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Old 27 Sep 15, 15:41
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PAT 10. A story that needs to be told.

WWII produced thousands of untold stories of bravery and sacrifice, only a few have been preserved and many of those may fade into darkness as time takes its toll and the participants succumb to age.
They all deserve the impossible task of being remembered, it is not only in our interest as armchair historians, but we owe it to those who lived through the circumstances and wrote the tales in blood and sweat and flesh.
And so it is that I share one such story of selflessness and sacrifice facing overwhelming odds by a group of unlikely unsung heroes flying an unlikely unsung warbird.

The story of PAT-10
1 Jul 1939: VP-1 was redesignated Patrol Squadron 21 and assigned to the Asiatic Fleet, becoming the nucleus for the newly formed Patrol Wing 10 at Cavite Naval Base, Luzon, Philippines.

7 Dec 1941: VP-101 was placed on war alert upon receiving news of the attack on Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, and war patrols commenced.

14 Dec 1941: PatWing-10 was relocated from the devastated Cavite Naval Base at Luzon, to Balikpapan in an attempt to keep ahead of the advancing Japanese forces.

23 Dec 1941: VP-102 was merged with VP-101 to combine the squadrons’ dwindling assets in aircraft, crews and material. On the 25th VP-101 was relocated to Ambon, N.E.I.

27 Dec 1941: Six of the squadron’s PBY-4 Catalinas, led by Lieutenant Burden R. Hastings, conducted an early morning attack against Jolo, in the central Philippines. Enemy aircraft and AA fire broke up the formation before a bombing run could be made. Ensign Elwin L. Christman and his crew followed through alone and made a drop on an enemy vessel at 1,000 feet. The Catalina, heavily damaged by AA fire, caught fire. Three crewmen bailed out, but the others remained with the aircraft until Christman made a controlled water landing near shore. Three crewmen died; the others were eventually rescued. Aviation Machinist Mate’s First Class Andrew K. Waterman was the plane captain and waist gunner on the aircraft. He shot down one enemy aircraft while defending the Catalina during the attack on shipping in the harbor, but in doing so received mortal wounds. For his courageous actions under fire Waterman was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. Radioman First Class Robert L. Pettit also stuck by his post even after the aircraft, flooded with aviation gas from perforated tanks, caught fire. For his devotion to duty Pettit was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross. Ensign Christman led the surviving members of his crew to safety on the shore of Jolo Island. Lieutenant Jack B. Dawley and the surviving members of his crew, who had also been shot down immediately after dropping their bombs, joined Christman’s group on Jolo Island. The two officers led their crews inland away from the Japanese, eventually reaching U.S. Naval Headquarters at Surabaya, Java, N.E.I. Aircraft Chief Machinist’s Mate Donald D. Lurvey was awarded the Navy Cross for assisting Ensign Cough, the second pilot of Dawley’s aircraft, into a life vest and guiding him to shore. Aviation Machinist’s Mate First Class Joseph Bangust received the Navy Cross posthumously for his action as waist gunner in Dawley’s aircraft, shooting down one enemy aircraft before being mortally wounded by incoming fire. Aviation Machinist’s Mate First Class Evren C. McLawhorn, the plane captain, took over the waist gun position after Bangust was mortally wounded. He received seven wounds during the fight, but survived and received the Navy Cross for his heroism. For their courage under fire and leadership in guiding their crews through enemy-occupied territory to safety, Ensign Christman and Lieutenant Dawley were awarded the Navy Cross. Lieutenant Hastings, as leader of the gallant but unsuccessful strike, was later awarded the Navy Cross for guiding the force into the target area in the face of overwhelming odds. Lieutenant Hastings’ award was made posthumously, as he and his men were the only aircrew captured by the Japanese. They were interrogated by their captors and beheaded on the parade ground of the Jolo garrison. The fourth Catalina shot down during the strike was manned by Lieutenant Hazelton and his crew. Hazelton made a sea landing and the entire crew safely escaped the sinking aircraft into life rafts and were picked up two days later by a squadron aircraft.

