbon, militiaman, historian, at 56.

1927 Carlota, erstwhile Empress of Mexico, at 86

1942 Actress Carole Lombard, in a plane crash during a war bond drive

2000 Robert Rathburn Wilson, nuclear physicist, a leader of the Manhattan Project, at 82

Event...

1343 Robert of Anjou, King in Naples

1493 Columbus returns to Spain on his 1st trip

1495 French under Charles VIII invest Gaeta (falls Feb 16).

1595 Murad III, Sultan of Turkey (1574-95)

1500 Cesare Borgia captures Forli and the Lady Caterina Sforza

1547 1547 Ivan IV the Terrible (17) crowns himself 1st tsar of Moscow

1556 Charles V abdicates the throne of Spain (having already quit as HRE) Emperor Karel appoints his son Philip II, King

1756 England and Prussia sign Treaty of Westminster

1776 Continental Congress approves enlistment of free blacks

1777 Vermont declares independence from NY

1780 Battle at Cape St. Vincent: British Admiral Rodney defeats Spanish fleet

1795 French army under Pichegru occupies Utrecht Netherlands

1799 French and Polish troops sack Itri, slaying scores

1813 Captain Grey of the Provincial Marine reports from Kingston on the progress of 2 warships wintering at the naval dockyards. Both ships, the Royal George and the Moira, and their crews are found to be in a state of disorder.

1832 Charles Darwin lands at San Tiago, Cape Verde

1863 Cruise of CSS Florida begins, (ends Aug 23)

1864 Heavy fighting takes place in the Battle of Dandridge, Tn.

1865 In the aftermath of a drunken sailor attacking munitions at Ft Fisher, in which 40 were killed, Ft Caswell is abandoned & blown up

1865 Union General Wm Sherman issues Field Order #15 (land for blacks)

1913 British House of Commons accepts Home-Rule for Ireland

1914 Maksim Gorki returns to Russia

1920 1st assembly of League of Nations in Paris

1925 Leon Trotsky dismissed as CEO of Russian Revolution Military Council. General M Froense replaces Trotsky as People's Commissioner of Defense

1930 Lady Lex (USS Lexington) provides power to Tacoma, WA, when floods knocked out city power plants

1941 U.S. Vice Admiral Bellinger warns of the potential for an assault on Pearl Harbor.

1941 War Department forms Army Air Corps squadron for black cadets

1941 President asks Congress for immediate appropriation of $350 million for 200 new merchant ships.

1942 War Production Board is established to supplant Office of Production Management.

1942 William Knudsen becomes 1st civilian appointed a General in U.S. army

1942 Japanese invade Burma from Thailand.

1942 Japanese submarines continue mining the approaches to Darwin, Northern Territory: I-122 mines Clarence Strait, I-123 Bundas Strait, and I-124 the waters off Darwin itself.

1942 Japanese cargo ship Taishu Maru is wrecked when she runs aground off Okushiri Island, Hokkaido, 42°00'N, 139°00'E.

1942 During a routine search from carrier USS Enterprise, TBD (VT 6) flown by Aviation Chief Machinist's Mate Harold F. Dixon (Naval Aviation Pilot) fails to return to the ship and force-lands at sea at about 04°20'S, 169°30'E due to fuel starvation. Dixon and his two-man crew have no food and no water

1942 Malaya: British try to hold the Muar River against Japanese forces

1942 Bataan: Heavy fighting

1942 Rio Conference: 21 American republics discuss hemispheric defense

1943 German 2nd SS-Panzer division evacuates Charkow

1943 1st U.S. air raid on Ambon

1943 Red Army recaptures Pitomnik airport at Stalingrad

1943 Submarine USS Greenling sinks Japanese transport Kimposan Maru west of Kavieng, 02°47'S, 149°10'E; after forcing USS Greenling deep, submarine chaser Ch 17 rescues Kimposan Maru's survivors.

1943 Submarine USS Growler attacks Japanese convoy, sinking army passenger-cargo ship Chifuku Maru 11 miles north of Waton Island, 04°00'S, 151°55'E, and survives escorts' counterattacks.

1943 Guadalcanal: 2nd Marine Div clears Japanese troops out of "the Ravine"

1943 Papua: U.S. and Australians mop up Japanese forces around Sanananda

1944 General Dwight D Eisenhower takes command of Operation Overlord

1944 Submarine USS Blackfish attacks Japanese convoy and sinks transport Kaika Maru about 275 miles southwest of Truk, 04°03'N, 148°41'E.

1944 Submarine USS Flier runs aground and is damaged as she transits channel at Midway Island; submarine rescue vessel USS Macaw becomes stranded as she attempts to assist the stranded fleet boat.

1944 Submarine USS Redfin damages Japanese destroyer IJN Amatsukaze, 250 miles north of the Spratly Islands, 14°40'N, 113°50'E.

1944 Submarine USS Seahorse sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Nikko Maru southeast of the Marianas, 12°49'N, 150°19'E.

1944 Submarine USS Sturgeon damages Japanese destroyer IJN Suzutsuki in Bungo Channel, 32°15'N, 132°29'E but fails to hit the destroyer's charge, cargo vessel Azaki Maru. Submarine USS Swordfish, despite presence of escort vessel, sinks Japanese gunboat Delhi Maru off Honshu, 34°04'N, 139°56'E.4

1944 Submarine USS Whale attacks Japanese convoy and sinks army cargo ship Denmark Maru about 400 miles southeast of Okinawa, 23°09'N, 135°14'E; USS Seawolf, nearby, damages transport Tarushima Maru, 23°00'N, 135°00'E, which USS Whale later finishes off, 22°50'N, 135°40'E.

