The Spanish military and the evolution of warfare, 1899-1939
Hope this s of some interest.
Below is the abstract to a Doctoral Theses on The Spanish military and the evolution of warfare, 1899-1939
The whole theses is available for free via the link below.
Any assessment of the performance of the armies of the Spanish
Civil War (1936-1939) must take into account two factors that
influenced the Spanish military as a professional body from 1899
These factors were corporate factionalism within the
service, and a concept of warfare as a psychology-based contest.
Corporate rivalries divided the Spanish officer corps internally
and stood in the way of reforms intended to put an end to military
vested interests and oversized army lists under Alfonso XIII. This
situation harmed army professionalism, but the government depended
on the loyalty of the army and could not implement effective
reforms until the Second Republic. Misdirected longing for
corporate responsibilities and prestige also affected the
introduction of the machine gun and the tank, when different army
branches claimed their responsibility for operating them.
The concept of morale as the decisive war-winning factor was
influential in the development of offensive-minded tactical
doctrine before 1914, and shaped quite a few essayists' visions of
future conflicts as manoeuvre warfare (as opposed to fire-powerbased
warfare) after 1918.
This pattern of thinking also led the military to underrate the machine gun and the tank, since their mechanical nature allegedly did not help to strengthen the soldierly virtues which were reckoned essential to conquer.
The limited interest in mechanization led to an unremarkable use of
armour in the Civil War, whereas the build-up and performance of
both sides' officer corps and major field units in this conflict
reflected different pre-war professional views about the problems
posed by factionalism and new ways of warfare
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