16 Jan 1942: VP-101 was ordered to evacuate Ambon due to the presence of an approaching Japanese naval task force. Assets and personnel were moved to Surabaya.

1 Mar 1942: VP-22’s assets were merged with VP-101, which was then ordered to evacuate Surabaya and withdraw to Perth, Australia, to reform and refit the devastated squadron.

7 Mar 1942: VPs 102, 21 and 22 were officially disestablished, with the remaining personnel and aircraft assets being combined to bring up to full strength the remaining squadron, VP-101.

26 Apr 1942: A desperate attempt was made to rescue personnel otherwise doomed to capture on the besieged island of Corregidor. Two Catalinas, formerly assigned to VP-102, flew a circuitous route back to the Philippines, arriving around midnight of the 29th . Over 30 nurses were flown out that night under cover of darkness.

1 May 1942: The reformed VP-101 recommenced combat patrols off the coast of Australia, operating from bases at Exmouth Gulf, Pelican Point, Geraldton and Albany. Tender support was provided by Childs (AVD 15), Heron (AVP 2) and Preston (DD 379).

9 Nov 1942–29 Jun 1943: Upon return to Perth, Australia, VP-101 was split into three units—HEDRON, SCORON and VP-101. Combat patrols were continued from Perth until VP-101 was relocated to Brisbane, Australia, on 29 June 1943, under operational control of FAW-17.

1 July 1943: The first element of VP-101 flew into Port Moresby, Papua, New Guinea. Its aircraft were in poor mechanical shape and the decision was made to use them to supply guerrilla fighters in the vicinity of Wewak. Landings were made on the Sepik River leading into Lake Yibiri. The flights continued through October 1943, but were discontinued due to increased Japanese opposition. The guerrilla fighters were rescued in December 1945 by aircraft from VP-11. The second element of VP-101 was moved to the eastern end of New Guinea to begin Black Cat operations from the seaplane tender San Pablo (AVP 30), anchored in Namoia Bay. The squadron’s Catalinas were fitted with ASV radar sets that allowed them to find targets on the darkest of nights. The highly touted Norden bombsights proved worthless, being unable to hit fast moving, dodging Japanese ships from any height. Instead, a low-level bombing tactic was worked out using one foot of altitude for each pound of bomb weight. Thus, a 500-pound bomb was released from a 500-foot altitude leading into a target, resulting in only a gentle updraft from the bomb blast. This technique was necessary due to the lack of a four-to-five second delay on the bomb fuses.

1–28 Dec 1943: VP-101 squadron headquarters were established at Palm Island, Australia, with advance bases at Samarai and Port Moresby, New Guinea. Combat patrols and crew training were conducted concurrently through the 28th, when the squadron returned to Perth, Australia. Upon return, the squadron again came under the operational control of FAW-10.

1 May 1944: VP-101 was relocated to Samarai, New Guinea. Dumbo missions were conducted in the area of the Green, Treasury and Manus islands, and Emirau, coming under the operational control of FAW-17.

1–16 Jul 1944: Five squadron aircraft were based at Manus, five at Green Island, two at Emirau, and one at Treasury Island. On the 16th, the detachments were relocated to the Admiralty Islands and later the Solomon Islands chain. Operations consisted primarily of Dumbo rescue missions to recover downed Army and Navy airmen.

19 Sep 1944: VP-101 was relieved by VP-52 in the Solomons and relocated to Morotai, north of New Guinea, aboard Half Moon (AVP 26). After settling in at Morotai, the squadron commenced combat operations as a Black Cat squadron on 21 September.

1 Oct 1944: VP-101 was redesignated VPB-29. The squadron continued to conduct Black Cat missions, antisubmarine patrols and night patrols around the area of Mindanao and Tawi Tawi.