1944 PBYs attack Rabaul-bound Japanese convoy O-905, sinking army cargo ships Shunko Maru, 02°30'S, 149°42'E, and Hozugawa Maru and transport Meisho Maru about 45 miles northwest of New Hanover, 02°20'S, 149°42'E. Kosei Maru and escorting submarine chasers Ch 24 and Ch 29 emerge unscathed.

1944 U.S. forces sink Japanese submarine I-181 in Gidiagu Strait.

1944 TBF (VC 13) from escort carrier USS Guadalcanal sinks German submarine U-544 in mid-Atlantic, 40°30'N, 37°20'W.5

1944 U.S. freighter Sumner I. Kimball, straggling from New York-bound convoy ON 219, is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-960 in the North Atlantic, 52°35'N, 35°00'W. There are no survivors from either the 40-man merchant complement or the 29-man Armed Guard.

1945 Scottish 52nd land division/1st Commando brigade-assault at Heinsberg

1945 US First and Third Armies meet at Houffalize, Belgium

1945 TF 38 strikes Japanese shipping and installations at Hong Kong, Hainan Island and along the China coast. Off Hong Kong TF 38 planes sink transport Hokkai Maru; merchant tankers Tenei Maru, Matsushima Maru, and Sanko Maru; and merchant cargo ship No.2 Anri Go. They also damage oiler Kamoi, destroyer IJN Hasu, fast transport T.108, escort destroyers IJN Shinnan and IJN Nomi, and Coast Defense Vessel No.60; off Yulin, TF 38 planes sink merchant tanker Harima Maru, and damage escort destroyer IJN Daito. Guardboat No.1 Taiyo Maru is sunk east of Hainan; merchant tanker No.6 Nanryu Maru is sunk off coast of South China.

1945 Destroyer escorts USS Otter, USS Hubbard, USS Hayter, and USS Varian sink German submarine U-248 at 47°43'N, 26°37'W.

1945 U.S. freighter Marina is damaged by mine outside of swept channel to Le Havre, France; there are no casualties.

1945 Non-rigid airship ZPNK 123 is accidentally deflated at Port Lyautey, French Morocco; the envelope is damaged beyond repair.

1950 Belgium, Luxembourg and Netherlands recognize Israel

1951 Viet Minh offensive at Hanoi

1951 "B" Company of Princess Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry is involved in raids on Communist guerrillas in South Korea. Assisted by local police, the Patricias climb into the guerrillas' hillside liars and flush them out all day long.

1953 Egyptian PM Gen Naguib disbands all political parties

1956 Egyptian President Nasser pledges to reconquer Palestine

1957 3 B-52s leave California on the first non-stop round the world flight

1958 US 3rd Anti-Tank Bn activated Camp Hansen, Okinawa.

1963 Nikita Khrushchev claims to have a 100-megaton nuclear bomb (USSR)

1965 U.S.S.R. performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk U.S.S.R

1969 Jan Palach immolates himself to protest Soviet invasion of Czech at 20

1969 Soviet Soyuz 4 and Soyuz 5 perform 1st transfer of crew in space

1970 Col Kadhaffi becomes premier of Libya

1973 U.S.S.R.'s Lunakhod 2 begins radio-controlled exploration of Moon

1978 Soyuz 27 returns to Earth

1979 Shah Mohammed Reza Pahlevi of Iran flees for Egypt

1989 Police arrest writer Vaclav Havel in Prague. The end of his story it wasn't.

1989 U.S.S.R. announces plan for 2-yr manned mission to Mars

1991 Operation Desert Shield becomes Operation Desert Storm (US time), the liberation of Kuwait from Iraq commences, 28 allies launch offensive operations with the playing of Saturday Nights Alright For Fighting (Elton John) over Armed Forces Radio

2001 Andrew J. Smith, 55th Mass, awarded a Medal of Honor, for Nov 30, 1864.

2001 Theodore Roosevelt awarded a Medal of Honor for San Juan Heights in 1898

By Cap. Teancum:

1861 - The Crittenden Compromise, the last chance to keep North and South together, dies in the U.S. Senate.

Proposed by Senator John J. Crittenden of Kentucky, the compromise was a series of constitutional amendments. The amendments would continue the old Missouri Compromise provisions of 1820, which divided the west along the latitude of 36ý 30". North of this line, slavery was prohibited. The Missouri Compromise was negated by the Compromise of 1850, which allowed a vote by territorial residents (popular sovereignty) to decide the issue of slavery. Other amendments protected slavery in the District of Columbia, forbade federal interference with the interstate slave trade, and compensated owners whose slaves escaped to the free states.

Essentially, the Crittenden Compromise sought to alleviate all concerns of the southern states. Four states had already left the Union when it was proposed, but Crittenden hoped the compromise would lure them back. Crittenden thought he could muster support from both South and North and avert either a split of the nation or a civil war. The major problem with the plan was that it called for a complete compromise by the Republicans with virtually no concession on the part of the South. The Republican Party formed in 1854 solely for the purpose of opposing the expansion of slavery into the western territories, particularly the areas north of the Missouri Compromise line. Just six years later, the party elected a president, Abraham Lincoln, over the complete opposition of the slave states. Crittenden was asking the Republicans to abandon their most key issues.

The vote was 25 against the compromise and 23 in favor of it. All 25 votes against it were cast by Republicans, and six senators from states that were in the process of seceding abstained. One Republican editorial insisted that the party "cannot be made to surrender the fruits of its recent victory." There would be no compromise; with the secession of states continuing, the country marched inexorably towards civil war.

1945 - On this day, Adolf Hitler takes to his underground bunker, where he remains for 105 days until he commits suicide.

Hitler retired to his bunker after deciding to remain in Berlin for the last great siege of the war. Fifty-five feet under the chancellery (Hitler's headquarters as chancellor), the shelter contained 18 small rooms and was fully self-sufficient, with its own water and electrical supply. He left only rarely (once to decorate a squadron of Hitler Youth) and spent most of his time micromanaging what was left of German defenses and entertaining Nazi colleagues like Hermann Goering, Heinrich Himmler, and Joachim von Ribbentrop. Constantly at his side during this time were his companion, Eva Braun, and his Alsatian, Blondi.

On April 29, Hitler married Eva in their bunker hideaway. Eva Braun met Hitler while working as an assistant to Hitler's official photographer. Braun spent her time with Hitler out of public view, entertaining herself by skiing and swimming. She had no discernible influence on Hitler's political career but provided a certain domesticity to the life of the dictator. Loyal to the end, she refused to leave the bunker even as the Russians closed in.

Only hours after they were united in marriage, both Hitler and Eva committed suicide. Warned by officers that the Russians were only about a day from overtaking the chancellery and urged to escape to Berchtesgarden, a small town in the Bavarian Alps where Hitler owned a home, the dictator instead chose to take his life. Both he and his wife swallowed cyanide capsules (which had been tested for their efficacy on his "beloved" dog and her pups). For good measure, he shot himself with his pistol.

1964 - President Johnson approves Oplan 34A, operations to be conducted by South Vietnamese forces supported by the United States to gather intelligence and conduct sabotage to destabilize the North Vietnamese regime.

Actual operations began in February and involved raids by South Vietnamese commandos operating under U.S. orders against North Vietnamese coastal and island installations. Although American forces were not directly involved in the actual raids, U.S. Navy ships were on station to conduct electronic surveillance and monitor North Vietnamese defense responses under another program called Operation De Soto.

The Oplan 34A attacks played a major role in what became known as the Gulf of Tonkin Incident. On August 2, 1964, North Vietnamese patrol boats attacked the destroyer USS Maddox, which was conducting a De Soto mission in the area. Two days after the first attack, there was another incident that still remains unclear. The Maddox, joined by destroyer USS C. Turner Joy, engaged what were believed to be more attacking North Vietnamese patrol boats. Although it was questionable whether the second attack actually happened, the incident provided the rationale for retaliatory air attacks and the subsequent Tonkin Gulf Resolution, which became the basis for the initial escalation of the war in Vietnam and ultimately the insertion of U.S. combat troops into the area.

1969 - An agreement is reached in Paris for the opening of expanded peace talks. It was agreed that representatives of the United States, South Vietnam, North Vietnam, and the National Liberation Front would sit at a circular table without nameplates, flags or markings.

The talks had been plagued from the beginning by procedural questions, and the participants literally jockeyed for desirable positions at the negotiating table. Prolonged discussions over the shape of the negotiating table were finally resolved by the placement of two square tables separated by a round table. Seemingly insignificant matters as the table placement and seating arrangement became fodder for many arguments between the delegations at the negotiations.

1990 - In the wake of vicious fighting between Armenian and Azerbaijani forces in Azerbaijan, the Soviet government sends in 11,000 troops to quell the conflict.

The fighting--and the official Soviet reaction to it--was an indication of the increasing ineffectiveness of the central Soviet government in maintaining control in the Soviet republics, and of Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev's weakening political power.

Strife in Azerbaijan was the result of centuries of tensions between the Islamic Azerbaijanis and the Christian Armenians. Since the Russian Revolution in 1917, the communist regime managed to maintain relative peace between the two groups, but with the gradual weakening of the Soviet Union during the late-1980s, ethnic rivalries began to re-emerge. In its weakened state, the Soviet Union chose to only partially involve itself in the conflict. The approach was unusual--had it occurred under the strict communist regime of the Cold War's peak, such a tense internal conflict would likely have been immediately and forcefully quelled.

In the latest outbreak of violence, Armenians took the brunt of the attacks and nearly 60 people were killed. Armenian spokesmen condemned the lack of action on the part of the Gorbachev regime and pleaded for military intervention. Soviet officials, however, were not eager to leap into the ethnic fray and attempted to downplay the seriousness of the situation in the press. One Soviet official declared that the fighting in Azerbaijan was not a "civil war," but merely "national strife."

Some Gorbachev supporters even voiced the suspicion that the violence in the region was being stirred up by anti-Gorbachev activists merely to discredit the regime. Gorbachev dispatched 11,000 Soviet troops to quiet the situation, and the United States government supported his action as a humanitarian response to the killings and terror.

The troops Gorbachev sent did little to alleviate the situation--over the next two years, ethnic violence in Azerbaijan continued, and the weakening Soviet regime was unable to bring a lasting resolution to the situation. Less than two years later, Gorbachev resigned from power and the Soviet Union ceased to exist.
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  #1495  
Old 16 Jan 07, 11:08
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Today's event:

1941 War Department forms Army Air Corps squadron for black cadets

Today's book:

Masters of the Air: America's Bomber Boys Who Fought the Air War Against Nazi Germany by Donald L. Miller

Book Review:

This is a 521-page account of the Eighth Air Force that I never intended to buy for myself. To me, car repair manuals are usually more interesting than dry WWII books filled with numbers and dates. World War II is truly my father's domain. He has had a 50-year fascination with WWII and could probably teach a college course on the subject.