10 Nov 1944: The squadron was relieved by VPB-20 for return to the continental U.S., arriving at NAS Alameda, Calif., on 30 November. The squadron commenced reforming and training following the return of personnel from leave and the arrival of new assignments.

20 Jun 1945: VP-101 was disestablished at NAS San Diego, Calif.
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  #2  
Old 27 Sep 15, 16:34
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Home Port Assignments

Location Date of Assignment
NB Cavite, Luzon, Philippines 1 Jul 1939
Perth, Australia 1 Mar 1942
Brisbane, Australia 29 Jun 1943
Palm Island, Australia 1 Dec 1943
Perth, Australia 28 Dec 1943
Samarai, New Guinea 1 May 1944
Morotai 19 Sep 1944
NAS Alameda, Calif 30 Nov 1944
NAS San Diego, Calif. 12 Dec 1944


Commanding Officers

Name Date Assumed Command
LCDR J. V. Peterson 1941
Unknown 1942–1943
LCDR Lauren E. Johnson Nov 1943
Unknown 1944–Jan 1945


Aircraft Assignment

Type of Aircraft Date Type First Received
PBY-4 Oct 1938
PBY-5 May 1942


Major Overseas Deployments

Date of Departure Date of Return Wing Base of Operations Type of Aircraft Area of Operations
14 Dec 1941 * PatWing-10 Balikpapan PBY-4 SoPac
25 Dec 1941 * PatWing-10 Ambon PBY-4 SoPac
16 Jan 1942 * PatWing-10 Surabaya PBY-4 SoPac
1 Mar 1942 * PatWing-10 Perth PBY-4 SoPac
Childs (AVD 15)
Heron (AVP 2)
Preston (DD 379)
29 Jun 1943 * FAW-17 Brisbane PBY-5 SoPac
Jul 1943 * FAW-17 New Guinea PBY-5 SoPac
San Pablo (AVP 30)
1 Dec 1943 * FAW-17 Palm Island PBY-5 SoPac
28 Dec 1943 * FAW-10 Perth PBY-5 SoPac
1 May 1944 * FAW-17 Samarai PBY-5 SoPac
1 Jul 1944 * FAW-17 Manus PBY-5 SoPac
19 Sep 1944 10 Nov 44 FAW-17 Morotai PBY-5 SoPac
Half Moon (AVP 26)
Continued combat deployment in the Pacific, moving from base to base.



Wing Assignments

Wing Tail Code Assignment Date
PatWing-10/FAW-10 * 1 Jul 1939
FAW-17 29 Jun 1943
FAW-10 28 Dec 1943
FAW-17 1 May 1944
FAW-8 30 Nov 1944
FAW-14 12 Dec 1944


Unit Awards Received

Unit Award Inclusive Date Covering Unit Award
PUC 8 Dec 1941 3 Mar 1942
NUC 2 Jun 1944 31 Dec 19
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PAT 1942

A more detailed report of PAT 10 1942

In the Hands of Fate"

After a Trans-Pacific flight through Midway, Wake and Guam, VP 26 joined VP 1 at Cavite on December 16th 1940. After their arrival, their numbers would be changed to VP 101 and VP 102 of PatWing 10. These two squadrons were the only ones to operate the PBY-4 Flying boat and would be taking it into combat. Commanding PatWing 10 was Capt. Frank Wagner with Lt. Cdr John Peterson commanding VP 101 and Lt. Cdr. Edgar Neale commanding VP 102. Al l three were concerned of the growing buildup along the South China coast and as a result decided to deploy their charges at various places. 7 had been sent up to Sangley Point, up the peninsula from Cavite in Manila Bay, while others were stationed at Los Banos. 7 more were operating out of Olongapo on Subic Bay, while another group was based near Manila on tender, Childs. Three were sent with Preston down to Malalag Bay in Davao Gulf. The routine was the pilots up at 0400, briefed and sent out on sector searches.