Dad's birthday is coming up, and I knew that Donald Miller, the author of "Masters of the Air" was speaking in town. I never heard of Miller before. I merely intended to hear Miller speak so I could present yet another (yawn) autographed WWII book for dad's birthday. My husband went with me and said, "You should buy the book now, before the guy speaks. That way, we can make a fast getaway." I replied, "If the author is boring, then I know the book will be boring. Let's wait. I might save us some money and my dad some time."

Well, the author's passion for his subject is clear. His dynamic discussion of the people he writes about in "Masters of the Air" caused me to turn to my husband early into the presentation and say, "I should have bought the book before he got on stage. Now I'll have to wait in line."

This historical account is different from most of the other WWII books I've seen. It's a scholarly narrative that is written like a hard-to-put-down novel. The airmen described in "Masters" are compelling, and their stories make the seemingly abstract WWII statistics come alive. One of Miller's many asides tonight -- that 40 million of the 60 million WWII casualties were civilians -- shocked me. War used to be fought on a battleground, away from the civilians. World War II changed all that.

I have only begun reading this book, so please forgive this obviously premature review. I'm writing this review specifically for lay people, not WWII experts or armchair historians. So far, I appreciate "Masters" for making the Greatest Generation's contribution to the world theater more REAL to me, a jaded American, sixty years later. If you have a short attention span and/or think a lengthy book about World War II air fighting would be dry, I promise you: This book will hold your attention.


http://www.amazon.com/Masters-Air-Am...e=UTF8&s=books
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  #1496  
Old 17 Jan 07, 08:23
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January 16

Died
1949 Vasily Degtyarev, Maj.Gen., soviet weapon designer

Events
1919 Ukrainian Direktoria (Directorate) declared war on Soviet Russia
  #1497  
Old 18 Jan 07, 11:15
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January 17


By Admiral:

Born...

1463 Elector Frederick III the Wise of Saxony (1486-25)

1612 Thomas Fairfax, Lord Fairfax, English Parliamentary general

1732 Stanislaw II August Poniatowski, last King of Poland (1764-95)

1863 David Lloyd George, PM of Britain, WW I

Died...

395 Theodosius I the Great, Roman Emperor

1119 Count Baldwin VII of Flanders

1229 Bishop Albert of Riga, Founder of the Knights of the Sword

1893 Rutherford B Hayes, five times wounded Civil War veteran, at 70

1957 Humphrey Bogart, veteran, actor ("The Caine Mutiny")

1961 Patrice Lumumba, African revolutionary, murdered at 36

Event...

1377 Gregory XI returns the Holy Papal See to Rome, after 72 years at Avignon

1501 Cesare Borgia returns in triumph to Rome from the Romagna

1601 France gains Bresse, Bugey, Valromey, & Gex in treaty with Spain

1746 Battle of Falkirk: Edward I defeats and massacres the Scots

1773 Captain Cook in Resolution reaches the Antarctic Circle

1781 Dan Morgan annihilates a Tory force at the Cowpens

1821 Mexico grants Moses Austin extensive lands in Texas.

1832 USS Peacock conducts diplomatic mission to Vietnamese court

1862 USS Lexington bombards Ft Henry, TN (surrenders Jan 22)

1863 Civil War skirmish near Newtown, Virginia

1885 The Sudan: Egypto-British Army beats the Mahdists at Battle of Abu Klea

1893 Queen Liliuokalani deposed, Kingdom of Hawaii becomes a republic

1900 CDR Taussig in USS Bennington takes formal possession of Wake Island

1911 Failed assassination attempt on premier Briand in the French Assembly

1915 Russia captures Bukovina & Western Ukraine

1942 British are under heavy pressure on the Muar River line in Malaya.

1942 Bataan: Heavy fighting continues.

1943 Papua: Allied forces begin a major offensive against Sanananda.

1943 Guadalcanal: Combined Army-Marine Div attacks west along the coast

1944 New Britain: Allies subdue last Japanese at Arawe, southern coast

1945 Raoul Wallenberg, having saved thousands of Jews, disappears in Hungary

1945 Luzon: Sixth Army steps up its drive on Manila.

1945 Soviets drive Germans out of Warsaw

1947 Ammunition plant at Muiden, Netherlands, factory explodes, 16 die

1948 Netherlands & Indonesia agree to a cease fire

1951 China refuses cease fire in Korea

1955 USS Nautilus underway on nuclear power

1961 Pres. Dwight Eisenhower speaks of a "military industrial complex"

1966 B-52 carrying four hydrogen bombs crashes off Spanish coast

1991 Operation Desert Storm: Coalition airstrikes against Iraq

1991 Jeffrey Zahn is the first US pilot shot down in the Persian Gulf War

1991 Iraq fires eight Scud missiles at Israel

By Cap. Teancum:

1893 - On the Hawaiian Islands, a group of American sugar planters under Sanford Ballard Dole overthrow Queen Liliuokalani, the Hawaiian monarch, and establish a new provincial government with Dole as president. The coup occurred with the foreknowledge of John L. Stevens, the U.S. minister to Hawaii, and 300 U.S. Marines from the U.S. cruiser Boston were called to Hawaii, allegedly to protect American lives.

The first known settlers of the Hawaiian Islands were Polynesian voyagers who arrived sometime in the eighth century, and in the early 18th century the first American traders came to Hawaii to exploit the islands' sandalwood, which was much valued in China at the time. In the 1830s, the sugar industry was introduced to Hawaii and by the mid-19th century had become well established. American missionaries and planters brought about great changes in Hawaiian political, cultural, economic, and religious life, and in 1840 a constitutional monarchy was established, stripping the Hawaiian monarch of much of his authority. Four years later, Sanford B. Dole was born in Honolulu, Hawaii, to American parents.

During the next four decades, Hawaii entered into a number of political and economic treaties with the United States, and in 1887 a U.S. naval base was established at Pearl Harbor as part of a new Hawaiian constitution. Sugar exports to the United States expanded greatly during the next four years, and U.S. investors and American sugar planters on the islands broadened their domination over Hawaiian affairs. However, in 1891 Liliuokalani, the sister of the late King Kalakaua, ascended to the throne, refusing to recognize the constitution of 1887 and replacing it with a constitution increasing her personal authority.

In January 1893, a revolutionary "Committee of Safety," organized by Sanford B. Dole, staged a coup against Queen Liliuokalani with the tacit support of the United States. On February 1, Minister John Stevens recognized Dole's new government on his own authority and proclaimed Hawaii a U.S. protectorate. Dole submitted a treaty of annexation to the U.S. Senate, but most Democrats opposed it, especially after it was revealed that most Hawaiians did want annexation.

President Grover Cleveland sent a new U.S. minister to Hawaii to restore Queen Liliuokalani to the throne under the 1887 constitution, but Dole refused to step aside and instead proclaimed the independent Republic of Hawaii. Cleveland was unwilling to overthrow the government by force, and his successor, President William McKinley, negotiated a treaty with the Republic of Hawaii in 1897. In 1898, the Spanish-American War broke out, and the strategic use of the naval base at Pearl Harbor during the war convinced Congress to approve formal annexation. Two years later, Hawaii was organized into a formal U.S. territory and in 1959 entered the United States as the 50th state.

1966 - On this day, a B-52 bomber collides with KC-135 jet tanker over Spain's Mediterranean coast, dropping three 70-kiloton hydrogen bombs near the town of Palomares and one in the sea. It was not the first or last accident involving American nuclear bombs.

As a means of maintaining first-strike capability during the Cold War, U.S. bombers laden with nuclear weapons circled the earth ceaselessly for decades. In a military operation of this magnitude, it was inevitable that accidents would occur. The Pentagon admits to more than three-dozen accidents in which bombers either crashed or caught fire on the runway, resulting in nuclear contamination from a damaged or destroyed bomb and/or the loss of a nuclear weapon. One of the only "Broken Arrows" to receive widespread publicity occurred on January 17, 1966, when a B-52 bomber crashed into a KC-135 jet tanker over Spain.

The bomber was returning to its North Carolina base following a routine airborne alert mission along the southern route of the Strategic Air Command when it attempted to refuel with a jet tanker. The B-52 collided with the fueling boom of the tanker, ripping the bomber open and igniting the fuel. The KC-135 exploded, killing all four of its crew members, but four members of the seven-man B-52 crew managed to parachute to safety. None of the bombs were armed, but explosive material in two of the bombs that fell to earth exploded upon impact, forming craters and scattering radioactive plutonium over the fields of Palomares. A third bomb landed in a dry riverbed and was recovered relatively intact. The fourth bomb fell into the sea at an unknown location.

Palomares, a remote fishing and farming community, was soon filled with nearly 2,000 U.S. military personnel and Spanish civil guards who rushed to clean up the debris and decontaminate the area. The U.S. personnel took precautions to prevent overexposure to the radiation, but the Spanish workers, who lived in a country that lacked experience with nuclear technology, did not. Eventually some 1,400 tons of radioactive soil and vegetation were shipped to the United States for disposal.

Meanwhile, at sea, 33 U.S. Navy vessels were involved in the search for the lost hydrogen bomb. Using an IBM computer, experts tried to calculate where the bomb might have landed, but the impact area was still too large for an effective search. Finally, an eyewitness account by a Spanish fisherman led the investigators to a one-mile area. On March 15, a submarine spotted the bomb, and on April 7 it was recovered. It was damaged but intact.

Studies on the effects of the nuclear accident on the people of Palomares was limited, but the United States eventually settled some 500 claims by residents whose health was adversely affected. Because the accident happened in a foreign country, it received far more publicity than did the dozen or so similar crashes that occurred within U.S. borders. As a security measure, U.S. authorities do not announce nuclear weapons accidents, and some American citizens may have unknowingly been exposed to radiation that resulted from aircraft crashes and emergency bomb jettisons. Today, two hydrogen bombs and a uranium core lie in yet undetermined locations in the Wassaw Sound off Georgia, in the Puget Sound off Washington, and in swamplands near Goldsboro, North Carolina.

1971 - Led by South Vietnamese Lt. Gen. Do Cao Tri, and with U.S. air support and advisers, some 300 paratroopers raid a communist prisoner of war camp near the town of Mimot in Cambodia on information that 20 U.S. prisoners were being held there. They found the camp empty, but captured 30 enemy soldiers and sustained no casualties.

1972 - President Richard Nixon warns South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu in a private letter that his refusal to sign any negotiated peace agreement would render it impossible for the United States to continue assistance to South Vietnam.

Nixon's National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger had been working behind the scenes in secret negotiations with North Vietnamese representatives in Paris to reach a settlement to end the war. However, Thieu stubbornly refused to even discuss any peace proposal that recognized the Viet Cong as a viable participant in the post-war political solution in South Vietnam. As it turned out, the secret negotiations were not close to reaching an agreement because the North Vietnamese launched a massive invasion of South Vietnam in March 1972. With the help of U.S. airpower and advisers on the ground, the South Vietnamese withstood the North Vietnamese attack, and by December, Kissinger and North Vietnamese representatives were back in Paris and close to an agreement.