Admiral Hart clearly expected war with Japan, what he didn't expect, was to loss of local command of the air over Luzon so quickly. With the destruction of the air bases on the 8th, Hart sent his remaining surface ships to Balikpapan and recalled Heron from Palawan. This would leave PatWing 10 and the Philippine Coastal Frontier units on the front line.

Down at Davao Gulf, Ryujo aircraft had sunk 101-P-4 and 101-P-7 of the 3 P-boats that were there. Preston promptly weighed anchor and made for Menado in the Celebes.

Early morning of the 10th found PatWing 10 out searching for the expected Invasion Fleet, and they were not disappointed. About 250 miles west of Luzon, Lt. C. Keller found and shadowed the fleet. Wagner sent out 5 P-boats from Los Banos for a bombing run on the fleet. In the meantime 4 more from Sangley Point lifted off with torpedoes. They were met by elements of the 3rd Kokutai and lost 101-P-12 of their number. The invasion fleet was not damaged. At this point, Cavite was hit, and hit hard.

When word that the Japanese were landing on Luzon on the 12th, 7 P-boats lifted off to search for the convoy, but found nothing and returned. At this point, the Tainan Kokutai swooped down and destroyed 102-P-16, 102-P-17, 102-P-18, 102-P-19, 102-P-20, 102-P-21 and 101-P-10 at Olongapo. A refueling stop had been made at Lake Lanao in Mindanao, and would be used as such, but here, 102-P-24 would strike a rock and be lost. At this point, PatWing had only 11 P-boats in commission. On the 19th, found Captain Wagner at Balikpapan, surveying what strength he had left. He also had part of the utility squadron with him and ordered it to Surabaya.

Back on Luzon, 4 of the 6 unservicable were repaired and flown to Laguna de Bay and camouflaged during the day, then at night, flown back to Cavite. When the time came to move south, evacuation of priority personnel was ordered.

On December 23rd, VP-102 was decommissioned and merged with VP 101. On the 25th, VP 101 would lose 101-P-2, 101-P-5 and 102-P-29 to a devastating strafing attack at Laguna de Bay. The first retaliatory air strike was launched on the Japanese invasion fleet on December 27th at Jolo. The strike came from a detachment at Ambon and consisted of 6 aircraft. The strike was lead by Lt. Burden Hastings of the 1st section and Lt. John Hyland of the 2nd section. It was their bad luck to run into 8 Zero's of the Tainan Kokutai and the intense anti-aircraft fire from the ships. After the bomb run, VP 101 would lose 101-P-1, 101-P-6, 101-P-9 and 101-P-11. Lt. Hastings did not survive.

On January 5th, the remainder of PatWing 10's utility squadron was destroyed at Mariveles Bay. It consisted of 2 Curtiss SOC, 2 Vought OS2U and a J2F Grumman Duck by the Tainan Kokutai from Legaspi. Up to this time, the only missions that were flown, were of evacuation, but on January 10th, 1942, an aircraft had spotted an invasion force coming down from Davao. For VP 101, the situation was beginning to intensify. VP 101 sent a four plane strike from Ambon to the invasion force coming to Menado. The Dutch and Australians also sent units against this invasion force, but little damage to it. VP 101 lost 102-P-28 to a Chitose Fighter Seaplane (F1M2) and the Dutch lost Y-58.

On January 11, 1942, VP-22 arrived at Ambon with 12 sorely needed replacement aircraft and crews, but the reprieve would not last. With the Japanese at Menado, Ambon would be in easy reach for constant air strikes. The crews of VP 101 had called that stretch between Menado and Ambon "Cold Turkey Alley" with good reason for on January 15th, they would lose 22-P-10 to the 3rd Kokutai and the ground, lost 22-P-3 to a G4M1 of the Kanoya Kokutai on the 16th that was on a search mission, 102-P-23 to an accident at Ambon on the 21st, and then a devastating raid on the 25th that cost PW 10 the services of 22-P-5, 22-P-7, 22-P-8, 22-P-11 to the 3rd Kokutai. 102-P-22 was abandoned and destroyed on the 26th, also at Ambon. Clearly, Ambon was just too hot a place to continue operations from there.