Among Thieu's demands was the request that all North Vietnamese troops had to be withdrawn from South Vietnam before he would agree to any peace settlement. The North Vietnamese walked out of the negotiations in protest. In response, President Nixon initiated Operation Linebacker II, a massive bombing campaign against Hanoi, to force the North Vietnamese back to the negotiating table. After 11 days of intense bombing, Hanoi agreed to return to the talks in Paris. When Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the main North Vietnamese negotiator, met again in early January, they quickly worked out a settlement. The Paris Peace Accords were signed on January 23 and a cease-fire went into effect five days later.

Again, President Thieu refused to sign the Accords, but Nixon promised to come to the aid of South Vietnam if the communists violated the terms of the peace treaty, and Thieu agreed to sign. Unfortunately for Thieu and the South Vietnamese, Nixon was forced from office by the Watergate scandal in August 1974, and no U.S. aid came when the North Vietnamese launched a general offensive in March 1975. South Vietnam succumbed in 55 days.
__________________
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  #1498  
Old 18 Jan 07, 11:20
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Today's event:

1746 Battle of Falkirk: Edward I defeats and massacres the Scots

Today's book:

Culloden 1746: The Highland Clans' Last Charge by Peter Harrington

Book Description:

Culloden marked the end of the last and greatest of the Jacobite adventures - the '45 Rebellion - in which the Highland clans challenged the power of the Hanoverian King of England. It was at Culloden that Charles Edward Stuart (better known as 'Bonnie Prince Charlie)'s army was finally defeated. His tired Highlanders had little chance against the steady infantry and heavy artillery fire of the English. Peter Harrington examines all aspects of the battle, including its background, the earlier Highlander victories, the men and commanders of both sides, and the massacre that took place in its aftermath.

http://www.amazon.com/Culloden-1746-...e=UTF8&s=books
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  #1499  
Old 18 Jan 07, 11:22
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January 18


By Admiral:

Born...

1657 Hendrik Casimir II, Dutch Fieldmarshal, Nassau

1752 Francesco Maria Caracciolo, Neapolitan Admiral, executed 1799

1809 Richard Caswell Gatlin, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1896

1813 Joseph Farwell Glidden, inventor of barbed wire

1815 James Chesnut Jr, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1885

1820 Abraham Buford, Brig Gen, C.S.A., d. 1884

1831 Edward Ferrero, cowardly Brig. Gen., U.S., d. 1899

1835 Cesar Antonovich Cui, Russian composer and fortification engineer, d. 1918

1857 Otto von Below, German General, victor of Caporetto

1879 Henri-Honore Giraud, French general/member of parliament

1933 Vladimir Yevgrafovich Bugrov, Cosmonaut

1958 Jeffrey N Williams, Superior Wisconsin, Major Army/Astronaut

Died...

1367 King Pedro I of Portugal (1357-1367)

1479 Duke Louis IX the Rich of Bavaria

1862 John Tyler, militiaman, president (1841-1845), at 71

1890 Amadeo I, erstwhile king of Spain (1870-73)

1936 Rudyard Kipling, soldier's poet (Gunga Din)

1991 Hamilton Fish, World War I veteran, congressman, isolationist

Event...

1486 King Henry VII of England marries Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IV

1520 Christian II of Denmark & Norway defeats the Swedes at Lake Asunde

1671 Pirate Henry Morgan captures Panama from the Spanish,

1701 Frederick I crowned King of Prussia

1795 French Army enters Amsterdam unopposed

1813 A garrison of Canadian militia and Indians, occupying the Michigan settlement of Frenchtown (south of Detroit) are attacked by a force of 900 American infantry. The two sides exchange fire for several hours, but the Canadians eventually leave the field to their opponents.

1817 Jose de San Martin's revolutionary army begins to cross the Andes

1836 Marines reinforced Army to repulse Indians at Ft. Brook, Florida.

1850 British blockade Piraeus, Greece, to enforce mercantile claims

1854 Filibuster William Walker proclaims Republic of Sonora in NW Mexico

1862 Confederate Territory of Arizona is formed

1865 Battle of Ft Moultrie, SC

1871 Wilhelm I proclaimed German Emperor, at Versailles

1902 The famous "March Across Samar" ended during the Philippine Insurrection.

1911 Eugene Ely makes the 1st aircraft landing on a ship, Armed Cruiser USS Pennsylvania

1913 Graeco-Turkish sea battle

1915 The U.S. Revenue Marine is renamed the U.S. Coast Guard.

1919 The First Division of the Canadian Corps completes its relief from Germany and occupation duty.

1919 Versailles Conference opens

1940 British commence censorship of air mail passing through Bermuda; censor there removes through-bound mail for European destinations from Lisbon-bound Pan American Airways Boeing 314 American Clipper. A written protest is lodged and no assistance in the unloading process is offered.

1941 German Consul General in San Francisco, California, displays the prescribed German Reich flag from the consular office in recognition of German national holiday. At noon this day the flag is taken down in the presence of what is described as "a large shouting throng of people" and torn to pieces. German Chargé d'Affaires Hans Thomsen makes "most emphatic protest" over the incident

1942 British troops in Malaya heavily engaged on the Muar River Line.

1942 Germany, Italy, and Japan sign new military pact in Berlin.

1942 River gunboat Tutuila (PR-4), stranded at Chungking by Sino-Japanese hostilities since 1937, is decommissioned and her crew flown out of China.

1942 Submarine USS Plunger torpedoes and sinks Japanese merchant cargo ship Eizan Maru (ex-Panamanian Aurora) off mouth of Kii Suido, Honshu, 33°30'N, 135°00'E.

1942 Unarmed U.S. freighter Frances Salman is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-552 off St. John's, Newfoundland. There are no survivors from the 28-man crew.

1942 Unarmed U.S. tanker Allan Jackson is torpedoed and sunk by German submarine U-66 about 50 miles east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina, 35°57'N, 74°20'W; destroyer Roe rescues the 13 survivors from the 35-man crew.

1942 Unarmed U.S. tanker Malay is shelled and damaged by German submarine U-123 off Oregon Inlet, North Carolina, 35°25'N, 75°23'W. Freighter Scania provides fire-fighting assistance while the tanker's assailant pursues other game (Latvian freighter Ciltvaria). Although Malay is torpedoed by U-123 upon the U-boat's return and damaged further, the holed tanker reaches Hampton Roads safely the next day. One man perishes in the shelling; four drown when the ship is abandoned after she is torpedoed.

1943 Papua: Sanananda falls to Allies, who press the Japanese westwards.

1943 Siege of Leningrad lifted by a Soviet Offensive

1943 Warsaw Ghetto uprising begins

1943 US bans sale of sliced bread to save metal parts in slicing machines

1943 Aleutians: U.S. surface force bombards Japanese held Attu.

1943 Submarine USS Greenling damages Japanese ammunition ship/survey vessel Soya in Queen Carola Channel, 02°04'S, 150°37'E.

1943 Submarine USS Silversidess sinks Japanese fleet tanker Genyo Maru about 90 miles southwest of Truk, 06°19'N, 150°15'E, but is damaged by depth charges from escorting warship and is forced to terminate her patrol.

1943 USAAF B-17s and P-39s sink Japanese cargo vessel Yamafuku Maru off Shortland Island.

1943 Japanese collier Tokachi Maru is sunk by Japanese mine west of Surubaya, Java, N.E.I., 06°50'S, 112°12'E.

1943 U.S. tanker Mobilube is torpedoed by Japanese submarine I-21 off coast of New South Wales, Australia, 33°57'S, 157°20'E; Australian minesweeper HMAS Kapunda provides assistance as the tanker remains afloat. Other than three men killed in the initial explosion, no other members of the ship's complement (that includes an 11-man Armed Guard) perish. Mobilube is towed to Sydney by salvage tug St. Aristell, but is eventually declared a total loss.

1944 New Guinea: US reinforces the Saidor beachhead

1944 Tropical hurricane batters Noumea, New Caledonia, damaging high speed transport Noa (APD-24), district patrol vessel YP-239, district auxiliary (miscellaneous) YAG-25, and a crane barge.

1944 Submarine USS Bowfin sinks Japanese merchant tanker Shoyu Maru off west coast of Palawan, 00°18'N, 118°37'E.6

1944 Submarine USS Flasher sinks Japanese oiler Yoshida Maru about 140 miles west-southwest of Marcus Island, 23°50'N, 151°28'E.

1944 PB4Y-1 (VB 108), to simulate minelaying operations, sows unfuzed 100-pound bombs in Mellu, Gegibu and Onemak channels, Kwajalein.

1944 USAAF A-24s and P-40s bomb Japanese installations at Jaluit, sinking merchant tanker No.1 Nanyu Maru.

1945 Peleliu: Japanese stragglers raid U.S. ammo dumps and airbase.

1957 3 B-52s make round-the-world flight, 45 hr 19 min; one man backwards

1960 US & Japan sign joint defense treaty

1962 After a flash fire in the Persian Gulf on Danish tanker, Prima Maersk, burned a crewman, USS Duxbury Bay transfers a Navy doctor to help the Danish crewman and USS Soley took him to the nearest hospital at Bahrain Island.

1968 Operation Coronado X begins in Mekong Delta, Vietnam

1977 The Trident (C-4) missile development flight test program commenced when C4X-1 was launched from a flight pad at Cape Canaveral, FL

1991 U.S. acknowledges CIA and U.S. Army paid Noriega $320,000 over his career

1991 Iraq launches SCUD missiles against Israel

1991 USS Nicholas attacks and captures Iraqi oil platforms

By Cap. Teancum:

1567 - Battle of Watrelots. First battle of the Netherlands War of Independence.

1826 - Following two-month bombardment, British capture city of Bhurtope ending the British-Mahratta War.

1857 - Battle of Bushire, Persia, 3rd Bombay Light Cavalry charged and broke a Persian square.

1943 - On this day, the deportation of Jews from the Warsaw ghetto to the concentration camp at Treblinka is resumed-but not without much bloodshed and resistance along the way.

On July 18, 1942, Heinrich Himmler promoted Auschwitz camp commandant Rudolf Hess to SS major. He also ordered that the Warsaw ghetto, the Jewish quarter constructed by the Nazis upon the occupation of Poland and enclosed first by barbed wire and then by brick walls, be depopulated-a "total cleansing," as he described it. The inhabitants were to be transported to what became a second extermination camp constructed at the railway village of Treblinka, 62 miles northeast of Warsaw.

Within the first seven weeks of Himmler's order, more than 250,000 Jews were taken to Treblinka by rail and gassed to death, marking the largest single act of destruction of any population group, Jewish or non-Jewish, civilian or military, in the war. Upon arrival at "T. II," as this second camp at Treblinka was called, prisoners were separated by sex, stripped, and marched into what were described as "bathhouses," but were in fact gas chambers. T. II's first commandant was Dr. Irmfried Eberl, age 32, the man who had headed up the euthanasia program of 1940 and had much experience with the gassing of victims, especially children. He was assisted in his duties by several hundred Ukrainian and about 1,500 Jewish prisoners, who removed gold teeth from victims before hauling the bodies to mass graves.