Back at Surabaya, Hart and Wagner had set up shop to begin operations from there on January 15th. As with the Dutch, they would set up searches from that base. VP 101 would cover Makassar Strait while the Dutch would cover the others areas. Meanwhile, the tenders Childs, Heron, and Preston rotated as needed to service the P-boats.

The first strike by the Japanese on Java was February 5th, and it was the same thing over again. 22-P-1 and "43" were lost at Surabaya while 22-P-6 was shot down by aircraft from the 3rd Kokutai and 22-P-9 ruptured her hull on landing at Ambon. At this point, with the loss of Kendari on January 24, Ambon on the 31st, and Makassar City lost on February 8th. On the 11th, Patwing had only 12 aircraft of which only 5 were servicable. There were 6 at Surabaya and 6 at Darwin. VP-22 had fallen back to Darwin, while VP-101 remained at Surabaya.

On February 19th, at 0622, in the Banda Sea, Nagumo's Carrier Striking Force aircraft took off. Destination Darwin. At 0635, 27 aircraft from the Kanoya Kokutai lifted off from Kendari, destination Darwin. Also at 0640, from Ambon the 1st Kokutai took off with 28 aircraft for the same desination. It was one of the most complete destructive raids. With the destruction of the harbor facilities and outlying airfields, Darwin would no longer be of assistance to the Java defenders. PatWing 10 lost 101-P-8, 102-P-27 and "41" at their moorings to Soryu aircraft while 22-P-4 was shot down near Melville Island by Kaga aircraft. On successive days, PatWing 10 lost "42" on a sector search near Makassar by Tainan Kokutai Zero's on the 24th, then on the 25th, "44" was lost returning from a search to 3ed Kokutai. Then on the 27th off Madura, "45" was lost to Tainan Kokutai. This last one had spotted the Eastern Task Force coming down Makassar Strait.

On March 1st, PatWing 10's personel began evacuating Java Island. Capt. Wagner departed Java in the last aircraft available. Of the five PBY's that reached Australia, two would be lost at Broome on March 3rd to the 3rd Kokutai. They were 101-P-13 and 102-P-26. By March 7th, the remaining three, 101-P-3, 102-P-25 and 22-P-12 reached Pelican Point at Perth.

So ended the 88 day East Indies crucible. Their record was enduring, with countless searches, in one of the most inhospitable climes, yet they did manage to shoot down 2 Zero's, one Pete, and a Bab's during their 88 days. Like their Dutch Allies, they did do the best they could, with what they had, but without control of the air, the result was but a foregone conclusion. There is one note, and that is that 101-P-3 flew out of Tjilitjap as Y-3, and on arrival at Perth, was turned over to the RAAF as A24-28.
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Old 28 Sep 15, 01:00
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Thanks for the post, I assume you are pasting from a book? Which one?
I read a very good related history of the US Army Air Corp fighter pilots in the Philippines a few months ago. "Doomed At The Start" by William H. Bartsch and is very detailed in the story of the conditions in the Philippines and the deterioration of the situation. I found a copy in my local library.
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Old 29 Sep 15, 12:54
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Quote:
Originally Posted by Warbird View Post
Thanks for the post, I assume you are pasting from a book? Which one?
I read a very good related history of the US Army Air Corp fighter pilots in the Philippines a few months ago. "Doomed At The Start" by William H. Bartsch and is very detailed in the story of the conditions in the Philippines and the deterioration of the situation. I found a copy in my local library.
I found several e-books about PAT-10, I am glad to share them with you, the story of the Pacific air war from 41- to 43 has always interested me, especially the PBY mission, capable of 20 hr. flights and multiple mission roles, sometimes on a single mission.
http://www.daveswarbirds.com/blackcat/hist-101.htm

http://www.ozatwar.com/usnavy/patwing10.htm
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