In January 1943, after a four-month hiatus, the deportations started up again. A German SS unit entered the ghetto and began rounding up its denizens-but they did not go without a fight. Six hundred Jews were killed in the streets as they struggled with the Germans. Rebels with smuggled firearms opened fire on the SS troops. The Germans returned fire-machine-gun fire against the Jews' pistol shots. Nine Jewish rebels fell-as did several Germans. The fighting continued for days, with the Jews refusing to surrender and even taking arms from their Germans persecutors in surprise attacks.

Amazingly, the Germans withdrew from the ghetto in the face of the unexpected resistance. They likely did not realize how few armed resisters there were, but the fact that resistance was given at all intimidated them. But there was no happy ending. Before this new incursion into the ghetto was over, 6,000 more Jews were transported to their likely deaths at Treblinka.

1950 - People's Republic of China formally recognizes the communist Democratic Republic of Vietnam and agrees to furnish it military assistance; the Soviet Union extended diplomatic recognition to Hanoi on January 30. China and the Soviet Union provided massive military and economic aid to North Vietnam, which enabled North Vietnam to fight first the French and then the Americans. Chinese aid to North Vietnam between 1950 and 1970 is estimated at $20 billion. It is thought that China provided approximately three-quarters of the total military aid given to Hanoi since 1949, with the Soviets providing most of the rest. It would have been impossible for the North Vietnamese to continue the war without the aid from both the Chinese and Soviets.

1971 - In a televised speech, Senator George S. McGovern (D-South Dakota) begins his antiwar campaign for the 1972 Democratic presidential nomination by vowing to bring home all U.S. soldiers from Vietnam if he is elected. McGovern won his party's nomination, but was defeated in the general election by incumbent Richard Nixon.

With only 55 percent of the electorate voting--the lowest turnout since 1948--Nixon carried all states but Massachusetts, taking 97 percent of the electoral votes. During the campaign, Nixon pledged to secure "peace with honor" in Vietnam. Aided by the potential for a peace agreement in the ongoing Paris negotiations and the upswing in the American economy, Nixon easily defeated McGovern, an outspoken dove whose party was divided over several issues, including McGovern's extreme views on the war. McGovern said during the campaign, "If I were president, it would take me 24 hours and the stroke of a pen to terminate all military operations in Southeast Asia." He further stated that he would withdraw all American troops within 90 days of taking office, whether or not U.S. POWs were released. To many Americans, including a large number of Democrats, McGovern's position was tantamount to total capitulation in Southeast Asia. Given this alternative, most voters chose Nixon.
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Today's event:

1943 Siege of Leningrad lifted by a Soviet Offensive

Today's book:

The 900 Days: The Siege of Leningrad by Harrison E. Salisbury

Book Description:

Few events in the annals of modern history compare to the saga of the terrifying siege of Leningrad for almost three years by the German Wehrmacht during World War Two. In this classic historical work, "The 900 Days" written by long-time New York Times correspondent and editor Harrison Salisbury, the incredible toll in terms of blood, sweat and tears of the millions of Russian protagonists trapped by the Nazis in the city is told. The story is told in such a graphic and moving fashion that the individuals involved are portrayed from a common sense, human perspective, in terms of describing breathing, struggling individuals locked into a living nightmare, each of them having to make a titanic effort day after day just to endure the hardships and survive.
The scale of the siege itself boggles the mind; some three million residents and soldiers were encircled and entrapped at the beginning of the Nazi incursion into Russia in Operation Barbarossa, intensifying with a ruthless German offensive in early October of 1941 that literally strangled the lifeline for food and critical supplies from the embattled urban area. Of those trapped, almost half succumbed, and most of these fatalities were in a relatively brief period of time, commencing with the events of October 1941 and climaxing in early April of 1942. People starved, froze, drowned, were run over by tanks, walked into mine fields, succumbed to a wide range of diseases, were murdered by German soldiers, and sometimes were caught in artillery fire. In all, almost one and one half million people were lost during the siege.

Yet in the midst of all this immense suffering and the degraded conditions that forced many to the brink of extinction, the people of Leningrad consistently fought back, fighting environmental conditions, temperatures that dipped below 30 degrees below zero, with no heat, no light, little or no food or water. Yet the fighting on the front went on, supported by the inhabitants, who did everything from digging ditches to helping to care for the wounded in the midst of their own daily struggles to survive. In this instance, they didn't merely endure; in fact they prevailed against incredible odds. In the final analysis, it was the German army that was destroyed.

The scope of this achievement seems to be little appreciated today. And while Salisbury traces the causes in the tragedy of Leningrad in Stalin's sectarian governmental policies that ultimately played into Hitler's plans for capturing the city, he also describes the incredible contributions of a cross-section of the citizenry of the city, including artists, factory workers, soldiers, teachers, housewives, children, writers, and others engaged in the common daily struggle to survive without ever ceding the ground or the war to the foe. Even more impressive is his unflinching attention to detail, and his retelling of the final coup-de-grace delivered by Stalin, jealous and politically fearful of the genuine heroes made by the siege, who then arranged to charge, convict and execute all the principals of the city's campaign against the Germans based on trumped up charges of treason. This was one of the first books to deal with the levels of Soviet suffering and contribution to the war effort, and it has been praised quite consistently by readers and critics alike. I can recommend this book without reservation.
Enjoy!


http://www.amazon.com/900-Days-Siege...e=UTF8&s=books
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